• Title, Summary, Keyword: Discrete Adjoint Approach

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OPTIMAL SHAPE DESIGN OF A S-SHAPED SUBSONIC INTAKE USING NURBS (NURBS를 이용한 S형 천음속 흡입관 최적 설계)

  • Lee B.J.;Kim C.
    • Journal of computational fluids engineering
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.57-66
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    • 2006
  • An optimal shape design approach is presented for a subsonic S-shaped intake using aerodynamic sensitivity analysis. Two-equation turbulence model is employed to capture strong counter vortices in the S-shaped duct more precisely. Sensitivity analysis is performed for the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations coupled with two-equation turbulence models using a discrete adjoint method For code validation, the result of the flow solver is compared with experiment data and other computational results of bench marking test. To study the influence oj turbulence models and grid refinement on the duct flow analysis, the results from several turbulence models are compared with one another and the minimum number of grid points, which can yield an accurate solution is investigated The adjoint variable code is validated by comparing the complex step derivative results. To realize a sufficient and flexible design space, NURBS equations are introduced as a geometric representation and a new grid modification technique, Least Square NURBS Grid Approximation is applied With the verified flow solver, the sensitivity analysis code and the geometric modification technique, the optimization of S-shaped intake is carried out and the enhancement of overall intake performance is achieved The designed S-shaped duct is tested in several off-design conditions to confirm the robustness of the current design approach. As a result, the capability and the efficiency of the present design tools are successfully demonstrated in three-dimensional highly turbulent internal flow design and off-design conditions.

Aerodynamic Shape Optimization using Discrete Adjoint Formulation based on Overset Mesh System

  • Lee, Byung-Joon;Yim, Jin-Woo;Yi, Jun-Sok;Kim, Chong-Am
    • International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.95-104
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    • 2007
  • A new design approach of complex geometries such as wing/body configuration is arranged by using overset mesh techniques under large scale computing environment. For an in-depth study of the flow physics and highly accurate design, several special overlapped structured blocks such as collar grid, tip-cap grid, and etc. which are commonly used in refined drag prediction are adopted to consider the applicability of the present design tools to practical problems. Various pre- and post-processing techniques for overset flow analysis and sensitivity analysis are devised or implemented to resolve overset mesh techniques into the design optimization problem based on Gradient Based Optimization Method (GBOM). In the pre-processing, the convergence characteristics of the flow solver and sensitivity analysis are improved by overlap optimization method. Moreover, a new post-processing method, Spline-Boundary Intersecting Grid (S-BIG) scheme, is proposed by considering the ratio of cell area for more refined prediction of aerodynamic coefficients and efficient evaluation of their sensitivities under parallel computing environment. With respect to the sensitivity analysis, discrete adjoint formulations for overset boundary conditions are derived by a full hand-differentiation. A smooth geometric modification on the overlapped surface boundaries and evaluation of grid sensitivities can be performed by mapping from planform coordinate to the surface meshes with Hicks-Henne function. Careful design works for the drag minimization problems of a transonic wing and a wing/body configuration are performed by using the newly-developed and -applied overset mesh techniques. The results from design applications demonstrate the capability of the present design approach successfully.

AERODYNAMIC OPTIMIZATION OF SUPERSONIC WING-NACELLE CONFIGURATION USING AN UNSTRUCTURED ADJOINT METHOD

  • Kim Hyoung-Jin;Obayashi Shigeru;Nakahashi Kazuhiro
    • 한국전산유체공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.60-65
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    • 2000
  • An aerodynamic design method has been developed by using a three-dimensional unstructured Euler code and an adjoint code with a discrete approach. The resulting adjoint code is applied to a wing design problem of super-sonic transport with a wing-body-nacelle configuration. Hicks-Henne shape functions are adopted far the surface geometry perturbation, and the elliptic equation method is employed fer the interior grid modification during the design process. Interior grid sensitivities are neglected except those for design parameters associated with nacelle translation. The Sequential Quadratic Programming method is used to minimize the drag with constraints on the lift and airfoil thickness. Successful design results confirm validity and efficiency of the present design method.

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MULTI-STAGE AERODYNAMIC DESIGN OF AIRCRAFT GEOMETRIES BY KRIGING-BASED MODELS AND ADJOINT VARIABLE APPROACH (Kriging 기반 모델과 매개변수(Adjoint Variable)법을 이용한 항공기형상의 2단계 공력최적설계)

  • Yim, J.W.;Lee, B.J.;Kim, C.
    • 한국전산유체공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.57-65
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    • 2009
  • An efficient and high-fidelity design approach for wing-body shape optimization is presented. Depending on the size of design space and the number of design of variable, aerodynamic shape optimization process is carried out via different optimization strategies at each design stage. In the first stage, global optimization techniques are applied to planform design with a few geometric design variables. In the second stage, local optimization techniques are used for wing surface design with a lot of design variables to maintain a sufficient design space with a high DOF (Degree of Freedom) geometric change. For global optimization, Kriging method in conjunction with Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used. Asearching algorithm of EI (Expected Improvement) points is introduced to enhance the quality of global optimization for the wing-planform design. For local optimization, a discrete adjoint method is adopted. By the successive combination of global and local optimization techniques, drag minimization is performed for a multi-body aircraft configuration while maintaining the baseline lift and the wing weight at the same time. Through the design process, performances of the test models are remarkably improved in comparison with the single stage design approach. The performance of the proposed design framework including wing planform design variables can be efficiently evaluated by the drag decomposition method, which can examine the improvement of various drag components, such as induced drag, wave drag, viscous drag and profile drag.

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Topological Design Sensitivity on the Air Bearing Surface of Head Slider

  • Yoon, Sang-Joon;Kim, Min-Soo;Park, Dong-Hoon
    • Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.1102-1108
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    • 2002
  • In this study, a topological design sensitivity of the ai. bearing surface (ABS) is suggested by using an adjoint variable method. The discrete form of the generalized lubrication equation based on a control volume formulation is used as a compatible condition. A residual function of the slider is considered as an equality constraint function, which represents the slider in equilibrium. The slider thickness parameters at all grid cells are chosen as design variables since they are the topological parameters determining the ABS shape. Then, a complicated adjoint variable equation is formulated to directly handle the highly nonlinear and asymmetric coefficient matrix and vector in the discrete system equation of air-lubricated slider bearings. An alternating direction implicit (ADI) scheme is utilized for the numerical calculation. This is an efficient iterative solver to solve large-scale problem in special band storage. Then, a computer program is developed and applied to a slider model of a sophisticated shape. The simulation results of design sensitivity analysis (DSA) are directly compared with those of FDM at the randomly selected grid cells to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The overall distribution of DSA results are reported, clearly showing the region on the ABS where special attention should be given during the manufacturing process.

Parameter design of an hydraulic track motor system

  • Um, Taijoon
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.208-211
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    • 1993
  • This paper presents the parameter design method for the desired time response of hydraulic track motor system of an industrial excavator. The dynamic response depends upon many component parameters such as motor displacement, spring constant and various valve coefficients. Most of them are to be determined to obtain the desired response while some parameters are fixed, or discrete for the off-the-shelf type components. The parameters might be selected through repeated simulations of the system once the system is mathematically represented. This paper, however, presents optimization technique to select two parameters using a parameter optimization technique. The variational approach is applied to the system equations which are represented as state equations and from those system equations derived are the adjoint equations. The gradients for each parameter also are formed for the iterations.

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Topology Optimization of Magneto-thermal Systems Considering Eddy Current as Joule Heat (와전류를 열원으로 고려한 자계-열계 위상최적설계)

  • Shim, Ho-Kyung;Wang, Se-Myung;Hameyer, Kay
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.651-652
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    • 2006
  • This research presents a topology optimization for manipulating the main heat flow in coupled magneto-thermal systems. The heat generated by eddy currents is considered in the design domain assuming an adiabatic boundary. For a practical optimization, the convection condition is considered in the topological process of the thermal field. Topology design sensitivity is derived by employing the discrete system equations combined with the adjoint variable method. As numerical examples, a simple iron and a C-core design heated-up by eddy currents demonstrate the strength of the proposed approach to solve the coupled problem.

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Multi-objective Topology Optimization of Magneto-Thermal Problem considering Heat Flow Rate (열 유입률을 고려한 자계-열계 다목적 위상최적설계)

  • Shim, Ho-Kyung;Wang, Se-Myung;Moon, Hee-Gon;Hameyer, Kay
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.138-139
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    • 2007
  • This research provides machine designers with some intuition to consider both, magnetic and heat transfer effects. A topological multi-objective function includes magnetic energy and heat inflow rate to the system, which equals to the total heat dissipation by conduction and convection. For the thermal field regarding the heat inflow, introduced as a reaction force, topology design sensitivity is derived by employing discrete equations. The adjoint variable method is used to avoid numerous sensitivity evaluations. As a numerical example, a C-core design excited by winding current demonstrates the strength of the multi-physical approach.

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