• Title, Summary, Keyword: Digestive Hormones

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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOME CIRCULATING HORMONES, METABOLITES AND MILK YIELD IN LACTATING CROSSBRED COWS AND BUFFALOES

  • Jindal, S.K.;Ludri, R.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.239-248
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    • 1994
  • To study the relationship between certain hormones and metabolites and between hormones and milk yield during different stage of lactation, six lactating Karan Swiss cows and six Murrah buffaloes were maintained. Growth hormone, insulin, $T_3$, $T_4$, glucose, BHBA, NEFA and milk yield were studied. Highly negative relationship of growth hormone with insulin and triiodothyronine in cows and marginally negative in buffaloes suggest that insulin and triiodothyronine aid in the process of partitioning of nutrients towards milk production through reducing the demands of nutrients by peripheral tissue. The significant and negative correlation of growth hormone with dry matter intake in both the species suggest that the availability of nutrients from the digestive tract play a role in the regulation of growth hormone secretion. Positive relationship of growth hormone with non esterified fatty acids in both the species suggest that high growth hormone levels may result in fat mobilization and thereby increase the availability of energy precursors for milk synthesis. Insulin was negatively correlated with milk yield and lactose content and positively with milk fat and protein but the degree of relationship varied. In both the species the relationship between triiodothyronine and milk yield was negative and between thyroxine and milk yield was positive. However, it was significant only in cows and not in buffaloes. Thyroxine was positively correlated with beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids with milk yield in both the species.

ENDOCRINE CHANGES AND CIRCULATING INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTORS IN NEWBORN CALVES FED COLOSTRUM, MILK OR MILK REPLACER

  • Lee, C.-Y.;Head, H.H.;Feinstein, C.R.;Hayen, J.;Simmen, F.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.51-58
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    • 1995
  • To examine whether colostral growth factors are transferred to the general circulation, concentrations of plasma cortisol, insulin, prolactin, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors(IGFs) -I and -II, IGF-binding proteins(IGFBPs) and total protein were measured in newborn calves fed colostrums, milk of milk replacer before and after feeding at 12 h intervals during the first two days after birth. Plasma protein concentrations increased with time after than in milk- or milk replacer-fed calves. The mean protein concentration was greater in colostrum-fed than in milk- or milk replacer-fed calves. Plasma cortisol levels transiently declined after each feeding regardless of the type of diet, while insulin levels tended to increase. Mean concentrations of these hormones did not differ between dietary groups, nor did they change with time after birth. Plasma concentrations of prolactin and growth hormone did not differ between dietary groups and also did not change with time after birth or after feeding. Concentrations of IGF-I and IGF-II transiently increased at the second feeding period, but these, as well as plasma IGFBP profiles, were not different between groups or before and after feeding. Results did not indicate significant transfer of colostral growth factors across the newborn ruminant small intestine.

Influence of Exposure to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field on Neuroendocrine Cells and Hormones in Stomach of Rats

  • Hong, Min-Eui;Yoon, Kyu-Hyun;Jung, Yoon-Yang;Lee, Tae-Jin;Park, Eon-Sub;Sohn, Uy-Dong;Jeong, Ji-Hoon
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.137-142
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    • 2011
  • Extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) have the ability to produce a variety of behavioral and physiological changes in animals. The stomach, as the most sensitive part of the neuroendocrine organ of the gastrointestinal tract, is crucial for the initiation of a full stress response against all harmful stress. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine whether ELF-MF stimuli induce changes in the activity of neuroendocrine cells, considering their involvement in endocrine or paracrine effect on surrounding cells. The exposure to ELF-MF (durations of 24 h and 1 or 2 weeks, 60 Hz frequency, 0.1 mT intensity) altered the distribution and occurrence of gastrin, ghrelin and somatostatinpositive endocrine cells in the stomach of rats. The change, however, in the secretion of those hormones into blood from endocrine cells did not appear significantly with ELF-MF exposure. Comparing with sham control, ELF-MF exposure for 1 and 2 week induced an increase in $BaSO_4$ suspension propelling ratio of gastrointestinal tract, indicating that ELF-MF affects gastrointestinal motility. Our study revealed that ELF-MF exposure might influence the activity of endocrine cells, an important element of the intrinsic regulatory system in the digestive tract. The pathophysiological character of these changes and the mechanism responsible for neuroendocrine cell are still unclear and require further studies.

Types of Cancers Prevailing in Pakistan and their Management Evaluation

  • Tariq, Ayesha;Majeed, Imtiaz;Khurshid, Azhar
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.3605-3616
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    • 2015
  • Cancer is basically a class of disorder marked by uncontrolled proliferation of cells which have the potential to interfere with different systems of body like digestive, central nervous and circulatory systems by releasing hormones. Tumors that reside only in a specified location and show restricted growth are commonly characterized as benign tumors. When tumor cells grow and effectively spread to other body parts and potentially invade and damage healthy tissues they show various degrees of malignancy. Cancer may be caused by different factors like gene mutations, carcinogens and some medical factors that harm the immune system of the body. Symptoms of cancer are relatively varied and classified according to location, progression pattern and size of tumors as well. Different diagnostic tests are used for evaluation that depends on the type of cancer. Cancer management and chemo protocols also depend on the progression and site where it develops. Cancers like breast, lung, liver, colorectal, prostate, head and neck carcinoma are most commonly diagnosed in Pakistan. This review briefly describes the three most common cancers prevailing in Pakistan and their management evaluation.