• Title, Summary, Keyword: Direct Observation

Search Result 556, Processing Time 0.057 seconds

The Effects of Typhoon Initialization and Dropwindsonde Data Assimilation on Direct and Indirect Heavy Rainfall Simulation in WRF model

  • Lee, Ji-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
    • /
    • v.36 no.5
    • /
    • pp.460-475
    • /
    • 2015
  • A number of heavy rainfall events on the Korean Peninsula are indirectly influenced by tropical cyclones (TCs) when they are located in southeastern China. In this study, a heavy rainfall case in the middle Korean region is selected to examine the influence of typhoon simulation performance on predictability of remote rainfall over Korea as well as direct rainfall over Taiwan. Four different numerical experiments are conducted using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, toggling on and off two different improvements on typhoon in the model initial condition (IC), which are TC bogussing initialization and dropwindsonde observation data assimilation (DA). The Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory TC initialization algorithm is implemented to generate the bogused vortex instead of the initial typhoon, while the airborne observation obtained from dropwindsonde is applied by WRF Three-dimensional variational data assimilation. Results show that use of both TC initialization and DA improves predictability of TC track as well as rainfall over Korea and Taiwan. Without any of IC improvement usage, the intensity of TC is underestimated during the simulation. Using TC initialization alone improves simulation of direct rainfall but not of indirect rainfall, while using DA alone has a negative impact on the TC track forecast. This study confirms that the well-suited TC simulation over southeastern China improves remote rainfall predictability over Korea as well as TC direct rainfall over Taiwan.

Direct Observation of an Antihomoaromatic Bicyclooctadienyl Cation

  • Shin Jung-Hyu
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
    • /
    • v.3 no.2
    • /
    • pp.66-70
    • /
    • 1982
  • The question of the bicyclohomoaromatic stabilization and destabilization is examined. The chemistry of bicyclo(3.2.1)octa-3,6-dienide anion has been studied on order to test these concepts. The bicyclooctadienide anion is shown to be stable delocalized ion which undergoes a facile proton-deuterium exchange reaction. The solvolysis of bicyclo(3.2.1)octa-3,6-dienyl p-nitrobenzoate is much slower than the monoene analog. We have made direct observation of the bicyclooctadienyl and octenyl cations by $^{19}F$-nmr spectroscopy, and were able to demonstrate that the bicyclooctadienyl cation was bishomoantiaromatic.

  • PDF

Two-dimensional Surface Structures of Arenthiols Studied by STM

  • Gwon, Gi-Yeong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.89-89
    • /
    • 2012
  • Arrangement of individual atoms and molecules with atomic precision and understanding the resulting properties at the molecular level are ultimate goals of chemistry, biology, and materials science. For the past three decades, scanning probe microscopy has made strides towards these goals through the direct observation of individual atoms and molecules, enabling the discovery of new and unexpected phenomena. This talk will discuss the origin of forces governing motion of small organic molecules and their extended self-assembly into two-dimensional surface structures by direct observation of individual molecules using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM).

  • PDF

Classification of Nursing Activities and Workload Analysis in a New Open Hospital (환자중심 간호업무 향상을 위한 간호업무 측정에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Young-Shin;Kwon, Young-Mi
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration
    • /
    • v.3 no.2
    • /
    • pp.123-136
    • /
    • 1997
  • The purpose of this study was to confirm the classification of nursing activity and to analyze the time of nursing workload in a new open hospital. The data were collected from 20 nurses working in 6 general nursing units by 4 trained observers. The tools used for this study were an observation recording sheet and a classification sheet of nursing activity. The classification sheet was constructed to be adaptable to each hospital system based on the instrument described in the literature. The results of the study are as follows : The direct nursing activities consisted of 6 sections, 33 subsections and the indirect nursing activities consisted of 14 sections, 53 subsections. The direct nursing activities included medication, measuring and observation, care of therapies, care of physical comfort, laboratory and treatment. The indirect nursing activities included preparation of medical utensils, collection of information and assessment, recording, phone communication, professional interaction related to patients, personal time, assigning work to staff, patient eaucation and training, interaction with lab, transfer of administration of utensils, checking physician's order, dietary service, management of pollution and contagion, guide direction. Nurses spent 127.6min for direct nursing activity during day duty. It was 24.5% of total nursing activity. Within that activity medication had the highest percentage of time(40.09%), followed by communication and education with patient(24.76%), measuring and observation (16.93%), laboratory and treatment (12.85%), care of therapies(3.21%) and care of physical comfort (2.16%). The time breakdown for indirect nursing activities is as follows ; the preparation of medical utensils 22.3%, collection of information and assessment 20.29%, recording 20.27%, phone communication 8.14%, professional interaction related to patients 7.33%, personal time 7.24%, with the remaining timeshared by staffing, patient education and training, interaction with lab, transfer of administration of utensils, checking physician's order, dietary service, management of pollution and contagion, guide direction. In the analysis of the relationships between the working time and the work allocation characters of the nurses(including nurse's experiences. nurse-patients ratio, nurse-rooms ratio, and character of nursing unit) ; There were no significant differences in direct-indirect nursing times between nurse's career years. There was significant difference in direct nursing time between assigned patient numbers. The nurses assigned larger number of patients spent significantly more time in direct nursing care than that of the smaller. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in indirect nursing workload between the assigned patient numbers. There were no significant differences in direct-indirect nursing time between an allocated patient's room numbers. There was significant difference in working time between working places. The nurse in the medical unit spent more time in direct nursing care than her counterpart in the surgical unit. However there was no difference in direct nursing time between two groups. The study results indicate that nurses spent less time in the direct nursing care than in the previous studies even though the hospital system has been modernized. On the other hand they spent much more time for the coordinating role within the interdisciplinary team and for the overlapping paperwork. Therefore it is recommended that patient oriented job description and more efficient usage of modernized utilities be made.

  • PDF

Development of a Small, Remote Controlled Ship for Observation of Marine Environment (소형 무인 해양 계측선 개발)

  • Lim, Jong-Hwan;Kang, Chul-Wong;Kim, Seong-Gun;Lee, Sang-Moo;Kim, Sang-Chul;Choi, Min-Ho;Kang, Chang-Mo
    • Proceedings of the Korea Committee for Ocean Resources and Engineering Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.209-214
    • /
    • 2002
  • We developed a small, remote controlled observation ship that can reduce the cost of gathering data for marine and coastal environments. The control system is composed of three microprocessors, one is for overall mission control, another for control of propulsion motors, and the other for sensor operation. For communication system, we adopt direct and indirect methods based on the wireless modem of commercial cellular telephone. The former is a direct communication between the modems of the ship and the server, and the latter is an indirect communication via internet between the ship and the server. The performance of the ship is demonstrated with the results produced by sets of experiments.

  • PDF

Local Movement of Shorebirds for Roosting between Ganghwa and Yeongjong Island in the West Coast of Korea

  • Kim, Hwa-Chung;Yoo, Jeong-Chil
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
    • /
    • v.27 no.2
    • /
    • pp.73-77
    • /
    • 2004
  • Movement of shorebirds for roosting was studied to find their response to insufficient roosting area on Ganghwa Island. It was taken from two kinds of aspects of population fluctuation and direct observation of movement from March to October in 2002. Based on the data from their weekly fluctuation and flight observation, shorebirds on Ganghwa Island moved to roosts located far away. Shorebirds feeding at southern Ganghwa Island moved to Yeongjong Island for roosting during the spring tide period. High tide count showed that the number of shorebirds on Yeongjong Island increased strikingly, while the number of birds on Ganghwa Island decreased. As the tide level increased, the number of shorebirds on Ganghwa Island decreased in the fall migrating season (r$_{s}$= -0.81, p<0.001), whereas that on Yeongjong Island was not correlated significantly. Direct observation showed that some of the birds on the upper tidal zone of Ganghwa Island moved directly to the northern mudflat of Yeongjong Island during the flowing tide or dropped by flat zone on Seondu-ri. Insufficient coastal wetlands on Ganghwa Island induced them to move away from the island for roosting place and to endure costly flight energy expenditure. The development of wetlands on the southern Yeongjong Island would make them have no place available to roosts. Therefore this study proposes that shorebird roosts on Ganghwa Island should be created to conserve their habitat.t.

Image Processing of Treeing for Diagnosis of Deterioration in Submarine Cable (해저케이블의 열화진단을 위한 트리잉의 화상처리)

  • Lee, J.B.;Lim, J.S.;Park, H.B.;Gu, H.B.;Kim, T.S.;Yoshimura, N.
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.1655-1657
    • /
    • 1994
  • To measure treeing, visual measurement with an optical microscope has been used to explain breakdown mechanism by treeing in materials. The conventional direct visual method of tree deterioration observation is difficult to measure in short time processing, and impossible to analyze the deteriorated area by treeing, direction of tree growth, tree patterns etc. In this paper, we have developed a tree-measuring system using image processing for the tree growth, the area of deterioration, and other progresses of treeing. As experimental result, image processing is an effective alternative to direct visual observation method.

  • PDF