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Spatial Composition and Landscape Characteristics of Shimwon-Pavilion Garden in Chilgok - Focusing on 'Shimwon-pavilion Poem of 25 Sceneries' and 「Shimwon-pavilion Soosukgi(心遠亭水石記)」 - (칠곡 심원정원림의 공간구성과 경관특성 - '심원정 25영(心遠亭 二十五詠)'과 「심원정수석기(心遠亭水石記)」를 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Hwa-Ok;Park, Yool-Jin;Rho, Jae-Hyun;Shin, Sang-Seop;Cho, Ho-Hyeon
    • Journal of Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.27-34
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    • 2016
  • The results of investigation on the spatial composition and landscape characteristics of Shimwon-pavilion garden built and enjoyed by Jo Byeong-sun in 1937 during the period of Japanese colonialism based on 'Shimwon-pavilion Soosukgii(水石記)' and 'Shimwon-pavilion Poem of 25 Sceneries(二十五詠)' contained in 'Anthology of Giheon(寄軒)' are as follows. 1. Shimwon-pavilion garden is assumed as Byeol-Seo garden based on the planning background and contents of Gimun and the observations on spot. By its location, it is classified as 'Planted forest' with a pine forest in the north and 'Byeol-Seo of mooring type' with Guyacheon flowing in the garden. It is about 400m away from the main house in the straight-line distance. 2. The meaning and attributes of reclusiveness are well represented in the 'screening structures' all around Shimwon-pavilion garden with Hakrimsan, a Gasan(假山) in the north, vines on Chwibyeong(翠屛) in the east and west, Eunbyeong(隱屛) of stone walls along with Guyacheon in the south, which shows the spirit of Giheon who adored the Taoistic life. 3. Shimwon-pavilion garden, located in the Songrimsa, a temple of thousand years, is a place of consilience where Buddhism was accepted, Taoistic life was pursued with Tao Yuan-ming's philosophy regarding rural areas and romantic sensibilities of Li Po, called poem master(詩仙), the confucian values of Zhu Xi were realized. Giheon intended to build and enjoy this place as a microcosm and shelther where he unfolded his own view of learning and cultivated his mind. 4. 25 sceneries on Shimwon-pavilion consist of 5 sceneries in the space of pavilion(architecture) and 20 sceneries in the outer garden. First, 5 sceneries consist of ancillary rooms for various uses, including Jeongunru, Amsushil, Wiryujae, Iyeoldang, and Jeong-Gak Shimwon-pavilion embracing them, which shows that Shimwon-pavilion is a place to foster younger students. And 20 scenary is divided into 9 sceneries on the natural spaces and 11 artificially created facilities. 9 sceneries are engraved on the rocks as described in 'Seokgyeonggi'. 5. 4 sceneries of the indoor scenery lexemes(亭閣 心遠亭 怡悅堂 停雲樓 闇修室) were intended to be recognized by the framed pictures, 5 places among the scenery lexemes in garden(龜巖 醒石 隱屛 兩忘臺 東槃) by letters carved on the rocks, and 8 places(君子沼 杞泉 天光雲影橋 芳園 槐岡 柳堤 石扉 東翠屛) by sign stones, but signs of 8 sceneries are not currently identified because they have been be swept away and demolished. 6. A variety of plant landscapes with various meanings and water landscape with various types are contained in 25 sceneries - Sophora symbolizing a tree for scholar in Gehgang(槐岡), Willow symbolizing Tao Yuanming and continued vitality in Yooje(柳堤), Boxthorn symbolizing family togetherness in spring(杞泉), vines and herbal plants and waterfalls(隱瀑), shallow pond(君子沼), pond(湯池), water hole(杞泉), water flowing in the middle of rock(盤陀石), water flowing between the rocks(水口巖). 7. While Shimwon-pavilion garden is a garden near the water, the active involvements with 11 sceneries directly built is distinguished. The other pavilion gardens are faithful in engraving the names by setting the scenery lexemes of the nature-oriented Gyeong(景) and Gok(曲) near and far, but Shimwon-pavilion garden is a garden for active learning(修景) with the spaces built to match with the beautiful nature and to show the depths of space off.

A Study on the Effective Independent Study of Nursing Student (간호학생의 효과적인 자율학습을 위한 조사연구)

  • 김광주;이향련
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.16-42
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    • 1978
  • This survey was made for a month starting from November 15 to December 15, 1977 covering 711 students taking the junior. (3rd-yea.) and the senior. (4th-year) at nine college of nursing in Seoul concerning their perception and Attitude toward the profession of nursing, motive for the necessity of learning, environment of study, attitude of study and particulars relevant with study performance, particulars of library, references and reading, assignments and particulars of the degree of confidence for the learning achievement. Through the survey of the above Particulars, the following results were obtained by classifying all subject matters and by analysing motive of the selection of their course, awarding or not awarding of scholarships. 1. General characteristics: it was revealed that 406 students (57.1%) were attending at the junior. while 305 students (42.9%) were taking the senior. Thus, the total number was 711 and their average age was 21.4 years. Their dwelling category was; 73.9 percent of them resided at their parent's home, 214 students (30.1%) were awarded with scholarships. The reason to be attracted by nursing science was the possibility of continuing social life after graduation (43.5%). 2. Their perception and attitude toward the profession of nursing: According to the perception of profession by the students of each grade, students of the 4th grade showed comparatively strong conception. Also, students of the 4th grade showed more positive attitude in the purchase and reading of magazines relative with the science of nursing, in the reading of Code for Nurses and in their interest in the activity of nursing field. For the necessity of mission of nurse, 97.7 percent of the entire number of students covered responded to necessity. For the necessity of the particular humanity and particularity in the character of nurses, 95.8 percent of those students responded to necessity. By the each grade, students of the 4th grade showed more response. 3. As to professional field desired after completing the professional course: 57 percent of those students desired for clinician nurse while 55 percents desired for community health-nurse. 4. As to the environment of study: they were mostly satisfied with their present residential environment. However, they complained of inconvenience at their lecture-halls. Students of the 3rd grade showed more complain. As to their attitude toward the adjustment of environment of study, they showed a affirmative response. As to the opinion of factors which interfere with their study, comparatively strong response was showed in their scepticism in the science of nursing, insufficient comprehension in general learning, relation with professors n4 discrepancy in the method of study. According to opinions of students at each grade, students of the 4th grade showed more scepticism. 5. Particulars relative with their attitude and performance of study : As to their knowledge of the objectives of their study of subject, the majority was to study with a partial knowledge of the objectives of their study. As to the plan of study, a low percentage indicated management of routine life under regular scheduling. Students of the 4th grade responded to rather planned life. As to time spent in independent study, response to concentrated study when necessary was stronger than that to regular daily study. Students of the 4th grade showed stronger response to regular study than that of the 3rd grade. As to the contents of their note-taking, 67.4 percents of those students responded to such regulatory procedure performing in the lecture-hall as they listen to lectures. 17.3 percents of those students showed response to adding supplementary informations from references to what was entered in choir note-taking at their lecture-halls. 6. Particulars of library, references and reading books: As to receiving of instruction for the utilization of library and time of receiving such instruction 64.7 percents of those students had received such instruction. 66.7 percents of the those responded received such instruction at orientation conducted for freshmen. As to the convenience of the utilization of library, 49.9 percents of those students responded to convenience. However, students of the 3rd grade showed a much stronger response to inconvenience. As to the time of the utilization of library,92.5 percents of those students showed a response to occasional utilization for particular purpose than regular utilization. 53.2 percents of those students responded to ordinary in quantity that library have references. 34.2 percents of those students responded to insufficient. As to the particular relative with the method and field of reading: 53.5 percents of those students responded to intensive reading and was the majority. As to the reading field, fiction u as the majority. When read any books for their major, they usually rend Korean text-b, oks. 7. Particular relative with giving assignment: All respondents were well aware of the objectives of giving home tasks. As to the attitude toward assignments and performing home tasks, 54.8 percents of those students to making ostentatious study because of an excessive quantity of assignments imposed. For performing assignment, they showed comparatively positive response. Also, 52.2 percents of those students responded that they usually submitted complected assignment with references. 8. As to motive to realize the necessity of study : 55.6 percents of those students responded that they realized such necessity in communication with patients when they were engaged in clinical practice. Also, 8.6, the lowest percents of those students responded that they realized such necessity in the course of conversation with nurses when they were engaged in clinical practice. 9. As to the determination of their confidence in the performance of study relative with clinical experience: They showed a general inclination of having in nursing. The major response was that they came to well comprehend the patients families. the lowest response was that they could apply what was learned at lecture-hall to practice. This response incidentally showed the distance the lecture-hall and practical study. In general items, students of the 4th grade showed more favorable response than students of the 3rd grade and there was a significant difference. 10. As to the perception and attitude toward profession according to the motive of selecting the nursing science : Those who selected the nursing voluntarily showed stronger conception than those who selected the nursing through indirect influence. However, there was no significant difference on this point. Only there was a remarkable difference in the reading of Code for Nurses. 11. Those who showed a stronger conception in the profession of nursing according to the motives of attractive nursing science indicated a strong will and ability to manage stable life and comparatively strong response was shown in the management of good home life because of the good adaptability of the science to their character. This group showed a strong conception of the profession than those who responded that they prefer this profession out of a longing for the work of a hospital and for the easy obtaining of opportunity to immigrate to over seas and for economic cause and for high school grade. There was significant difference between these two groups, 12. As to the conception and attitude toward the profession of nursing according to benefits by scholarships, those who were benefitted by scholarship showed stronger conception of profession than those who did not receive scholarship and there was a remarkable difference between these two categories. However, there was no remarkable difference between these two categories in the extent of interest of the activities of nursing fields and in the reading of Code for Nurses. 13. As activation for study according to the benefits of scholarships, those who were benefitted by scholarships showed stronger response to the motive for study comparing with those who receive. 14. As to tile field of reading according to the benefits by scholarships, those who received scholarships tended to read autobiographies and essayers to a considerable extent. Those who did not receive scholarships tended to read novels. Those who received scholarships more read nursing boots than those who did not receive scholarships. 15. As to the attitude of study and doing of assignment according to benefits of scholarships, those who received scholarships managed a favorable life with schedules for study, More students of receiving scholarship showed a regular study for more than one hour per day. Also, in the method of doing home tasks, more students of receiving scholarship showed reference to relative books frequently for the submission of completed assignments.

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COMPARATIVE STUDY UPON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF WRITING BETWEEN THE PATIENTS WITH WRITING DISABILITIES AND NORMAL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS (쓰기 장애 환자와 정상 초등학교 학생의 쓰기 특성 비교)

  • Cho, Soo-Churl;Shin, Sung-Woong
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.51-70
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    • 2001
  • Characteristics of handwriting were investigated and compared between the patients with writing disabilities and normal elementary school pupils. Generally, the heights of the letters of the patients were significantly larger than those of normal children, and letters of the patients were more sparsely distributed than those of controls. The distance between the words were significantly reduced in the patients’ writings, which indicated that patients had much more problems of space-leaving than normal pupils. Letter heights differences were significant across all grades in the patients and normal controls. The heights of the letters decreased as they grew older, and the slope of the decrements were more steeper in normal girls(r=-0.45) than girls with writing disabilities(r=-0.16). Sex differences were found in the letter spacings in low grades(grades 1, 2), that is, the distances between the letters were significantly narrower in the male patients than normal boys in these grades, and the differences were almost indiscriminating in grades 3 through 5, and finally, in sixth grade, letter spacings were signifycantly broader in normal boys than male dysgraphics. In girls, letter spacings were significantly broader in the patients across all grades. These findings supports the hypothesis that male and female writings were qualitatively different and that distinct mechanisms served in boys and girls dysgraphics. Across all grades and sexes, spaces between the words of the patients were significantly broader than normal pupils, which suggested that space-leaving between the words was important in Korean writings. There was trend that letter spacings and word spacings decreased across grades, but in girls, no correlations between the letter spacings and grades were found. Correlation analyses revealed that letter heights and letter spacings had mild correlation(r=0.11-0.15), and that letter spacings and word spacings had robust correlation(r=0.99). Phonological errors were mostly found in last phoneme(Jong-seong), especially double-phoneme(ㄳ, ㄵ, ㄶ, ㄺ, ㄻ, ㄼ, ㄾ, ㄿ, ㅀ, ㅄ), and in the case the sound values changed due to assimilations of phonemes. Semantic errors were rare in both groups. Space-leaving errors were correlated with phonological errors, and more frequent in boys than girls. In conclusion, significant differences existed in the letter heights, letter spacings, word spacings, and frequencies of phonological errors and spaceleaving errors between the patients with writing disabilities and normal pupils. The characteristics of writings changed across grades and the developmental profiles were somewhat quantitatively different between the groups. The differences became obvious from the second-third grades.

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Exploring the Factors Influencing on the Accuracy of Self-Reported Responses in Affective Assessment of Science (과학과 자기보고식 정의적 영역 평가의 정확성에 영향을 주는 요소 탐색)

  • Chung, Sue-Im;Shin, Donghee
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.363-377
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    • 2019
  • This study reveals the aspects of subjectivity in the test results in a science-specific aspect when assessing science-related affective characteristic through self-report items. The science-specific response was defined as the response that appear due to student's recognition of nature or characteristics of science when his or her concepts or perceptions about science were attempted to measure. We have searched for cases where science-specific responses especially interfere with the measurement objective or accurate self-reports. The results of the error due to the science-specific factors were derived from the quantitative data of 649 students in the 1st and 2nd grade of high school and the qualitative data of 44 students interviewed. The perspective of science and the characteristics of science that students internalize from everyday life and science learning experiences interact with the items that form the test tool. As a result, it was found that there were obstacles to accurate self-report in three aspects: characteristics of science, personal science experience, and science in tool. In terms of the characteristic of science in relation to the essential aspect of science, students respond to items regardless of the measuring constructs, because of their views and perceived characteristics of science based on subjective recognition. The personal science experience factor representing the learner side consists of student's science motivation, interaction with science experience, and perception of science and life. Finally, from the instrumental point of view, science in tool leads to terminological confusion due to the uncertainty of science concepts and results in a distance from accurate self-report eventually. Implications from the results of the study are as follows: review of inclusion of science-specific factors, precaution to clarify the concept of measurement, check of science specificity factors at the development stage, and efforts to cross the boundaries between everyday science and school science.

Comparative analysis of RN-BSN Program in Korea and U. S. A. (간호학사 편입학제도의 교과과정 비교분석)

  • Lee Ok-Ja;Kim Hyun-Sil
    • The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education
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    • v.3
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    • pp.99-116
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    • 1997
  • In response of the increasing demand for professional degree in nursing, some university in Korea offers RN-BSN program for R. N. from diploma in nursing. However, RN-BSN program in Korea is in formative period. Therefore, the purpose of this survey study is for the comparative analysis of RN-BSN curriculum in Korea and U.S.A. In this study, subjects consisted of 18 department of nursing in university and 5 RN-BSN programs in Korea and 18 department of nursing in university and 12 RN-BSN programs in U.S.A. For earn the degree of Bachelor of Science in Nursing, the student earns 134 of mean credits in U.S.A., whereas 150.3 of mean credits in Korea. The mean credit for clinical pratice is 30.1 in U.S.A., whereas 23.9 in Korea. Students are assigned to individually planned clinical experiences under the direction of a preceptor in U.S.A. In RN-BSN program, total mean credits through lecture and clinical practice for earn the degree of BSN is 35.5(lecture : 27.7, practice ; 7.8)in U.S.A., whereas,48.1 (lecture;42.1, practice;6.0) in Korea. RN-BSN program can be taken on a full-or-part time basis in U.S.A., whereas didn't in Korea. Especially, emphasis is place on the advanced nursing practicum that focus on the role of the professional nurse in providing health care to individuals, families, and groups in community setting in U.S.A. 27.7 of mean credits was earned through lecture in U.S.A., whereas 42.1 of mean credits in Korea. It means that RN-BSN program in Korea is the lesser development in teaching method and appraisal method than in U.S.A. Students of RN-BSN program in U.S.A. can earns credit through CLEP, NLN achievement test, portfolio review session etc as well as lecture. Therefore, the authors suggests some recommendations for the development of curriculum of RN-BSN program in Korea based on comparative analysis of RN-BSN curricula in U.S.A. and Korea. 1. The curriculum of RN-BSN Program in nursing was required to do some alterations. Nursing care, today, is complex and ever changing. According to change of public need, RN-BSN curriculum intensified primary care program in community setting, geriatric nursing, marketing skill, computer language. 2. The various and new methods of earning credit should be developed. That is, the students will earn credits through the transfer of previous nursing college credits, accredited examination of university, advanced placement examination, portfolio review session, case study, report, self-directed learning and so on. Flexible teaching place should ile offered. 3. Flexible teaching place should be offered. The RN-BSN curriculum should accommodate each RN student's geographical needs and school/work schedule. Therefore, the university should search a variety of teaching places and the RN students can obtain their degrees comfortably throughout the teaching place such as lecture room inside the health care agency and establishment of the branch school in each student's residence area. 4. The RN-BSN program should offer a long distance education to place-bound RN student in many parts of Korea. That is, from the main office of university, the RN-BSN courses are delivered to many areas by Internet, EdNet (satellite telecommunication) and other non-traditional methods. 5. For allowing RN student to take nursing courses, program length should be various, depending upon the student's study/work schedule. That is, the various term systems such as semester, three terms, quarter systems and the student's status like full time or part time should be considered. Therefore, the student can take advantage of the many other educational and professional opportunities, making them available during the school year.

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Elementary Schooler's Recognition and Understanding of the Scientific Units in Daily Life (초등학교 학생들의 생활 속 과학단위 인식과 이해)

  • Kim, Sung-Kyu
    • Journal of Science Education
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.235-250
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    • 2012
  • This paper aims to find out whether or not elementary school students recognize and understand scientific units that they encounter in their everyday life. To select appropriate units for the survey, first, scientific units in elementary textbooks of science and other science related subjects were analyzed. Then it was examined how these units were related to the learners' daily life. The participants in the current survey were 320 elementary school 6th graders. A questionnaire consisted of 11 units of science, such as kg for mass, km for distance, L for volume, V for voltage, s for time, $^{\circ}C$ for temperature, km/h for speed, kcal for heat, % for percentage, W for electric power, pH for acidity, which can often be seen and used in daily life. The students were asked to do the following four tasks, (1) to see presented pictures and select appropriate scientific units, (2) to write reasons for choosing the units, (3) to answer what the units are used for, and (4) to check where to find the units. The data were analyzed in terms of the percentage of the students who seemed to well recognize and understand the units, using SPSS 17.0 statistical program. The results are as follows: Regarding the general use of the units, it was revealed that almost the same units were repeated in science and other subject textbooks from the same grade. With an increase of the students' grade more difficult units were used. As for the use of each unit, it was found that they seemed to relatively well understand what these units kg, km, L, $^{\circ}C$, kcal, km/h, and W stand for, showing more than 91% right. However, the units of V, s, in particular, %, and pH did not seem to be understood. With respect to the recognition of the units, most students did not recognize such units as L for volume and pH for acidity, probably because the units are difficult at the elementary level in comparison to other scientific units. The students indicated that schools were the best place where they could learn and find scientific units related to life, followed by shops/marts, newspapers/broadcasting, streets/roads, homes, and others in that order. The results show that scientific unit learning should be conducted in a systematic way at school and that teachers can play a major role in improving students' understanding and use of the units.

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A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on the Correlation between Learning Satisfaction and Academic Achievement (학습자의 교육훈련 만족도와 학업성취도의 상관관계에 관한 체계적 문헌고찰과 메타분석)

  • Jeong, Sun-jeong;Rim, Kyung-hwa
    • Journal of vocational education research
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.39-75
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study is to verify the general characteristics in the previous studies and the magnitude of the correlation between the learner's satisfaction and the academic achievement in the education and training program. To do this, we searched relevant literature from 2000 to 2016, and conducted a systematic review of the literature on the final 31 studies through the selection criteria and quality evaluation. Among them, 27 meta-analysis of the literature was conducted. The finding of the study were as follows. First, a total of 31 studies were conducted from 2000 to 2016, and more than half of them(16) were conducted for the last 4 years(2009~2012). In terms of education and training students, there are 18 college students, 9 workers, and 4 elementary students in order of study. In terms of methods, 15 collective education, 14 distance education, 2 blended education. In terms of learner's participation, 22 the general participation, 9 the active participation. Second, as a result of the meta-analysis, the magnitude of the correlation between satisfaction and achievement was moderate(ZCOR=.297, 95%: CI .210~.383). Third, as a result of verifying the difference in the magnitude of the correlation effect between satisfaction and achievement according to the characteristics of the education and training program, there was no difference between the groups in the student object and education method, but there was a difference in the magnitude of the correlation effect depending on the participant type(Q=15.40, df=1, p<.0001). The active participation showed a correlation effect size larger(ZCOR=.588, 95%: CI .422~.754). The effect size of the general participation was lower than the median(ZCOR=.211, 95%: CI .12 ~.300).

Steel Plate Faults Diagnosis with S-MTS (S-MTS를 이용한 강판의 표면 결함 진단)

  • Kim, Joon-Young;Cha, Jae-Min;Shin, Junguk;Yeom, Choongsub
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.47-67
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    • 2017
  • Steel plate faults is one of important factors to affect the quality and price of the steel plates. So far many steelmakers generally have used visual inspection method that could be based on an inspector's intuition or experience. Specifically, the inspector checks the steel plate faults by looking the surface of the steel plates. However, the accuracy of this method is critically low that it can cause errors above 30% in judgment. Therefore, accurate steel plate faults diagnosis system has been continuously required in the industry. In order to meet the needs, this study proposed a new steel plate faults diagnosis system using Simultaneous MTS (S-MTS), which is an advanced Mahalanobis Taguchi System (MTS) algorithm, to classify various surface defects of the steel plates. MTS has generally been used to solve binary classification problems in various fields, but MTS was not used for multiclass classification due to its low accuracy. The reason is that only one mahalanobis space is established in the MTS. In contrast, S-MTS is suitable for multi-class classification. That is, S-MTS establishes individual mahalanobis space for each class. 'Simultaneous' implies comparing mahalanobis distances at the same time. The proposed steel plate faults diagnosis system was developed in four main stages. In the first stage, after various reference groups and related variables are defined, data of the steel plate faults is collected and used to establish the individual mahalanobis space per the reference groups and construct the full measurement scale. In the second stage, the mahalanobis distances of test groups is calculated based on the established mahalanobis spaces of the reference groups. Then, appropriateness of the spaces is verified by examining the separability of the mahalanobis diatances. In the third stage, orthogonal arrays and Signal-to-Noise (SN) ratio of dynamic type are applied for variable optimization. Also, Overall SN ratio gain is derived from the SN ratio and SN ratio gain. If the derived overall SN ratio gain is negative, it means that the variable should be removed. However, the variable with the positive gain may be considered as worth keeping. Finally, in the fourth stage, the measurement scale that is composed of selected useful variables is reconstructed. Next, an experimental test should be implemented to verify the ability of multi-class classification and thus the accuracy of the classification is acquired. If the accuracy is acceptable, this diagnosis system can be used for future applications. Also, this study compared the accuracy of the proposed steel plate faults diagnosis system with that of other popular classification algorithms including Decision Tree, Multi Perception Neural Network (MLPNN), Logistic Regression (LR), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Tree Bagger Random Forest, Grid Search (GS), Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The steel plates faults dataset used in the study is taken from the University of California at Irvine (UCI) machine learning repository. As a result, the proposed steel plate faults diagnosis system based on S-MTS shows 90.79% of classification accuracy. The accuracy of the proposed diagnosis system is 6-27% higher than MLPNN, LR, GS, GA and PSO. Based on the fact that the accuracy of commercial systems is only about 75-80%, it means that the proposed system has enough classification performance to be applied in the industry. In addition, the proposed system can reduce the number of measurement sensors that are installed in the fields because of variable optimization process. These results show that the proposed system not only can have a good ability on the steel plate faults diagnosis but also reduce operation and maintenance cost. For our future work, it will be applied in the fields to validate actual effectiveness of the proposed system and plan to improve the accuracy based on the results.

Spatial effect on the diffusion of discount stores (대형할인점 확산에 대한 공간적 영향)

  • Joo, Young-Jin;Kim, Mi-Ae
    • Journal of Distribution Research
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.61-85
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    • 2010
  • Introduction: Diffusion is process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channel overtime among the members of a social system(Rogers 1983). Bass(1969) suggested the Bass model describing diffusion process. The Bass model assumes potential adopters of innovation are influenced by mass-media and word-of-mouth from communication with previous adopters. Various expansions of the Bass model have been conducted. Some of them proposed a third factor affecting diffusion. Others proposed multinational diffusion model and it stressed interactive effect on diffusion among several countries. We add a spatial factor in the Bass model as a third communication factor. Because of situation where we can not control the interaction between markets, we need to consider that diffusion within certain market can be influenced by diffusion in contiguous market. The process that certain type of retail extends is a result that particular market can be described by the retail life cycle. Diffusion of retail has pattern following three phases of spatial diffusion: adoption of innovation happens in near the diffusion center first, spreads to the vicinity of the diffusing center and then adoption of innovation is completed in peripheral areas in saturation stage. So we expect spatial effect to be important to describe diffusion of domestic discount store. We define a spatial diffusion model using multinational diffusion model and apply it to the diffusion of discount store. Modeling: In this paper, we define a spatial diffusion model and apply it to the diffusion of discount store. To define a spatial diffusion model, we expand learning model(Kumar and Krishnan 2002) and separate diffusion process in diffusion center(market A) from diffusion process in the vicinity of the diffusing center(market B). The proposed spatial diffusion model is shown in equation (1a) and (1b). Equation (1a) is the diffusion process in diffusion center and equation (1b) is one in the vicinity of the diffusing center. $$\array{{S_{i,t}=(p_i+q_i{\frac{Y_{i,t-1}}{m_i}})(m_i-Y_{i,t-1})\;i{\in}\{1,{\cdots},I\}\;(1a)}\\{S_{j,t}=(p_j+q_j{\frac{Y_{j,t-1}}{m_i}}+{\sum\limits_{i=1}^I}{\gamma}_{ij}{\frac{Y_{i,t-1}}{m_i}})(m_j-Y_{j,t-1})\;i{\in}\{1,{\cdots},I\},\;j{\in}\{I+1,{\cdots},I+J\}\;(1b)}}$$ We rise two research questions. (1) The proposed spatial diffusion model is more effective than the Bass model to describe the diffusion of discount stores. (2) The more similar retail environment of diffusing center with that of the vicinity of the contiguous market is, the larger spatial effect of diffusing center on diffusion of the vicinity of the contiguous market is. To examine above two questions, we adopt the Bass model to estimate diffusion of discount store first. Next spatial diffusion model where spatial factor is added to the Bass model is used to estimate it. Finally by comparing Bass model with spatial diffusion model, we try to find out which model describes diffusion of discount store better. In addition, we investigate the relationship between similarity of retail environment(conceptual distance) and spatial factor impact with correlation analysis. Result and Implication: We suggest spatial diffusion model to describe diffusion of discount stores. To examine the proposed spatial diffusion model, 347 domestic discount stores are used and we divide nation into 5 districts, Seoul-Gyeongin(SG), Busan-Gyeongnam(BG), Daegu-Gyeongbuk(DG), Gwan- gju-Jeonla(GJ), Daejeon-Chungcheong(DC), and the result is shown

    . In a result of the Bass model(I), the estimates of innovation coefficient(p) and imitation coefficient(q) are 0.017 and 0.323 respectively. While the estimate of market potential is 384. A result of the Bass model(II) for each district shows the estimates of innovation coefficient(p) in SG is 0.019 and the lowest among 5 areas. This is because SG is the diffusion center. The estimates of imitation coefficient(q) in BG is 0.353 and the highest. The imitation coefficient in the vicinity of the diffusing center such as BG is higher than that in the diffusing center because much information flows through various paths more as diffusion is progressing. A result of the Bass model(II) shows the estimates of innovation coefficient(p) in SG is 0.019 and the lowest among 5 areas. This is because SG is the diffusion center. The estimates of imitation coefficient(q) in BG is 0.353 and the highest. The imitation coefficient in the vicinity of the diffusing center such as BG is higher than that in the diffusing center because much information flows through various paths more as diffusion is progressing. In a result of spatial diffusion model(IV), we can notice the changes between coefficients of the bass model and those of the spatial diffusion model. Except for GJ, the estimates of innovation and imitation coefficients in Model IV are lower than those in Model II. The changes of innovation and imitation coefficients are reflected to spatial coefficient(${\gamma}$). From spatial coefficient(${\gamma}$) we can infer that when the diffusion in the vicinity of the diffusing center occurs, the diffusion is influenced by one in the diffusing center. The difference between the Bass model(II) and the spatial diffusion model(IV) is statistically significant with the ${\chi}^2$-distributed likelihood ratio statistic is 16.598(p=0.0023). Which implies that the spatial diffusion model is more effective than the Bass model to describe diffusion of discount stores. So the research question (1) is supported. In addition, we found that there are statistically significant relationship between similarity of retail environment and spatial effect by using correlation analysis. So the research question (2) is also supported.

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  • Automatic gasometer reading system using selective optical character recognition (관심 문자열 인식 기술을 이용한 가스계량기 자동 검침 시스템)

    • Lee, Kyohyuk;Kim, Taeyeon;Kim, Wooju
      • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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      • v.26 no.2
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      • pp.1-25
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      • 2020
    • In this paper, we suggest an application system architecture which provides accurate, fast and efficient automatic gasometer reading function. The system captures gasometer image using mobile device camera, transmits the image to a cloud server on top of private LTE network, and analyzes the image to extract character information of device ID and gas usage amount by selective optical character recognition based on deep learning technology. In general, there are many types of character in an image and optical character recognition technology extracts all character information in an image. But some applications need to ignore non-of-interest types of character and only have to focus on some specific types of characters. For an example of the application, automatic gasometer reading system only need to extract device ID and gas usage amount character information from gasometer images to send bill to users. Non-of-interest character strings, such as device type, manufacturer, manufacturing date, specification and etc., are not valuable information to the application. Thus, the application have to analyze point of interest region and specific types of characters to extract valuable information only. We adopted CNN (Convolutional Neural Network) based object detection and CRNN (Convolutional Recurrent Neural Network) technology for selective optical character recognition which only analyze point of interest region for selective character information extraction. We build up 3 neural networks for the application system. The first is a convolutional neural network which detects point of interest region of gas usage amount and device ID information character strings, the second is another convolutional neural network which transforms spatial information of point of interest region to spatial sequential feature vectors, and the third is bi-directional long short term memory network which converts spatial sequential information to character strings using time-series analysis mapping from feature vectors to character strings. In this research, point of interest character strings are device ID and gas usage amount. Device ID consists of 12 arabic character strings and gas usage amount consists of 4 ~ 5 arabic character strings. All system components are implemented in Amazon Web Service Cloud with Intel Zeon E5-2686 v4 CPU and NVidia TESLA V100 GPU. The system architecture adopts master-lave processing structure for efficient and fast parallel processing coping with about 700,000 requests per day. Mobile device captures gasometer image and transmits to master process in AWS cloud. Master process runs on Intel Zeon CPU and pushes reading request from mobile device to an input queue with FIFO (First In First Out) structure. Slave process consists of 3 types of deep neural networks which conduct character recognition process and runs on NVidia GPU module. Slave process is always polling the input queue to get recognition request. If there are some requests from master process in the input queue, slave process converts the image in the input queue to device ID character string, gas usage amount character string and position information of the strings, returns the information to output queue, and switch to idle mode to poll the input queue. Master process gets final information form the output queue and delivers the information to the mobile device. We used total 27,120 gasometer images for training, validation and testing of 3 types of deep neural network. 22,985 images were used for training and validation, 4,135 images were used for testing. We randomly splitted 22,985 images with 8:2 ratio for training and validation respectively for each training epoch. 4,135 test image were categorized into 5 types (Normal, noise, reflex, scale and slant). Normal data is clean image data, noise means image with noise signal, relfex means image with light reflection in gasometer region, scale means images with small object size due to long-distance capturing and slant means images which is not horizontally flat. Final character string recognition accuracies for device ID and gas usage amount of normal data are 0.960 and 0.864 respectively.