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The effect of CR-CO discrepancy on cephalometric measurements in Class III malocclusion patients (골격성 III급 부정교합자에서 중심위 변위가 두부 방사선 계측치에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Yang-Soo;Kim, Jong-Chul;Hwang, Hyeon-Shik
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.255-265
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    • 1996
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate if there were a significant difference between cephalometric measurements of mandibular position derived from a centric occlusion tracing compared to those of a converted centric relation tracing in the Class III malocclusion. The sample consisted of 25 Class III malocclusion and 25 normal occlusion persons who had no orthodontic treatment. The records included an lateral cephalometrics in centric occlusion, centric relation and centric occlusion bite registration and diagnostic casts mounted on the SAM II articulator in CR. The amount of CR-CO discrepancy of condyle was recorded using a MPI(Mandibular Position Indicator, MPI $200^{(R)}$, Great Lakes Orthodontics, USA). The conversion of the CO cephalogram to CR using the MPI readings was performed on the Conversion work sheet. Measures of mandibular position were chosen for the purpose of this study. The comparison of the difference between CO and CR cephalometric measurements in the normal occlusion and Class III malocclusion group were studied. The results were as follows: 1. In the features of CR-CO discrepancy of the condyle, the condyle was displaced posterior and inferior when the teeth were in centric occlusion. The horizontal component(${\Delta}X$) in Class HI malocclusion group was greater than the vertical component(${\Delta}Z$) and also greater than the horizontal component(${\Delta}X$) in normal occlusion group. There was no statistically significant correlation between MPI measurements and the groups of normal occlusion and Class III malocclusion group. 2. In the comparison of the cephalometric measurements in each group, Normal occlusion group showed significant difference in measurements such as ANB, Facial angle, Facial convexity and ODI. Class HI malocclusion group showed significant difference in measurements such as ANB, Facial angle, Facial convexity, ODI, SNB, APDI, L1-FP and it had more significance than the normal occlusion group. 3. The Value of cephalometric measurements was significantly different between CO and CR but there were no differences between the groups of normal occlusion and Class III malocclusion. The results of this study suggest that if the discrepancies are greater than the amount of normal displacement from clinically captured centric relation, centric relation should be considered as the starting point for proper diagnosis and treatment planning.

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Treatment Outcome and Prognosis of the Outpatients with Orofacial Pain (구강안면통증 환자의 치료결과와 예후에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Sea-Hun;Kim, Ki-Suk;Kim, Mee-Eun;Lee, Dong-Ju;Jin, Sang-Bae
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.155-165
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate treatment outcome and prognosis of the patients with orofacial pain disorders who visited for treatment in the Department of Oral Medicine, Dankook University Dental Hospital from January 2002 to December 2004. Orofacial pain disorders were categorized into TMD(myogenous, arthrogenous and muscle-joint combined TMDs), neuropathic pain disorder, oral soft tissue disease and complex condition simultaneously having more and two aforementioned categories and treatment period, method and treatment outcome were evaluated. The results of this study were as follows; 1. Average longevity of treatment period was the longest in the neuropathic pain, followed by soft tissue disease, complex conditions, arthrogenous TMD, muscle-joint combined TMD and myogenous TMD in order. 2. When treatment methods were largely categorized into pharmacologic, physical and oral appliance therapy, pharmacologic therapy was used the most frequently for the patients with neuropathic pain or oral soft tissue diseases, oral appliance therapy for those with arthrogenous TMD and physical therapy for those with myogenous TMD. 3. Of physical therapeutic methods used in our clinic, EAST and microwave was employed the most frequently in the patients with myogenous TMD, ultrasound for those with arthogenous TMD and LLLT for those with neuropathic pain or oral soft tissue disease. 4. In comparison with change of pain after treatment, there existed a tendency that pain from neuropathic pain disorders persisted while pain from TMD was getting better or totally disappeared. 5. Concerning the change of mouth opening range in the TMD subgroups, there was no significant difference among the subgroups but significant difference existed among opening ranges, indicating comfortable maximum mouth opening increased the most following treatment. Improvement of active range of mouth opening was the most considerable in those with disc displacement without reduction. It can be said on the basis of the findings from this study that various treatments currently used for the orofacial pain showed good results with TMD in regards with pain control and improvement of function, suggestive of favorable prognosis, while neuropathic pain or soft tissue disease was the clinical conditions difficult to resolve, requiring a long and persistent treatment.

A Case Study on Center of Gravity Analysis when Performing Uchimata by Posture and Voluntary Resistance Levels of Uke in Judo[ll] (유도 허벅다리걸기 기술발휘 시 받기의 자세와 저항수준에 따른 중심변인 분석 사례연구[II])

  • Kim, Eui-Hwan;Kim, Sung-Sup;Chung, Chae-Wook
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.237-257
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    • 2005
  • It was to study as a following-research of "A Case Study on Center of Gravity(COG) Analysis when Performing Uchimata(inner thigh reaping throw) by Posture and Voluntary Resistance Levels(VRL) of Uke in Judo[I]". The purpose of this study was to analyze the COG variables when performing uchimata(inner thigh reaping throw) by two postures and voluntary resistance levels(VRL) of uke(reciver) in Judo. The subjects, who were one male judoka(YH) for 1992 Barcelona Olympic Games Olympian(silver medalist), and one male trainee; Y.I.University representative member (SDK), and were filmed on two S-VHS 16mm video cameras(60fields/sec.) through 3-dimensional motion analysis methods, that postures of uke were shizenhontai (straight natural posture) and jigohontai(straight defensive posture), VRL of uke were 0% and 100%, respectively. The kinematical variable was COG variable, distance of COG, and distance of resultant COG between uke and tori(the thrower), velocity and acceleration of COG. The data of this study collection were digitized by SIMI Motion Program computed the mean values and the standard deviation calculated for each variables. When performing uchinmata according to each posture and VRL of uke and classifying. From the data analysis and discussion, the conclusions were as follows : 1. Displacement of COG Subject YH, COG was the highest in kuzushi(balance -breaking), vertical COG was low when following in tsukuri(positioning; set-up), kake(application; execution), and COG was pattern of same character each postures and resistance, respectively. Subject SDK, COG was low from kumikata(engagement positioning) to kake, and COG was that each postures and resistance were same patterns, respectively. Subject YH, SDK, each individual, postures and resistance, vertical COG was the lowest in kake phase, when performing. 2. Distance of COG between uke and tori The distance of COG between uke and tori when performing, subject YH was $0.64{\sim}0.70cm$ in kumikata, $0.19{\sim}0.28cm$ in kake, and SDK was $0.68{\sim}0.72cm$ in kumikata, $0.30{\sim}0.42\;cm$ in kake. SDK was wider than YH. 3. Distance of resultant COG between uke and tori The distance of resultant COG between uke and tori when performing, subject YH was $0.27{\sim}0.73cm$ from kumikata to kake. and SDK was $0.14{\sim}0.34cm$ in kumikata, $0.28{\sim}0.65cm$ in kake. Jigohontai(YH:$0.43{\sim}0.73cm$,SDK:$0.59{\sim}0.65cm$) was more moved than shizenhontai(YH:$0.27{\sim}0.53cm$, SDK: $0.28{\sim}\;0.34cm$). 4. Velocity of COG The velocity of COG when performing uchimata, subject YH was fast anterior-posterior direction in kuzushi, ant.-post. and vertical direction fast in tsukuri and kake. SDK was lateral, ant.-post. and vertical direction in kuzushi, ant.-post. and vertical direction in tsukuri and ant.-post. direction in take, respectively. 5. Acceleration of COG The acceleration of COG when performing uchimata, The trend of subject YH was showed fast vertical direction in kuzushi and tsukuri, ant.-post. and vertical direction fast in kake. The trends of SDK showed lateral direction in kuzushi, lateral and ant.-post. direction in tsukuri and ant.-post. direction in kake, respectively.

Analysis of the Movement of Surgical Clips Implanted in Tumor Bed during Normal Breathing for Breast Cancer Patients (유방암 환자의 정상 호흡에서 종양에 삽입된 외과적 클립의 움직임 분석)

  • Lee, Re-Na;Chung, Eun-Ah;Suh, Hyun-Suk;Lee, Kyung-Ja;Lee, Ji-Hye
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.192-200
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    • 2006
  • [ $\underline{Purpose}$ ]: To evaluate the movement of surgical clips implanted in breast tumor bed during normal breathing. $\underline{Materials\;and\;Methods}$: Seven patients receiving breast post-operative radiotherapy were selected for this study. Each patient was simulated in a common treatment position. Fluoroscopic images were recorded every 0.033 s, 30 frames per 1 second, for 10 seconds in anterior to posterior (AP), lateral, and tangential direction except one patient's images which were recorded as a rate of 15 frames per second. The movement of surgical clips was recorded and measured, thereby calculated maximal displacement of each clip in AP, lateral, tangential, and superior to inferior (SI) direction. For the comparison, we also measured the movement of diaphragm in SI direction. $\underline{Results}$: From AP direction's images, average movement of surgical clips in lateral and SI direction was $0.8{\pm}0.5\;mm$ and $0.9{\pm}0.2\;mm$ and maximal movement was 1.9 mm and 1.2 mm. Surgical clips in lateral direction's images were averagely moved $1.3{\pm}0.7\;mm$ and $1.3{\pm}0.5\;mm$ in AP and SI direction with 2.6 mm and 2.6 mm maximal movement in each direction. In tangential direction's images, average movement of surgical clips and maximal movement was $1.2{\pm}0.5\;mm$ and 2.4 mm in tangential direction and $0.9{\pm}0.4\;mm$ and 1.7 mm in SI direction. Diaphragm was averagely moved $14.0{\pm}2.4\;mm$ and 18.8 mm maximally in SI direction. $\underline{Conclusion}$: The movement of clips caused by breathing was not as significant as the movement of diaphragm. And all surgical clip movements were within 3 mm in all directions. These results suggest that for breast radiotherapy, it may not necessary to use breath-holding technique or devices to control breath.

Patient Position Verification and Corrective Evaluation Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) in Intensity.modulated Radiation Therapy (세기조절방사선치료 시 콘빔CT (CBCT)를 이용한 환자자세 검증 및 보정평가)

  • Do, Gyeong-Min;Jeong, Deok-Yang;Kim, Young-Bum
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.83-88
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using an on board imager (OBI) can check the movement and setup error in patient position and target volume by comparing with the image of computer simulation treatment in real.time during patient treatment. Thus, this study purposed to check the change and movement of patient position and target volume using CBCT in IMRT and calculate difference from the treatment plan, and then to correct the position using an automated match system and to test the accuracy of position correction using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) and examine the usefulness of CBCT in IMRT and the accuracy of the automatic match system. Materials and Methods: The subjects of this study were 3 head and neck patients and 1 pelvis patient sampled from IMRT patients treated in our hospital. In order to investigate the movement of treatment position and resultant displacement of irradiated volume, we took CBCT using OBI mounted on the linear accelerator. Before each IMRT treatment, we took CBCT and checked difference from the treatment plan by coordinate by comparing it with the image of CT simulation. Then, we made correction through the automatic match system of 3D/3D match to match the treatment plan, and verified and evaluated using electronic portal imaging device. Results: When CBCT was compared with the image of CT simulation before treatment, the average difference by coordinate in the head and neck was 0.99 mm vertically, 1.14 mm longitudinally, 4.91 mm laterally, and 1.07o in the rotational direction, showing somewhat insignificant differences by part. In testing after correction, when the image from the electronic portal imaging device was compared with DRR image, it was found that correction had been made accurately with error less than 0.5 mm. Conclusion: By comparing a CBCT image before treatment with a 3D image reconstructed into a volume instead of a 2D image for the patient's setup error and change in the position of the organs and the target, we could measure and correct the change of position and target volume and treat more accurately, and could calculate and compare the errors. The results of this study show that CBCT was useful to deliver accurate treatment according to the treatment plan and to increase the reproducibility of repeated treatment, and satisfactory results were obtained. Accuracy enhanced through CBCT is highly required in IMRT, in which the shape of the target volume is complex and the change of dose distribution is radical. In addition, further research is required on the criteria for match focus by treatment site and treatment purpose.

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Behavior Analysis of Concrete Structure under Blast Loading : (II) Blast Loading Response of Ultra High Strength Concrete and Reactive Powder Concrete Slabs (폭발하중을 받는 콘크리트 구조물의 실험적 거동분석 : (II) 초고강도 콘크리트 및 RPC 슬래브의 실험결과)

  • Yi, Na Hyun;Kim, Sung Bae;Kim, Jang-Ho Jay;Cho, Yun Gu
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.29 no.5A
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    • pp.565-575
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    • 2009
  • In recent years, there have been numerous explosion-related accidents due to military and terrorist activities. Such incidents caused not only damages to structures but also human casualties, especially in urban areas. To protect structures and save human lives against explosion accidents, better understanding of the explosion effect on structures is needed. In an explosion, the blast load is applied to concrete structures as an impulsive load of extremely short duration with very high pressure and heat. Generally, concrete is known to have a relatively high blast resistance compared to other construction materials. However, normal strength concrete structures require higher strength to improve their resistance against impact and blast loads. Therefore, a new material with high-energy absorption capacity and high resistance to damage is needed for blast resistance design. Recently, Ultra High Strength Concrete(UHSC) and Reactive Powder Concrete(RPC) have been actively developed to significantly improve concrete strength. UHSC and RPC, can improve concrete strength, reduce member size and weight, and improve workability. High strength concrete are used to improve earthquake resistance and increase height and bridge span. Also, UHSC and RPC, can be implemented for blast resistance design of infrastructure susceptible to terror or impact such as 9.11 terror attack. Therefore, in this study, the blast tests are performed to investigate the behavior of UHSC and RPC slabs under blast loading. Blast wave characteristics including incident and reflected pressures as well as maximum and residual displacements and strains in steel and concrete surface are measured. Also, blast damages and failure modes were recorded for each specimen. From these tests, UHSC and RPC have shown to better blast explosions resistance compare to normal strength concrete.

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Analysis of Characteristics of Horizontal Response Spectrum of Velocity Ground Motions from 5 Macro Earthquakes (5개 중규모 지진의 속도 관측자료를 이용한 수평 응답스펙트럼 특성 분석)

  • Kim, Jun-Kyoung
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.471-479
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    • 2011
  • The velocity horizontal response spectra using the observed ground motions from the recent 5 macro earthquakes, equal to or larger than 4.8 in magnitude, around Korean Peninsula were analysed and then were compared to the acceleration horizontal response spectra, seismic design response spectra (Reg Guide 1.60), applied to the domestic nuclear power plants, and finally the Korean Standard Design Response Spectrum for general structures and buildings. 102 velocity horizontal ground motions, including NS and EW components, were used for velocity horizontal response spectra and then normalized with respect to the peak velocity value of each ground motion. First, the results showed that velocity horizontal response spectra have larger values at the range of medium natural period, but acceleration horizontal response spectra have larger values at the range of short natural periods. Secondly, the results also showed that velocity horizontal response spectra exceed Reg. Guide 1.60 for longer natural periods bands less than 6-7 Hz. Finally, the results were also compared to the Korean Standard Response Spectrum for the 3 different soil types(SC, SD, and SE soil type) and showed that velocity horizontal response spectra revealed much higher values for the frequency bands below 1.5(SC), 2.0(SD), and 3.0(SE) seconds, respectively, than the Korean Standard Response Spectrum. The results suggest that the fact that acceleration, velocity, and displacement horizontal response spectra have larger values at the range of short, medium, and long natural periods, respectively, can be applied consistently to those form domestic ground motion, especially, the velocity ground motion. Information on response spectrum at such medium range periods can be very important since the domestic design of buildings and structures emphasizes recently medium and long natural periods than short one due to increased super high-rise buildings.

Behavioral Mechanism of Hybrid Model of Soil-nailing and Compression Anchor (쏘일네일링과 앵커가 결합된 하이브리드 공법의 거동 메커니즘)

  • Seo, Hyung-Joon;Kim, Hyun-Rae;Jeong, Nam-Soo;Lee, In-Mo
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.26 no.7
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    • pp.117-133
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    • 2010
  • A hybrid system of soil-nailing and compression anchor is proposed in this paper; the system is composed of an anchor bar (installed at the tip) with two PC strands and a steel bar. After drilling a hole, installing proposed hybrid systems, and filling the hole with grouting material, prestress is applied to the anchor bar to restrict the deformation at the head and/or to prevent shallow slope failures. However, since the elongation rate of PC strand is much larger than that of steel bar, yield at the steel bar will occur much earlier than at the PC strand. It means that the yield load of the hybrid system will be overestimated if we simply add yield loads of the two - anchor bar and PC strands. It might be needed to try to match the yielding time of the two materials by applying the prestress to the anchor bar. It means that the main purpose of applying prestress to the anchor bar should be two-fold: to restrict the deformation at the nail head; and more importantly, to maximize the design load of the hybrid system by utilizing load transfer mechanism that transfers the prestress applied at the tip to the head through anchor bar. In order to study the load transfer mechanism in a systematic way, in-situ pullout tests were performed with the following conditions: soil-nailing only; hybrid system with the variation of prestress stresses from 0 kN to 196 kN. It was found that the prestress applied to the anchor system will induce the compressive stress to the steel bar; it will result in decrease in the slope of load-displacement curve of the steel bar. Then, the elongation at which the steel bar will reach yield stress might become similar to that of PC strands. By taking advantage of prestress to match elongations at yield, the pullout design load of the hybrid system can be increased up to twice that of the soil-nailing system.

The movement history of the southern part of the Yangsan Fault Zone interpreted from the geometric and kinematic characteristics of the Sinheung Fault, Eonyang, Gyeongsang Basin, Korea (언양 신흥단층의 기하학적.운동학적 특성으로부터 해석된 경상분지 양산단층대 남부의 단층운동사)

  • Kang, Ji-Hoon;Ryoo, Chung-Ryul
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.19-30
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    • 2009
  • The main fault of Yangsan Fault Zone (YFZ) and Quaternary fault were found in a trench section with NW-SE direction at an entrance of the Sinheung village in the northern Eonyang, Ulsan, Korea. We interpreted the movement history of the southern part of the YFZ from the geometric and kinematic characteristics of basement rock's fault of the YFZ (Sinheung Fault) and Quaternary fault (Quaternary Sinheung Fault) investigated at the trench section. The trench outcrop consists mainly of Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of Hayang Group and volcanic rocks of Yucheon Group which lie in fault contact and Quaternary deposits which unconformably overlie these basement rocks. This study suggests that the movement history of the southern part of the YFZ can be explained at least by two different strike-slip movements, named as D1 and D2 events, and then two different dip-slip movements, named as D3 and D4 events. (1) D1 event: a sinistral strike-slip movement which caused the bedding of sedimentary rocks to be high-angled toward the main fault of the YFZ. (2) D2 event: a dextral strike-slip movement slipped along the high-angled beddings as fault surfaces. The main characteristic structural elements are predominant sub-horizontal slickenlines and sub-vertical fault foliations which show a NNE trend. The event formed the main fault rocks of the YFZ. (3) D3 event: a conjugate reverse-slip movement slipped along fault surfaces which trend (E)NE and moderately dip (S)SE or (N)NW. The slickenlines, which plunge in the dip direction of fault surfaces, overprint the previous sub-horizontal slickenlines. The fault is characterized by S-C fabrics superimposed on the D2 fault gouges, fault surfaces showing ramp and flat geometry, asymmetric and drag folds and collapse structures accompanied with it. The event dispersed the orientation of the main fault surface of the YFZ. (4) D4 event: a Quaternary reverse-slip movement showing a displacement of several centimeters with S-C fabrics on the Quternary deposits. The D4 fault surfaces are developed along the extensions of the D3 fault surfaces of basement rocks, like the other Quaternary faults within the YFZ. This indicates that these faults were formed under the same compression of (N)NW-(S)SE direction.

Chest CT Parameters to Predict the Major Adverse Events in Acute Submassive Pulmonary Embolism (혈역학적으로 안정된 폐색전증 환자에서의 임상적 악화를 예측하는 전산화 단층촬영상 소견)

  • Jung, Sang-Ku;Kim, Won-Young;Lee, Choong-Wook;Seo, Dong-Woo;Lee, Youn-Sun;Lee, Jae-Ho;Oh, Bum-Jin;Kim, Won;Lim, Kyoung-Soo;Hong, Sang-Bum;Lim, Chae-Man;Koh, Youn-Suck
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.69 no.3
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    • pp.184-190
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    • 2010
  • Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the prognostic significance of chest computed tomographic (CT) parameters in acute submassive pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods: Between January 2006 and December 2009, 268 consecutive patients with acute submassive PE that was confirmed by chest CT with pulmonary angiography in emergency room were studied. One experienced radiologist measured CT parameters and judged the presence of right ventricular dysfunction. CT parameters were analyzed to determine their ability to predict a major adverse event (MAE). Results: There were 220 patients included and 61 (27.7%) had MAE. Left ventricular and right ventricular maximum minor axis ($36.4{\pm}8.0$ vs. $41.7{\pm}7.4$, p<0.01; $45.7{\pm}9.4$ vs. $41.5{\pm}7.6$, p<0.01), superior vena cava diameter ($19.2{\pm}3.4$ vs. $18.0{\pm}3.4$, p=0.02), azygos vein diameter ($10.0{\pm}2.2$ vs. $9.2{\pm}2.3$, p=0.02), septal displacement (19 vs. 18, p<0.01) were significantly higher in MAE group than in no MAE group. Patients with MAE had high right ventricular/left ventricular dimension ratio (RV/LV ratio) compared to patients without MAE ($1.34{\pm}0.48$ vs. $1.03{\pm}0.28$, p<0.01). The most useful cut-off value of RV/LV ratio for MAE was 1.3 and the area under the curve was 0.71 (0.62~0.79). Conclusion: RV/LV ratio on chest CT was a significant predictor of submassive PE related shock, intubation, in-hospital mortality, thrombolysis, thrombectomy within 30 days.