• Title, Summary, Keyword: Distance Learning

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Visualization of Korean Speech Based on the Distance of Acoustic Features (음성특징의 거리에 기반한 한국어 발음의 시각화)

  • Pok, Gou-Chol
    • The Journal of Korea Institute of Information, Electronics, and Communication Technology
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.197-205
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    • 2020
  • Korean language has the characteristics that the pronunciation of phoneme units such as vowels and consonants are fixed and the pronunciation associated with a notation does not change, so that foreign learners can approach rather easily Korean language. However, when one pronounces words, phrases, or sentences, the pronunciation changes in a manner of a wide variation and complexity at the boundaries of syllables, and the association of notation and pronunciation does not hold any more. Consequently, it is very difficult for foreign learners to study Korean standard pronunciations. Despite these difficulties, it is believed that systematic analysis of pronunciation errors for Korean words is possible according to the advantageous observations that the relationship between Korean notations and pronunciations can be described as a set of firm rules without exceptions unlike other languages including English. In this paper, we propose a visualization framework which shows the differences between standard pronunciations and erratic ones as quantitative measures on the computer screen. Previous researches only show color representation and 3D graphics of speech properties, or an animated view of changing shapes of lips and mouth cavity. Moreover, the features used in the analysis are only point data such as the average of a speech range. In this study, we propose a method which can directly use the time-series data instead of using summary or distorted data. This was realized by using the deep learning-based technique which combines Self-organizing map, variational autoencoder model, and Markov model, and we achieved a superior performance enhancement compared to the method using the point-based data.

Dental Hygienists' Turnover Intention and its Related Factors (치과위생사의 이직요인에 대한 조사연구)

  • Yoon, Mi-Sook;Lee, Kyung-Hee;Choi, Mi-Sook
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.11-17
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study was to help prevent the turnover of competent dental hygienists in a bid to boost the efficiency of personnel management for dental health care workers and provide higher-quality oral health services. After relevant literature and data were reviewed, a survey was conducted on dental hygienists, who worked at dental institutes, for approximately four months from September to December 2004 to identify what affected their turnover. The findings of the study were as below: 1. Regarding turnover experience, 39.7 percent of the dental hygienists investigated had such an experience. As to turnover frequency, those who took up another employment once made up the largest group(28.2%), followed by twice(8.0%) and three times(2.9%). The most dominant turnover reason was working conditions(66.7%), followed by seeking being hired by larger institutes(36.2%), pay(21.7%), relationship with dentists(11.6%) and commuting distance(11.6%). 2. As for their hope for turnover, 82.8 percent hoped to take up another employment, and working conditions were cited as the most common reason(44.4%), followed by pay(33.3%), commuting distance(18.1%), marriage(13.2%), health/use of leisure time(11.8%), and commuting time(10.4%). 3. Concerning preference for future workplace, 38.5 percent, the largest group, wanted to work at public health clinics. As to a preferred term of working as dental hygienists, 50.0 percent, the greatest group, hoped to serve as dental hygienists until they are financially secure. 34.5 percent, the second largest group, intended to keep working until they reach the age limit. In regard to their responsibility for family economy, 47.7 percent, the greatest percentage, shouldered the partial responsibility for that, and 31.6 percent assumed no responsibility. 4. As to their intention to quit working as dental hygienists, 61.5 percent were willing to do that, and marriage(29.0%) was singled out as the most frequent reason, followed by working conditions(27.1%), child birth(22.4%), health/housework(18.7%), pay(15.9%) and learning/use of free time(15.0%).

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A New Approach to Automatic Keyword Generation Using Inverse Vector Space Model (키워드 자동 생성에 대한 새로운 접근법: 역 벡터공간모델을 이용한 키워드 할당 방법)

  • Cho, Won-Chin;Rho, Sang-Kyu;Yun, Ji-Young Agnes;Park, Jin-Soo
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.103-122
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    • 2011
  • Recently, numerous documents have been made available electronically. Internet search engines and digital libraries commonly return query results containing hundreds or even thousands of documents. In this situation, it is virtually impossible for users to examine complete documents to determine whether they might be useful for them. For this reason, some on-line documents are accompanied by a list of keywords specified by the authors in an effort to guide the users by facilitating the filtering process. In this way, a set of keywords is often considered a condensed version of the whole document and therefore plays an important role for document retrieval, Web page retrieval, document clustering, summarization, text mining, and so on. Since many academic journals ask the authors to provide a list of five or six keywords on the first page of an article, keywords are most familiar in the context of journal articles. However, many other types of documents could not benefit from the use of keywords, including Web pages, email messages, news reports, magazine articles, and business papers. Although the potential benefit is large, the implementation itself is the obstacle; manually assigning keywords to all documents is a daunting task, or even impractical in that it is extremely tedious and time-consuming requiring a certain level of domain knowledge. Therefore, it is highly desirable to automate the keyword generation process. There are mainly two approaches to achieving this aim: keyword assignment approach and keyword extraction approach. Both approaches use machine learning methods and require, for training purposes, a set of documents with keywords already attached. In the former approach, there is a given set of vocabulary, and the aim is to match them to the texts. In other words, the keywords assignment approach seeks to select the words from a controlled vocabulary that best describes a document. Although this approach is domain dependent and is not easy to transfer and expand, it can generate implicit keywords that do not appear in a document. On the other hand, in the latter approach, the aim is to extract keywords with respect to their relevance in the text without prior vocabulary. In this approach, automatic keyword generation is treated as a classification task, and keywords are commonly extracted based on supervised learning techniques. Thus, keyword extraction algorithms classify candidate keywords in a document into positive or negative examples. Several systems such as Extractor and Kea were developed using keyword extraction approach. Most indicative words in a document are selected as keywords for that document and as a result, keywords extraction is limited to terms that appear in the document. Therefore, keywords extraction cannot generate implicit keywords that are not included in a document. According to the experiment results of Turney, about 64% to 90% of keywords assigned by the authors can be found in the full text of an article. Inversely, it also means that 10% to 36% of the keywords assigned by the authors do not appear in the article, which cannot be generated through keyword extraction algorithms. Our preliminary experiment result also shows that 37% of keywords assigned by the authors are not included in the full text. This is the reason why we have decided to adopt the keyword assignment approach. In this paper, we propose a new approach for automatic keyword assignment namely IVSM(Inverse Vector Space Model). The model is based on a vector space model. which is a conventional information retrieval model that represents documents and queries by vectors in a multidimensional space. IVSM generates an appropriate keyword set for a specific document by measuring the distance between the document and the keyword sets. The keyword assignment process of IVSM is as follows: (1) calculating the vector length of each keyword set based on each keyword weight; (2) preprocessing and parsing a target document that does not have keywords; (3) calculating the vector length of the target document based on the term frequency; (4) measuring the cosine similarity between each keyword set and the target document; and (5) generating keywords that have high similarity scores. Two keyword generation systems were implemented applying IVSM: IVSM system for Web-based community service and stand-alone IVSM system. Firstly, the IVSM system is implemented in a community service for sharing knowledge and opinions on current trends such as fashion, movies, social problems, and health information. The stand-alone IVSM system is dedicated to generating keywords for academic papers, and, indeed, it has been tested through a number of academic papers including those published by the Korean Association of Shipping and Logistics, the Korea Research Academy of Distribution Information, the Korea Logistics Society, the Korea Logistics Research Association, and the Korea Port Economic Association. We measured the performance of IVSM by the number of matches between the IVSM-generated keywords and the author-assigned keywords. According to our experiment, the precisions of IVSM applied to Web-based community service and academic journals were 0.75 and 0.71, respectively. The performance of both systems is much better than that of baseline systems that generate keywords based on simple probability. Also, IVSM shows comparable performance to Extractor that is a representative system of keyword extraction approach developed by Turney. As electronic documents increase, we expect that IVSM proposed in this paper can be applied to many electronic documents in Web-based community and digital library.

Functional recovery after transplantation of mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in immature rats (저산소 허혈 뇌 손상을 유발시킨 미성숙 흰쥐에서 마우스 골수 기원 중간엽 줄기 세포 이식 후 기능 회복)

  • Choi, Wooksun;Shin, Hye Kyung;Eun, So-Hee;Kang, Hoon Chul;Park, Sung Won;Yoo, Kee Hwan;Hong, Young Sook;Lee, Joo Won;Eun, Baik-Lin
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.52 no.7
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    • pp.824-831
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    • 2009
  • Purpose : We aimed to investigate the efficacy of and functional recovery after intracerebral transplantation of different doses of mouse mesenchymal stem cells (mMSCs) in immature rat brain with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Methods : Postnatal 7-days-old Sprague-Dawley rats, which had undergone unilateral HI operation, were given stereotaxic intracerebral injections of either vehicle or mMSCs and then tested for locomotory activity in the 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th week of the stem cell injection. In the 8th week, Morris water maze test was performed to evaluate the learning and memory dysfunction for a week. Results : In the open field test, no differences were observed in the total distance/the total duration (F=0.412, P=0.745) among the 4 study groups. In the invisible-platform Morris water maze test, significant differences were observed in escape latency (F=380.319, P<0.01) among the 4 groups. The escape latency in the control group significantly differed from that in the high-dose mMSC and/or sham group on training days 2-5 (Scheffe's test, P<0.05) and became prominent with time progression (F=6.034, P<0.01). In spatial probe trial and visible-platform Morris water maze test, no significant improvement was observed in the rats that had undergone transplantation. Conclusion : Although the rats that received a high dose of mMSCs showed significant recovery in the learning-related behavioral test only, our data support that mMSCs may be used as a valuable source to improve outcome in HIE. Further study is necessary to identify the optimal dose that shows maximal efficacy for HIE treatment.

Spatial Composition and Landscape Characteristics of Shimwon-Pavilion Garden in Chilgok - Focusing on 'Shimwon-pavilion Poem of 25 Sceneries' and 「Shimwon-pavilion Soosukgi(心遠亭水石記)」 - (칠곡 심원정원림의 공간구성과 경관특성 - '심원정 25영(心遠亭 二十五詠)'과 「심원정수석기(心遠亭水石記)」를 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Hwa-Ok;Park, Yool-Jin;Rho, Jae-Hyun;Shin, Sang-Seop;Cho, Ho-Hyeon
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.27-34
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    • 2016
  • The results of investigation on the spatial composition and landscape characteristics of Shimwon-pavilion garden built and enjoyed by Jo Byeong-sun in 1937 during the period of Japanese colonialism based on 'Shimwon-pavilion Soosukgii(水石記)' and 'Shimwon-pavilion Poem of 25 Sceneries(二十五詠)' contained in 'Anthology of Giheon(寄軒)' are as follows. 1. Shimwon-pavilion garden is assumed as Byeol-Seo garden based on the planning background and contents of Gimun and the observations on spot. By its location, it is classified as 'Planted forest' with a pine forest in the north and 'Byeol-Seo of mooring type' with Guyacheon flowing in the garden. It is about 400m away from the main house in the straight-line distance. 2. The meaning and attributes of reclusiveness are well represented in the 'screening structures' all around Shimwon-pavilion garden with Hakrimsan, a Gasan(假山) in the north, vines on Chwibyeong(翠屛) in the east and west, Eunbyeong(隱屛) of stone walls along with Guyacheon in the south, which shows the spirit of Giheon who adored the Taoistic life. 3. Shimwon-pavilion garden, located in the Songrimsa, a temple of thousand years, is a place of consilience where Buddhism was accepted, Taoistic life was pursued with Tao Yuan-ming's philosophy regarding rural areas and romantic sensibilities of Li Po, called poem master(詩仙), the confucian values of Zhu Xi were realized. Giheon intended to build and enjoy this place as a microcosm and shelther where he unfolded his own view of learning and cultivated his mind. 4. 25 sceneries on Shimwon-pavilion consist of 5 sceneries in the space of pavilion(architecture) and 20 sceneries in the outer garden. First, 5 sceneries consist of ancillary rooms for various uses, including Jeongunru, Amsushil, Wiryujae, Iyeoldang, and Jeong-Gak Shimwon-pavilion embracing them, which shows that Shimwon-pavilion is a place to foster younger students. And 20 scenary is divided into 9 sceneries on the natural spaces and 11 artificially created facilities. 9 sceneries are engraved on the rocks as described in 'Seokgyeonggi'. 5. 4 sceneries of the indoor scenery lexemes(亭閣 心遠亭 怡悅堂 停雲樓 闇修室) were intended to be recognized by the framed pictures, 5 places among the scenery lexemes in garden(龜巖 醒石 隱屛 兩忘臺 東槃) by letters carved on the rocks, and 8 places(君子沼 杞泉 天光雲影橋 芳園 槐岡 柳堤 石扉 東翠屛) by sign stones, but signs of 8 sceneries are not currently identified because they have been be swept away and demolished. 6. A variety of plant landscapes with various meanings and water landscape with various types are contained in 25 sceneries - Sophora symbolizing a tree for scholar in Gehgang(槐岡), Willow symbolizing Tao Yuanming and continued vitality in Yooje(柳堤), Boxthorn symbolizing family togetherness in spring(杞泉), vines and herbal plants and waterfalls(隱瀑), shallow pond(君子沼), pond(湯池), water hole(杞泉), water flowing in the middle of rock(盤陀石), water flowing between the rocks(水口巖). 7. While Shimwon-pavilion garden is a garden near the water, the active involvements with 11 sceneries directly built is distinguished. The other pavilion gardens are faithful in engraving the names by setting the scenery lexemes of the nature-oriented Gyeong(景) and Gok(曲) near and far, but Shimwon-pavilion garden is a garden for active learning(修景) with the spaces built to match with the beautiful nature and to show the depths of space off.

A Study on the Effective Independent Study of Nursing Student (간호학생의 효과적인 자율학습을 위한 조사연구)

  • 김광주;이향련
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.16-42
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    • 1978
  • This survey was made for a month starting from November 15 to December 15, 1977 covering 711 students taking the junior. (3rd-yea.) and the senior. (4th-year) at nine college of nursing in Seoul concerning their perception and Attitude toward the profession of nursing, motive for the necessity of learning, environment of study, attitude of study and particulars relevant with study performance, particulars of library, references and reading, assignments and particulars of the degree of confidence for the learning achievement. Through the survey of the above Particulars, the following results were obtained by classifying all subject matters and by analysing motive of the selection of their course, awarding or not awarding of scholarships. 1. General characteristics: it was revealed that 406 students (57.1%) were attending at the junior. while 305 students (42.9%) were taking the senior. Thus, the total number was 711 and their average age was 21.4 years. Their dwelling category was; 73.9 percent of them resided at their parent's home, 214 students (30.1%) were awarded with scholarships. The reason to be attracted by nursing science was the possibility of continuing social life after graduation (43.5%). 2. Their perception and attitude toward the profession of nursing: According to the perception of profession by the students of each grade, students of the 4th grade showed comparatively strong conception. Also, students of the 4th grade showed more positive attitude in the purchase and reading of magazines relative with the science of nursing, in the reading of Code for Nurses and in their interest in the activity of nursing field. For the necessity of mission of nurse, 97.7 percent of the entire number of students covered responded to necessity. For the necessity of the particular humanity and particularity in the character of nurses, 95.8 percent of those students responded to necessity. By the each grade, students of the 4th grade showed more response. 3. As to professional field desired after completing the professional course: 57 percent of those students desired for clinician nurse while 55 percents desired for community health-nurse. 4. As to the environment of study: they were mostly satisfied with their present residential environment. However, they complained of inconvenience at their lecture-halls. Students of the 3rd grade showed more complain. As to their attitude toward the adjustment of environment of study, they showed a affirmative response. As to the opinion of factors which interfere with their study, comparatively strong response was showed in their scepticism in the science of nursing, insufficient comprehension in general learning, relation with professors n4 discrepancy in the method of study. According to opinions of students at each grade, students of the 4th grade showed more scepticism. 5. Particulars relative with their attitude and performance of study : As to their knowledge of the objectives of their study of subject, the majority was to study with a partial knowledge of the objectives of their study. As to the plan of study, a low percentage indicated management of routine life under regular scheduling. Students of the 4th grade responded to rather planned life. As to time spent in independent study, response to concentrated study when necessary was stronger than that to regular daily study. Students of the 4th grade showed stronger response to regular study than that of the 3rd grade. As to the contents of their note-taking, 67.4 percents of those students responded to such regulatory procedure performing in the lecture-hall as they listen to lectures. 17.3 percents of those students showed response to adding supplementary informations from references to what was entered in choir note-taking at their lecture-halls. 6. Particulars of library, references and reading books: As to receiving of instruction for the utilization of library and time of receiving such instruction 64.7 percents of those students had received such instruction. 66.7 percents of the those responded received such instruction at orientation conducted for freshmen. As to the convenience of the utilization of library, 49.9 percents of those students responded to convenience. However, students of the 3rd grade showed a much stronger response to inconvenience. As to the time of the utilization of library,92.5 percents of those students showed a response to occasional utilization for particular purpose than regular utilization. 53.2 percents of those students responded to ordinary in quantity that library have references. 34.2 percents of those students responded to insufficient. As to the particular relative with the method and field of reading: 53.5 percents of those students responded to intensive reading and was the majority. As to the reading field, fiction u as the majority. When read any books for their major, they usually rend Korean text-b, oks. 7. Particular relative with giving assignment: All respondents were well aware of the objectives of giving home tasks. As to the attitude toward assignments and performing home tasks, 54.8 percents of those students to making ostentatious study because of an excessive quantity of assignments imposed. For performing assignment, they showed comparatively positive response. Also, 52.2 percents of those students responded that they usually submitted complected assignment with references. 8. As to motive to realize the necessity of study : 55.6 percents of those students responded that they realized such necessity in communication with patients when they were engaged in clinical practice. Also, 8.6, the lowest percents of those students responded that they realized such necessity in the course of conversation with nurses when they were engaged in clinical practice. 9. As to the determination of their confidence in the performance of study relative with clinical experience: They showed a general inclination of having in nursing. The major response was that they came to well comprehend the patients families. the lowest response was that they could apply what was learned at lecture-hall to practice. This response incidentally showed the distance the lecture-hall and practical study. In general items, students of the 4th grade showed more favorable response than students of the 3rd grade and there was a significant difference. 10. As to the perception and attitude toward profession according to the motive of selecting the nursing science : Those who selected the nursing voluntarily showed stronger conception than those who selected the nursing through indirect influence. However, there was no significant difference on this point. Only there was a remarkable difference in the reading of Code for Nurses. 11. Those who showed a stronger conception in the profession of nursing according to the motives of attractive nursing science indicated a strong will and ability to manage stable life and comparatively strong response was shown in the management of good home life because of the good adaptability of the science to their character. This group showed a strong conception of the profession than those who responded that they prefer this profession out of a longing for the work of a hospital and for the easy obtaining of opportunity to immigrate to over seas and for economic cause and for high school grade. There was significant difference between these two groups, 12. As to the conception and attitude toward the profession of nursing according to benefits by scholarships, those who were benefitted by scholarship showed stronger conception of profession than those who did not receive scholarship and there was a remarkable difference between these two categories. However, there was no remarkable difference between these two categories in the extent of interest of the activities of nursing fields and in the reading of Code for Nurses. 13. As activation for study according to the benefits of scholarships, those who were benefitted by scholarships showed stronger response to the motive for study comparing with those who receive. 14. As to tile field of reading according to the benefits by scholarships, those who received scholarships tended to read autobiographies and essayers to a considerable extent. Those who did not receive scholarships tended to read novels. Those who received scholarships more read nursing boots than those who did not receive scholarships. 15. As to the attitude of study and doing of assignment according to benefits of scholarships, those who received scholarships managed a favorable life with schedules for study, More students of receiving scholarship showed a regular study for more than one hour per day. Also, in the method of doing home tasks, more students of receiving scholarship showed reference to relative books frequently for the submission of completed assignments.

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COMPARATIVE STUDY UPON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF WRITING BETWEEN THE PATIENTS WITH WRITING DISABILITIES AND NORMAL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS (쓰기 장애 환자와 정상 초등학교 학생의 쓰기 특성 비교)

  • Cho, Soo-Churl;Shin, Sung-Woong
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.51-70
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    • 2001
  • Characteristics of handwriting were investigated and compared between the patients with writing disabilities and normal elementary school pupils. Generally, the heights of the letters of the patients were significantly larger than those of normal children, and letters of the patients were more sparsely distributed than those of controls. The distance between the words were significantly reduced in the patients’ writings, which indicated that patients had much more problems of space-leaving than normal pupils. Letter heights differences were significant across all grades in the patients and normal controls. The heights of the letters decreased as they grew older, and the slope of the decrements were more steeper in normal girls(r=-0.45) than girls with writing disabilities(r=-0.16). Sex differences were found in the letter spacings in low grades(grades 1, 2), that is, the distances between the letters were significantly narrower in the male patients than normal boys in these grades, and the differences were almost indiscriminating in grades 3 through 5, and finally, in sixth grade, letter spacings were signifycantly broader in normal boys than male dysgraphics. In girls, letter spacings were significantly broader in the patients across all grades. These findings supports the hypothesis that male and female writings were qualitatively different and that distinct mechanisms served in boys and girls dysgraphics. Across all grades and sexes, spaces between the words of the patients were significantly broader than normal pupils, which suggested that space-leaving between the words was important in Korean writings. There was trend that letter spacings and word spacings decreased across grades, but in girls, no correlations between the letter spacings and grades were found. Correlation analyses revealed that letter heights and letter spacings had mild correlation(r=0.11-0.15), and that letter spacings and word spacings had robust correlation(r=0.99). Phonological errors were mostly found in last phoneme(Jong-seong), especially double-phoneme(ㄳ, ㄵ, ㄶ, ㄺ, ㄻ, ㄼ, ㄾ, ㄿ, ㅀ, ㅄ), and in the case the sound values changed due to assimilations of phonemes. Semantic errors were rare in both groups. Space-leaving errors were correlated with phonological errors, and more frequent in boys than girls. In conclusion, significant differences existed in the letter heights, letter spacings, word spacings, and frequencies of phonological errors and spaceleaving errors between the patients with writing disabilities and normal pupils. The characteristics of writings changed across grades and the developmental profiles were somewhat quantitatively different between the groups. The differences became obvious from the second-third grades.

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Exploring the Factors Influencing on the Accuracy of Self-Reported Responses in Affective Assessment of Science (과학과 자기보고식 정의적 영역 평가의 정확성에 영향을 주는 요소 탐색)

  • Chung, Sue-Im;Shin, Donghee
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.363-377
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    • 2019
  • This study reveals the aspects of subjectivity in the test results in a science-specific aspect when assessing science-related affective characteristic through self-report items. The science-specific response was defined as the response that appear due to student's recognition of nature or characteristics of science when his or her concepts or perceptions about science were attempted to measure. We have searched for cases where science-specific responses especially interfere with the measurement objective or accurate self-reports. The results of the error due to the science-specific factors were derived from the quantitative data of 649 students in the 1st and 2nd grade of high school and the qualitative data of 44 students interviewed. The perspective of science and the characteristics of science that students internalize from everyday life and science learning experiences interact with the items that form the test tool. As a result, it was found that there were obstacles to accurate self-report in three aspects: characteristics of science, personal science experience, and science in tool. In terms of the characteristic of science in relation to the essential aspect of science, students respond to items regardless of the measuring constructs, because of their views and perceived characteristics of science based on subjective recognition. The personal science experience factor representing the learner side consists of student's science motivation, interaction with science experience, and perception of science and life. Finally, from the instrumental point of view, science in tool leads to terminological confusion due to the uncertainty of science concepts and results in a distance from accurate self-report eventually. Implications from the results of the study are as follows: review of inclusion of science-specific factors, precaution to clarify the concept of measurement, check of science specificity factors at the development stage, and efforts to cross the boundaries between everyday science and school science.

Comparative analysis of RN-BSN Program in Korea and U. S. A. (간호학사 편입학제도의 교과과정 비교분석)

  • Lee Ok-Ja;Kim Hyun-Sil
    • The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education
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    • v.3
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    • pp.99-116
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    • 1997
  • In response of the increasing demand for professional degree in nursing, some university in Korea offers RN-BSN program for R. N. from diploma in nursing. However, RN-BSN program in Korea is in formative period. Therefore, the purpose of this survey study is for the comparative analysis of RN-BSN curriculum in Korea and U.S.A. In this study, subjects consisted of 18 department of nursing in university and 5 RN-BSN programs in Korea and 18 department of nursing in university and 12 RN-BSN programs in U.S.A. For earn the degree of Bachelor of Science in Nursing, the student earns 134 of mean credits in U.S.A., whereas 150.3 of mean credits in Korea. The mean credit for clinical pratice is 30.1 in U.S.A., whereas 23.9 in Korea. Students are assigned to individually planned clinical experiences under the direction of a preceptor in U.S.A. In RN-BSN program, total mean credits through lecture and clinical practice for earn the degree of BSN is 35.5(lecture : 27.7, practice ; 7.8)in U.S.A., whereas,48.1 (lecture;42.1, practice;6.0) in Korea. RN-BSN program can be taken on a full-or-part time basis in U.S.A., whereas didn't in Korea. Especially, emphasis is place on the advanced nursing practicum that focus on the role of the professional nurse in providing health care to individuals, families, and groups in community setting in U.S.A. 27.7 of mean credits was earned through lecture in U.S.A., whereas 42.1 of mean credits in Korea. It means that RN-BSN program in Korea is the lesser development in teaching method and appraisal method than in U.S.A. Students of RN-BSN program in U.S.A. can earns credit through CLEP, NLN achievement test, portfolio review session etc as well as lecture. Therefore, the authors suggests some recommendations for the development of curriculum of RN-BSN program in Korea based on comparative analysis of RN-BSN curricula in U.S.A. and Korea. 1. The curriculum of RN-BSN Program in nursing was required to do some alterations. Nursing care, today, is complex and ever changing. According to change of public need, RN-BSN curriculum intensified primary care program in community setting, geriatric nursing, marketing skill, computer language. 2. The various and new methods of earning credit should be developed. That is, the students will earn credits through the transfer of previous nursing college credits, accredited examination of university, advanced placement examination, portfolio review session, case study, report, self-directed learning and so on. Flexible teaching place should ile offered. 3. Flexible teaching place should be offered. The RN-BSN curriculum should accommodate each RN student's geographical needs and school/work schedule. Therefore, the university should search a variety of teaching places and the RN students can obtain their degrees comfortably throughout the teaching place such as lecture room inside the health care agency and establishment of the branch school in each student's residence area. 4. The RN-BSN program should offer a long distance education to place-bound RN student in many parts of Korea. That is, from the main office of university, the RN-BSN courses are delivered to many areas by Internet, EdNet (satellite telecommunication) and other non-traditional methods. 5. For allowing RN student to take nursing courses, program length should be various, depending upon the student's study/work schedule. That is, the various term systems such as semester, three terms, quarter systems and the student's status like full time or part time should be considered. Therefore, the student can take advantage of the many other educational and professional opportunities, making them available during the school year.

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Elementary Schooler's Recognition and Understanding of the Scientific Units in Daily Life (초등학교 학생들의 생활 속 과학단위 인식과 이해)

  • Kim, Sung-Kyu
    • Journal of Science Education
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.235-250
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    • 2012
  • This paper aims to find out whether or not elementary school students recognize and understand scientific units that they encounter in their everyday life. To select appropriate units for the survey, first, scientific units in elementary textbooks of science and other science related subjects were analyzed. Then it was examined how these units were related to the learners' daily life. The participants in the current survey were 320 elementary school 6th graders. A questionnaire consisted of 11 units of science, such as kg for mass, km for distance, L for volume, V for voltage, s for time, $^{\circ}C$ for temperature, km/h for speed, kcal for heat, % for percentage, W for electric power, pH for acidity, which can often be seen and used in daily life. The students were asked to do the following four tasks, (1) to see presented pictures and select appropriate scientific units, (2) to write reasons for choosing the units, (3) to answer what the units are used for, and (4) to check where to find the units. The data were analyzed in terms of the percentage of the students who seemed to well recognize and understand the units, using SPSS 17.0 statistical program. The results are as follows: Regarding the general use of the units, it was revealed that almost the same units were repeated in science and other subject textbooks from the same grade. With an increase of the students' grade more difficult units were used. As for the use of each unit, it was found that they seemed to relatively well understand what these units kg, km, L, $^{\circ}C$, kcal, km/h, and W stand for, showing more than 91% right. However, the units of V, s, in particular, %, and pH did not seem to be understood. With respect to the recognition of the units, most students did not recognize such units as L for volume and pH for acidity, probably because the units are difficult at the elementary level in comparison to other scientific units. The students indicated that schools were the best place where they could learn and find scientific units related to life, followed by shops/marts, newspapers/broadcasting, streets/roads, homes, and others in that order. The results show that scientific unit learning should be conducted in a systematic way at school and that teachers can play a major role in improving students' understanding and use of the units.

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