• Title, Summary, Keyword: Discontinuous deformation analysis

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Rockfall and Toppling Failure Simulation of Rock Slopes using 3-Dimensional Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (3차원 불연속변형해석법을 이용한 암반사면의 낙석과 전도 파괴 시뮬레이션)

  • Hwang, Jae-Yun;Ohnishi, Yuzo
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.181-187
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    • 2012
  • Many researches on disaster prevention using computer simulation methods can be performed to minimize the damage of property and to protect human life. Discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA) is a new computer simulation method to analyze the behavior of discontinuous rock masses. Since most rock slope problems are 3-dimensional in nature, 2-dimensional deformation analysis has limited application. In this study, the basic principles of 3-dimensional discontinuous deformation analysis are described. The newly developed 3-dimensional discontinuous deformation analysis method is proposed as the computer simulation method for discontinuous rock masses. Then, the failure behavior of rock slopes are simulated using 3-dimensional discontinuous deformation analysis. The simulation results are compared and examined with the failure behavior at the rock slopes. The results show the applicability of 3-dimensional discontinuous deformation analysis to analyze the deformation and failure mechanisms of rock slopes.

Discontinuous deformation analysis for reinforced concrete frames infilled with masonry walls

  • Chiou, Yaw-Jeng;Tzeng, Jyh-Cherng;Hwang, Shuenn-Chang
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.201-215
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    • 1998
  • The structural behavior of reinforced concrete frame infilled with a masonry wall is investigated by the method of discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA). An interface element is developed and it is incorporated into DDA to analyze the continuous and discontinuous behavior of the masonry structure. The numerical results are compared with previous research and possess satisfactory agreement. Then the structural behavior and stress distribution of a reinforced concrete frame infilled with a masonry wall subjected to a horizontal force are studied. In addition, the justification of equivalent strut is assessed by the distribution of principal stresses. The results show that the behavior of the masonry structure is highly influenced by the failure of mortar. On the basis of the distribution of principal stress of the masonry wall in the reinforced concrete frame, the equivalent strut can be approximately substituted for the masonry wall without separation and opening. However, the application of equivalent strut to the masonry wall with separation and opening needs further study.

Modified discontinuous deformation analysis for rock failure: Crack propagation

  • Chen, Yunjuan;Zhang, Xin;Zhu, Weishen;Wang, Wen
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.325-336
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    • 2018
  • Deformation of rock masses is not only related to rock itself, but also related to discontinuities, the latter maybe greater. Study on crack propagation at discontinuities is important to reveal the damage law of rock masses. DDARF is a discontinuous deformation analysis method for rock failure and some modified algorithms are proposed in this study. Firstly, coupled modeling methods of AutoCAD-DDARF and ANSYS-DDARF are introduced, which could improve the modeling efficiency of DDARF compared to its original program. Secondly, a convergence criterion for automatically judging the computation equilibrium is established, it could overcome subjective drawbacks of ending one calculation by time steps. Lastly but not the least, relationship between the super relaxation factor and the calculation convergence is analyzed, and reasonable value range of the super relaxation factor is obtained. Based on these above modified programs, influences on crack propagation of joint angle, joint parameters and geo-stresses' side pressure are studied.

Modeling the Water-Block Interaction with Discontinuous Deformation Analysis Method (불연속 변형 해석법에 의한 지하수-암반블록 상호작용 모델링)

  • 김용일
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.149-157
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    • 1999
  • A powerful numerical method that can be used for that purpose is the Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (DDA) method developed by Shi in 1988. In this method, rock masses are treated as systems of finite and deformable blocks. Large rock mass deformations and block movements are allowed. Although various extensions of the DDA method have been proposed in the literature, the method is not capable of modeling water-block interaction that is needed when modeling surface or underground excavation in fractured rock. This paper presents a new extension to the DDA method. The extension consists of hydro-mechanical coupling between rock blocks and water flow in fractures. A example of application of the DDA method with the new extension is presented. The results of the present study indicate that fracture flow could have a destabilizing effect on the tunnel stability.

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Application of New Edge-to-Edge Contact Algorithm to Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (불연속 변형해석에서의 새로운 선-선 접촉 해석 적용)

  • Lee Chung-In;Moon Young-Sam;Choi Yong-Keun;Ahn Tae-Young
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.305-315
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    • 2005
  • DDA (Discontinuous Deformation Anlaysis) is one of the latest numerical analysis which has merits of both FEM and DEM. In this research a new edge-to-edge contact algorithm was applied on DDA. With adoption of new edge-to-edge contact state definition, sub-algorithm was improved about open-close iteration, contact state judge, contact detecting, and friction forces acting on joints. Newly applied DDA was verified based on two different cases. The DDA results show good agreement with numerically predicted one.

Numerical Analysis of Deformation Behaviour of Underground Opening in a Discontinuous Rock Mass Using a Continuum Joint Model (연속체 절리모델을 이용한 불연속성암반 내 지하공동의 변형거동에 관한 수치해석)

  • Kang Sang Soo;Lee Jong-Kil;Baek Hwanjo
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.257-268
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    • 2005
  • In situ rock mass is generally heterogeneous and discontinuous, with varying degrees of strength along the planes of weakness. The planes of weakness such as joints, faults, cracks and bedding planes, control the strength and deformation characteristics of the rock mass. Subsequently, the stability of underground opening depends upon the spatial distribution of discontinuities and their mechanical properties in relation with geometrical shape of openins as well as the mechanical properties of intact rock materials. Understanding the behaviour of a discontinuous rock mass remains a key issue for improving excavation design in hiかy stressed environments. Although recent advances in rock mechanics have provided guidelines for the design of underground opening in isotropic rock mass, prediction and control of deformation in discontinuous rock masses are still unclear. In this study, parametric study was performed to investigate the plastic zone size, stress distribution and deformation behavior around underground opening in a discontinuous rock mass using a continuum joint model. The solutions were obtained by an elasto-plastic finite difference analysis, employing the Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria. Non-associated flow rule and perfectly plastic material behavior are also assumed.

Advanced discretization of rock slope using block theory within the framework of discontinuous deformation analysis

  • Wang, Shuhong;Huang, Runqiu;Ni, Pengpeng;Jeon, Seokwon
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.723-738
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    • 2017
  • Rock is a heterogeneous material, which introduces complexity in the analysis of rock slopes, since both the existing discontinuities within the rock mass and the intact rock contribute to the degradation of strength. Rock failure is often catastrophic due to the brittle nature of the material, involving the sliding along structural planes and the fracturing of rock bridge. This paper proposes an advanced discretization method of rock mass based on block theory. An in-house software, GeoSMA-3D, has been developed to generate the discrete fracture network (DFN) model, considering both measured and artificial joints. Measured joints are obtained from the photogrammetry analysis on the excavation face. Statistical tools then facilitate to derive artificial joints within the rock mass. Key blocks are searched to provide guidance on potential reinforcement measures. The discretized blocky system is subsequently implemented into a discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA) code. Strength reduction technique is employed to analyze the stability of the slope, where the factor of safety can be obtained once excessive deformation of slope profile is observed. The combined analysis approach also provides the failure mode, which can be used to guide the choice of strengthening strategy if needed. Finally, an illustrated example is presented for the analysis of a rock slope of 20 m height inclined at $60^{\circ}$ using combined GeoSMA-3D and DDA calculation.

New reinforcement algorithms in discontinuous deformation analysis for rock failure

  • Chen, Yunjuan;Zhu, Weishen;Li, Shucai;Zhang, Xin
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.787-803
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    • 2016
  • DDARF (Discontinuous Deformation Analysis for Rock Failure) is a numerical algorithm for simulating jointed rock masses' discontinuous deformation. While its reinforcement simulation is only limited to end-anchorage bolt, which is assumed to be a linear spring simply. Here, several new reinforcement modes in DDARF are proposed, including lining reinforcement, full-length anchorage bolt and equivalent reinforcement. In the numerical simulation, lining part is assigned higher mechanical strength than surrounding rock masses, it may include multiple virtual joints or not, depending on projects. There must be no embedding or stretching between lining blocks and surrounding blocks. To realize simulation of the full-length anchorage bolt, at every discontinuity passed through the bolt, a set of normal and tangential spring needs to be added along the bolt's axial and tangential direction. Thus, bolt's axial force, shearing force and full-length anchorage effect are all realized synchronously. And, failure criterions of anchorage effect are established for different failure modes. In the meantime, from the perspective of improving surrounding rock masses' overall strength, a new equivalent and tentative simulation method is proposed, it can save calculation storage and improve efficiency. Along the text, simulation algorithms and applications of these new reinforcement modes in DDARF are given.

Dynamic responses of structures with sliding base

  • Tsai, Jiin-Song;Wang, Wen-Ching
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.63-76
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    • 1998
  • This paper presents dynamic responses of structures with sliding base which limits the translation of external loads from ground excitation. A discrete element model based on the discontinuous deformation analysis method is proposed to study this sliding boundary problem. The sliding base is simulated using sets of fictitious contact springs along the sliding interface. The set of contact spring is to translate friction force from ground to superstructure. Validity of the proposed model is examined by the closed-form solutions of an idealized mass-spring structural model subjected to harmonic ground excitation. This model is also applied to a problem of a three-story structural model subjected to the ground excitation of 1940 El Centro earthquake. Analyses of both sliding-base and fixed-base conditions are performed as comparisons. This study shows that using this model can simulate the dynamic response of a sliding structure with frictional cut-off quite accurately. Results reveal that lowering the frictional coefficient of the sliding joint will reduce the peak responses. The structure responses in little deformation, but it displaces at the end of excitation.

Analysis of Elasto-Plastic Stress Waves by a Time-Discontinuous Variational Integrator of Hamiltonian (해밀토니안의 시간 불연속 변분적분기를 이용한 탄소성 응력파 해석)

  • Cho, S.S.;Huh, H.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Technology of Plasticity Conference
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    • pp.231-234
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    • 2008
  • This paper is concerned with the analysis of elasto-plastic stress waves by a time discontinuous variational integrator based on Hamiltonian in order to more accurate results in one dimensional dynamic problem. The proposed algorithm adopts both time-discontinuous variational integrator and space-continuous Hamiltonian so as to capture discontinuities of stress waves. This study enables to preserve total mechanical energy such as internal energy, kinetic energy and dissipative energy due to plastic deformation for long integration time. Finite element analysis of elasto-plastic stress waves is carried out in order to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed algorithm.

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