• Title, Summary, Keyword: Displacement

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Identification of materials in principal slip zones of faults by X-ray diffraction analysis using a small amount of sample (소량의 시료의 X-선 회절분석을 통한 단층 주미끌림대의 물질분석)

  • Kim, Chang-Min;Jeong, Jong Ok;Gu, Dohee;Han, Raehee
    • Journal of the Geological Society of Korea
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    • v.53 no.6
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    • pp.873-883
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    • 2017
  • Fault materials in principal slip zones (PSZs), where the shear displacement is concentrated, are one of the most important factors that control the frictional properties of a fault. Thus, the identification of mineral composition of fault materials is essential to understanding the mechanical behaviors of faults. However, since the PSZ of natural faults is commonly very thin (less than a few cm or mm), special attention should be paid to the sampling and analysis of the materials in the PSZ. In this study, we designed X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses on the fault materials taken from a narrow PSZ using a high-resolution X-ray diffractometer to examine if mineral composition can be reliably determined from a small amount of fault materials. The materials analyzed in the study were taken from about 2-cm-thick PSZ and adjacent fault core of the Yangsan fault zone, Bogyeongsa area, Pohang. Some slabs were prepared from the materials, and the powder specimens used in the XRD analyses were scraped from the slabs with a micro-drill. Given the results of the XRD analyses performed by changing the amount of the material, it follows that the minimum amount of sample needed for the reliable determination of mineral composition is estimated to be about 2 mg. The mineral compositions determined by using the 2-mg-specimens of the PSZ materials (PSZ-B and PSZ-R) and the brownish fault core material (BZ) confirm that the PSZ may be composed of different minerals from the adjacent areas. The method developed in the study may be effectively used for the materials not only in thin layers of natural fault materials but also in recovered experimental faults or in thin faults found in drilling cores from which only a small amount of material can be collected.

Patient Position Verification and Corrective Evaluation Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) in Intensity.modulated Radiation Therapy (세기조절방사선치료 시 콘빔CT (CBCT)를 이용한 환자자세 검증 및 보정평가)

  • Do, Gyeong-Min;Jeong, Deok-Yang;Kim, Young-Bum
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.83-88
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using an on board imager (OBI) can check the movement and setup error in patient position and target volume by comparing with the image of computer simulation treatment in real.time during patient treatment. Thus, this study purposed to check the change and movement of patient position and target volume using CBCT in IMRT and calculate difference from the treatment plan, and then to correct the position using an automated match system and to test the accuracy of position correction using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) and examine the usefulness of CBCT in IMRT and the accuracy of the automatic match system. Materials and Methods: The subjects of this study were 3 head and neck patients and 1 pelvis patient sampled from IMRT patients treated in our hospital. In order to investigate the movement of treatment position and resultant displacement of irradiated volume, we took CBCT using OBI mounted on the linear accelerator. Before each IMRT treatment, we took CBCT and checked difference from the treatment plan by coordinate by comparing it with the image of CT simulation. Then, we made correction through the automatic match system of 3D/3D match to match the treatment plan, and verified and evaluated using electronic portal imaging device. Results: When CBCT was compared with the image of CT simulation before treatment, the average difference by coordinate in the head and neck was 0.99 mm vertically, 1.14 mm longitudinally, 4.91 mm laterally, and 1.07o in the rotational direction, showing somewhat insignificant differences by part. In testing after correction, when the image from the electronic portal imaging device was compared with DRR image, it was found that correction had been made accurately with error less than 0.5 mm. Conclusion: By comparing a CBCT image before treatment with a 3D image reconstructed into a volume instead of a 2D image for the patient's setup error and change in the position of the organs and the target, we could measure and correct the change of position and target volume and treat more accurately, and could calculate and compare the errors. The results of this study show that CBCT was useful to deliver accurate treatment according to the treatment plan and to increase the reproducibility of repeated treatment, and satisfactory results were obtained. Accuracy enhanced through CBCT is highly required in IMRT, in which the shape of the target volume is complex and the change of dose distribution is radical. In addition, further research is required on the criteria for match focus by treatment site and treatment purpose.

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Behavior Analysis of Concrete Structure under Blast Loading : (II) Blast Loading Response of Ultra High Strength Concrete and Reactive Powder Concrete Slabs (폭발하중을 받는 콘크리트 구조물의 실험적 거동분석 : (II) 초고강도 콘크리트 및 RPC 슬래브의 실험결과)

  • Yi, Na Hyun;Kim, Sung Bae;Kim, Jang-Ho Jay;Cho, Yun Gu
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.29 no.5A
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    • pp.565-575
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    • 2009
  • In recent years, there have been numerous explosion-related accidents due to military and terrorist activities. Such incidents caused not only damages to structures but also human casualties, especially in urban areas. To protect structures and save human lives against explosion accidents, better understanding of the explosion effect on structures is needed. In an explosion, the blast load is applied to concrete structures as an impulsive load of extremely short duration with very high pressure and heat. Generally, concrete is known to have a relatively high blast resistance compared to other construction materials. However, normal strength concrete structures require higher strength to improve their resistance against impact and blast loads. Therefore, a new material with high-energy absorption capacity and high resistance to damage is needed for blast resistance design. Recently, Ultra High Strength Concrete(UHSC) and Reactive Powder Concrete(RPC) have been actively developed to significantly improve concrete strength. UHSC and RPC, can improve concrete strength, reduce member size and weight, and improve workability. High strength concrete are used to improve earthquake resistance and increase height and bridge span. Also, UHSC and RPC, can be implemented for blast resistance design of infrastructure susceptible to terror or impact such as 9.11 terror attack. Therefore, in this study, the blast tests are performed to investigate the behavior of UHSC and RPC slabs under blast loading. Blast wave characteristics including incident and reflected pressures as well as maximum and residual displacements and strains in steel and concrete surface are measured. Also, blast damages and failure modes were recorded for each specimen. From these tests, UHSC and RPC have shown to better blast explosions resistance compare to normal strength concrete.

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Analysis of Characteristics of Horizontal Response Spectrum of Velocity Ground Motions from 5 Macro Earthquakes (5개 중규모 지진의 속도 관측자료를 이용한 수평 응답스펙트럼 특성 분석)

  • Kim, Jun-Kyoung
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.471-479
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    • 2011
  • The velocity horizontal response spectra using the observed ground motions from the recent 5 macro earthquakes, equal to or larger than 4.8 in magnitude, around Korean Peninsula were analysed and then were compared to the acceleration horizontal response spectra, seismic design response spectra (Reg Guide 1.60), applied to the domestic nuclear power plants, and finally the Korean Standard Design Response Spectrum for general structures and buildings. 102 velocity horizontal ground motions, including NS and EW components, were used for velocity horizontal response spectra and then normalized with respect to the peak velocity value of each ground motion. First, the results showed that velocity horizontal response spectra have larger values at the range of medium natural period, but acceleration horizontal response spectra have larger values at the range of short natural periods. Secondly, the results also showed that velocity horizontal response spectra exceed Reg. Guide 1.60 for longer natural periods bands less than 6-7 Hz. Finally, the results were also compared to the Korean Standard Response Spectrum for the 3 different soil types(SC, SD, and SE soil type) and showed that velocity horizontal response spectra revealed much higher values for the frequency bands below 1.5(SC), 2.0(SD), and 3.0(SE) seconds, respectively, than the Korean Standard Response Spectrum. The results suggest that the fact that acceleration, velocity, and displacement horizontal response spectra have larger values at the range of short, medium, and long natural periods, respectively, can be applied consistently to those form domestic ground motion, especially, the velocity ground motion. Information on response spectrum at such medium range periods can be very important since the domestic design of buildings and structures emphasizes recently medium and long natural periods than short one due to increased super high-rise buildings.

Behavioral Mechanism of Hybrid Model of Soil-nailing and Compression Anchor (쏘일네일링과 앵커가 결합된 하이브리드 공법의 거동 메커니즘)

  • Seo, Hyung-Joon;Kim, Hyun-Rae;Jeong, Nam-Soo;Lee, In-Mo
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.26 no.7
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    • pp.117-133
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    • 2010
  • A hybrid system of soil-nailing and compression anchor is proposed in this paper; the system is composed of an anchor bar (installed at the tip) with two PC strands and a steel bar. After drilling a hole, installing proposed hybrid systems, and filling the hole with grouting material, prestress is applied to the anchor bar to restrict the deformation at the head and/or to prevent shallow slope failures. However, since the elongation rate of PC strand is much larger than that of steel bar, yield at the steel bar will occur much earlier than at the PC strand. It means that the yield load of the hybrid system will be overestimated if we simply add yield loads of the two - anchor bar and PC strands. It might be needed to try to match the yielding time of the two materials by applying the prestress to the anchor bar. It means that the main purpose of applying prestress to the anchor bar should be two-fold: to restrict the deformation at the nail head; and more importantly, to maximize the design load of the hybrid system by utilizing load transfer mechanism that transfers the prestress applied at the tip to the head through anchor bar. In order to study the load transfer mechanism in a systematic way, in-situ pullout tests were performed with the following conditions: soil-nailing only; hybrid system with the variation of prestress stresses from 0 kN to 196 kN. It was found that the prestress applied to the anchor system will induce the compressive stress to the steel bar; it will result in decrease in the slope of load-displacement curve of the steel bar. Then, the elongation at which the steel bar will reach yield stress might become similar to that of PC strands. By taking advantage of prestress to match elongations at yield, the pullout design load of the hybrid system can be increased up to twice that of the soil-nailing system.

The movement history of the southern part of the Yangsan Fault Zone interpreted from the geometric and kinematic characteristics of the Sinheung Fault, Eonyang, Gyeongsang Basin, Korea (언양 신흥단층의 기하학적.운동학적 특성으로부터 해석된 경상분지 양산단층대 남부의 단층운동사)

  • Kang, Ji-Hoon;Ryoo, Chung-Ryul
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.19-30
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    • 2009
  • The main fault of Yangsan Fault Zone (YFZ) and Quaternary fault were found in a trench section with NW-SE direction at an entrance of the Sinheung village in the northern Eonyang, Ulsan, Korea. We interpreted the movement history of the southern part of the YFZ from the geometric and kinematic characteristics of basement rock's fault of the YFZ (Sinheung Fault) and Quaternary fault (Quaternary Sinheung Fault) investigated at the trench section. The trench outcrop consists mainly of Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of Hayang Group and volcanic rocks of Yucheon Group which lie in fault contact and Quaternary deposits which unconformably overlie these basement rocks. This study suggests that the movement history of the southern part of the YFZ can be explained at least by two different strike-slip movements, named as D1 and D2 events, and then two different dip-slip movements, named as D3 and D4 events. (1) D1 event: a sinistral strike-slip movement which caused the bedding of sedimentary rocks to be high-angled toward the main fault of the YFZ. (2) D2 event: a dextral strike-slip movement slipped along the high-angled beddings as fault surfaces. The main characteristic structural elements are predominant sub-horizontal slickenlines and sub-vertical fault foliations which show a NNE trend. The event formed the main fault rocks of the YFZ. (3) D3 event: a conjugate reverse-slip movement slipped along fault surfaces which trend (E)NE and moderately dip (S)SE or (N)NW. The slickenlines, which plunge in the dip direction of fault surfaces, overprint the previous sub-horizontal slickenlines. The fault is characterized by S-C fabrics superimposed on the D2 fault gouges, fault surfaces showing ramp and flat geometry, asymmetric and drag folds and collapse structures accompanied with it. The event dispersed the orientation of the main fault surface of the YFZ. (4) D4 event: a Quaternary reverse-slip movement showing a displacement of several centimeters with S-C fabrics on the Quternary deposits. The D4 fault surfaces are developed along the extensions of the D3 fault surfaces of basement rocks, like the other Quaternary faults within the YFZ. This indicates that these faults were formed under the same compression of (N)NW-(S)SE direction.

Chest CT Parameters to Predict the Major Adverse Events in Acute Submassive Pulmonary Embolism (혈역학적으로 안정된 폐색전증 환자에서의 임상적 악화를 예측하는 전산화 단층촬영상 소견)

  • Jung, Sang-Ku;Kim, Won-Young;Lee, Choong-Wook;Seo, Dong-Woo;Lee, Youn-Sun;Lee, Jae-Ho;Oh, Bum-Jin;Kim, Won;Lim, Kyoung-Soo;Hong, Sang-Bum;Lim, Chae-Man;Koh, Youn-Suck
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.69 no.3
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    • pp.184-190
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    • 2010
  • Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the prognostic significance of chest computed tomographic (CT) parameters in acute submassive pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods: Between January 2006 and December 2009, 268 consecutive patients with acute submassive PE that was confirmed by chest CT with pulmonary angiography in emergency room were studied. One experienced radiologist measured CT parameters and judged the presence of right ventricular dysfunction. CT parameters were analyzed to determine their ability to predict a major adverse event (MAE). Results: There were 220 patients included and 61 (27.7%) had MAE. Left ventricular and right ventricular maximum minor axis ($36.4{\pm}8.0$ vs. $41.7{\pm}7.4$, p<0.01; $45.7{\pm}9.4$ vs. $41.5{\pm}7.6$, p<0.01), superior vena cava diameter ($19.2{\pm}3.4$ vs. $18.0{\pm}3.4$, p=0.02), azygos vein diameter ($10.0{\pm}2.2$ vs. $9.2{\pm}2.3$, p=0.02), septal displacement (19 vs. 18, p<0.01) were significantly higher in MAE group than in no MAE group. Patients with MAE had high right ventricular/left ventricular dimension ratio (RV/LV ratio) compared to patients without MAE ($1.34{\pm}0.48$ vs. $1.03{\pm}0.28$, p<0.01). The most useful cut-off value of RV/LV ratio for MAE was 1.3 and the area under the curve was 0.71 (0.62~0.79). Conclusion: RV/LV ratio on chest CT was a significant predictor of submassive PE related shock, intubation, in-hospital mortality, thrombolysis, thrombectomy within 30 days.

EFFECT OF INSTRUMENT COMPLIANCE ON THE POLYMERIZATION SHRINKAGE STRESS MEASUREMENTS OF DENTAL RESIN COMPOSITES (측정장치의 compliance 유무가 복합레진의 중합수축음력의 측정에 미치는 영향)

  • Seo, Deog-Gyu;Min, Sun-Hong;Lee, In-Bog
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.145-153
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of instrument compliance on the polymerization shrinkage stress measurements of dental composites. The contraction strain and stress of composites during light curing were measured by a custom made stress-strain analyzer, which consisted of a displacement sensor, a cantilever load cell and a negative feedback mechanism. The instrument can measure the polymerization stress by two modes: with compliance mode in which the instrument compliance is allowed, or without compliance mode in which the instrument compliance is not allowed. A flowable (Filtek Flow: FF) and two universal hybrid (Z100: Z1 and Z250: Z2) composites were studied. A silane treated metal rod with a diameter of 3.0 mm was fixed at free end of the load cell, and other metal rod was fixed on the base plate. Composite of 1.0 mm thickness was placed between the two rods and light cured. The axial shrinkage strain and stress of the composite were recorded for 10 minutes during polymerization. and the tensile modulus of the materials was also determined with the instrument. The statistical analysis was conducted by ANOVA. paired t-test and Tukey's test (${\alpha}<0.05$). There were significant differences between the two measurement modes and among materials. With compliance mode, the contraction stress of FF was the highest: 3.11 (0.13). followed by Z1: 2.91 (0.10) and Z2: 1.94 (0.09) MPa. When the instrument compliance is not allowed, the contraction stress of Z1 was the highest: 17.08 (0.89), followed by FF: 10.11 (0.29) and Z2: 9.46 (1.63) MPa. The tensile modulus for Z1, Z2 and FF was 2.31 (0.18), 2.05 (0.20), 1.41 (0.11) GPa, respectively. With compliance mode. the measured stress correlated with the axial shrinkage strain of composite: while without compliance the elastic modulus of materials played a significant role in the stress measurement.

Effect of prosthetic designs and alveolar bone conditions on stress distribution in fixed partial dentures with pier abutments (중간 지대치가 존재하는 고정성 국소의치에서 보철물 설계 및 치조골 상태가 응력분포에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho, Wook;Kim, Chang-Seop;Jeon, Young-Chan;Jeong, Chang-Mo
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.328-334
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    • 2009
  • Statement of problem: Pier abutments act as a Class I fulcrum lever system when the teeth are incorporated in a fixed partial denture with rigid connectors. Therefore non-rigid connector incorporated into the fixed partial denture might reduce the stresses created by the leverage. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate, by means of finite element method, the effects of non-rigid connectors and supporting alveolar bone level on stress distribution for fixed partial dentures with pier abutments. Material and methods: A 2-dimensional finite element model simulating a 5-unit metal ceramic fixed partial denture with a pier abutment with rigid or non-rigid designs, the connector was located at the distal region of the second premolar, was developed. In the model, the lower canine, second premolar, and second molar served as abutments. Four types of alveolar bone condition were employed. One was normal bone condition and others were supporting bone reduced 20% height at one abutment. Two different loading conditions, each 150 N on 1st premolar and 1st molar and 300N on 1st molar, were used. Results: Two types of FPD were displaced apically. The amount of displacement decreased in an almost linear slope away from the loaded point. Non-rigid design tended to cause the higher stresses in supporting bone of premolar and molar abutments and the lower stresses in that of canine than rigid design. Alveolar bone loss increased the stresses in supporting bone of corresponding abutment. Conclusion: Careful evaluation of the retentive capacity of retainers and the periodontal condition of abutments may be required for the prosthetic design of fixed partial denture with a pier abutment.

The Clinical Results of ACL Reconstruction with Tibialis Allograft Using Hybrid Femoral Fixation and $Retroscrew^{(R)}$ (Hybrid 대퇴 고정과 $Retroscrew^{(R)}$를 사용한 동종 경골건 이용 전방 십자 인대 재건술의 임상적 결과)

  • Kim, Doo-Sub;Rah, Jung-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Arthroscopy Society
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.8-13
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: We used tibialis allograft for the reconstruction of ACL and used Hybrid femoral fixation utilizing $Endobutton^{(R)}$ and $Rigidfix^{(R)}$ for femoral fixation, and used $Retroscrew^{(R)}$ and additional fixation for tibial fixation to evaluate the clinical results. Materials and Methods: The ACL reconstruction were performed from February 2004 to February 2007 utilizing Hybrid femoral fixation and $Retroscrew^{(R)}$ and 32 patients, 32 cases which were available for year-long observation (12 to 25 months). The clinical results (Lysholm knee score, IKDC grade) and the radiologic results(bone tunnel expansion, Telos anterior displacement test) were evaluated. Results: The Lysholm knee score was improved from the average of $67.9{\pm}5.4$ points (range: 51~77) before operation and to $94.1{\pm}6.8$ points (range: 68~98) at the last follow up (p<0.05). 22 cases (69%) were evaluated normal (A), 9 cases (28%) were evaluated nearly normal (B) and only 1 case (3%) was evaluated not normal (C) at IKDC final evaluation and no case was evaluated abnormal. From $Telos^{(R)}$ stress x-ray evaluation, difference from the opposite knee was improved average 13.2 mm{\pm}5.8 (range: 6~21 mm) to average $3.4\;mm{\pm}2.8$ (range: 0~11 mm) after operation (p<0.05). The femoral and tibial tunnel were widened by 18.7% and 9.6% in the AP view and 12.4% and 8.5% in the lateral view, respectively (p<0.05). However, any statistic significance was not observed between bone tunnel expansion and knee joint functions (p>0.05). Conclusion: An ACL reconstruction with tibialis allograft using Hybrid femoral fixation and $Retroscrew^{(R)}$ enabled anatomical fixation of the graft tendon with satisfactory clinical results.

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