• Title, Summary, Keyword: Down Cut

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The Usefulness of Cephalic Vein Cut-Down for Totally Implantable Central Venous Port in Children (소아에서 완전 이식형 중심정맥포트를 위한 두정맥 절개술의 유용성)

  • Jung, Kyu-Whan;Moon, Suk-Bae;Jung, Sung-Eun;Lee, Seong-Cheol;Park, Kwi-Won
    • Advances in pediatric surgery
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.67-74
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    • 2008
  • The usefulness of totally implantable central venous port for long-term intravenous infusion is widely accepted in children. Usually the catheters are placed through the internal or external jugular vein. In case of jugular vein cut-down, two separate incisions are needed for catheter and port respectively. Patients also feel uncomfortable as the catheter run through the neck. However these disadvantages can be overcome by using the cephalic vein (CV). We reviewed our experiences on CV cut-down for totally implantable central venous port in children. From January 2002 to December 2006, 201 patients (M:F=127:74) underwent 218 central venous port insertions. Mean age at operation was 5.9 years (2 months - 19 years). Indications included chemotherapy (N=167), long-term intravenous antibiotics infusion (N=36), and total parenteral nutrition (N=15). CV was selected preferentially. The incision includes the deltopectoral triangle laterally, and both the CV cut-down and port insertion were achieved with a single incision. The number of insertion through external, internal jugular vein, and CV was 77, 66 and 75, respectively. The median age, height and body weight were higher in CV cut-down group. The youngest age for CV cut-down was 8 months, the shortest height was 69 cm and the smallest body weight was 5.9 kg. Of 118 trials of CV cut-down, cut-down was successful in 75 cases (63.6 %). CV was absent in 10 cases(8.4 %) and CV was sacrificed after catheter tip malposition in 10 cases (8.4 %). There was only one complication, in which the catheter was inserted into the minute branch of subclavian artery. The CV cut-down method for totally implantable central venous port was safe and feasible in selected groups of patients in children. In addition, preservation of jugular vein and a more favorable cosmetic effect are other benefits of CV cut-down.

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Relation between the growth of mulberry shoots and various sizes of cut down mulberry branch in Spring (상수지조의 벌채정도와 신초의 발육과의 관계)

  • 김문협
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.4
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    • pp.27-31
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    • 1965
  • The aim of this work was to investigate how the mulberry shoots grew well when the mulberry branches were cut down, in hight, 1/3, $\frac{1}{2}$ and 2/3 of them, respectively, just before the Spring budding. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The rate of un-sprouted buds decreased sharply down as much as half of the control if the mulberry branches were cut off. The treatment, 1/3, was best one of various cut down sizes and the un-sprouted buds concentrated on the lower parts of the branches. 2. Even though the branches were cut down, at first it seemed flat to accelerate the sprouting of buds, but rather to have a tendency to become late. The speed of leaf growth, however, became faster after the sprouting. It took 7~9 days from the beginning of buddings to the 5th full grown leaf, and.7 days for the shortest one in the treatment, 2/3, when compared with 16 days of the control. 3. If the branches were cut down, the growth of the new sprouts was accelerated. For 45 days (on 5th of May to on 10th of June), therefore. the shoots had grown up to 1.6~2.5 times of the control, 34cm long. The shoots of which the branches were cut down at 2/3 of them were longest (83cm). Furthermore. the speed of shoot growth of cut-down branches was faster than that of the control. 4. In the increased rate of the number of the mulberry leaves, there was not significant difference between the control and the treatments. 5. The total amount of shoot growth showed considerably much more in the treatments than in the control. The successing growing shoots of treatment, 2/3 were little in a number but longest per one shoot in mean shoot length. 6. It seems to be much available that we may cut down branches at 2/3 of them in order to get the scions for the cutting as soon as possible.

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Effects of the Grinding Conditions on the Machining Elasticity Parameter

  • Kim, Kang
    • International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.62-67
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    • 2003
  • The grinding force generated during the grinding process causes an elastic deformation of the workpiece, grinding wheel, and machine system. Thus, the true depth of cut is always smaller than the apparent depth of cut. This is known as machining elasticity phenomenon. The machining elasticity parameter is defined as a ratio between the true depth of cut and the apparent depth of cut. It is an important factor to understand the material removal mechanism of the grinding process. To increase productivity, the value of this machining elasticity parameter must be large. Therefore, it is essential to know the characteristics of this parameter. The objective of this research is to study the effect of the major grinding conditions, such as table speed, depth of cut, on this parameter experimentally, Through this research, it is found that this parameter value is increasing when the table speed is decreasing or the depth of cut is increasing. Also, this parameter value depends on the grinding mode (up grinding, down grinding).

Improvement of the Accuracy in Machining Deep Pocket by Up Milling (상향절삭에 의한 깊은 홈 가공시 정밀도 향상에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Sang-Kyu;Ko, Sung-Lim
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.220-228
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    • 1999
  • The machining accuracy has been improved with the development of NC machine tools and cutting tools. However, it is difficult to obtain a high degree of accuracy when machining deep pocket with long end mill, since machining accuracy is mainly dependant on the stiffness of the cutting tool. To improve surface accuracy in machining deep pocket using end mill, the performance by down cut and up cut is compared theoretically and experimentally. To verify usefulness of up milling, various experiments were carried out. As a result, it is found that up milling produce more accurate surface than down milling in machining deep pocket. For effective application of up milling, various values in helix angle, number of teeth, radial depth of cut and axial depth of cut are applied in experiment.

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Effects of the Surface Grinding Conditions on the Machining Elasticity Parameter (평면연삭조건이 가공탄성계수에 미치는 영향)

  • 임관혁;김강
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.26-32
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    • 1998
  • The grinding force generated during the grinding process causes an elastic deformation of the workpiece, grinding wheel, and machine system. Thus, the true depth of cut is always smaller than the apparent depth of cut. This is known as machining elasticity phenomenon. The machining elasticity parameter is defined as a ratio between the true depth of cut and the apparent depth of cut. It is an important factor to understand the material removal mechanism of the grinding process. To increase productivity, the value of this machining elasticity parameter must be large. Therefore, it is essential to know the characteristics of this parameter. The objective of this research is to study the effect of the major grinding conditions, such as table speed and depth of cut, on this parameter experimentally. Through this research, it is found that this parameter value is increasing when the table speed is decreasing or the depth of cut is increasing. Also, this parameter value depends on the grinding mode (up grinding, down grinding).

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A method of environmental management using an ecological numerical model in Jindong Bay (진동만에서 생태계모델을 이용한 환경관리기법)

  • 김동선
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.345-358
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    • 2003
  • Jindong bay at the northwestern part of Jinhae bay suffers from the occurrence of red tides in summer every year. In order to study the management methods of coastal environments, an ecological numerical model has been developed. The model experiments was forecasted that the load of nutrients from the land and field concentration will be cut down per 10% each. When we cut down 57.2% nitrogen load in the inner bay and 38.4% phosphorous load in the outer bay of bottom layer of the nutrients load from land and field concentration, the seawater quality standard levels up first grade. When we cut down 86.5% nutrients in the inner bay and 93.0% nutrients in the outer bay, the concentration of chlorophyll a decreases below 3.2 $\mu\textrm{g}$/(equation omitted)(an individual concentration of phytoplankton : 10,000cel1/ml), i.e. the red tides do not occur.

A study on the logistics cost reduction in textile industries by introducing Pad Pool System (PPS(PAD POOL SYSTEM) 도입에 의한 섬유업계 물류비 절감에 관한 연구)

  • Kwon An Sik;Park In Sul
    • Journal of the Korea Safety Management and Science
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.95-106
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    • 2005
  • Many Korean companies are challenged to reduce logistics cost and meet environmental-friendly logistics. The textile companies in harsh competition are requested to make improvement on their logistics environment to cut down the total cost. However, they have reached the limit on improving the manufacturing process. We believe that the logistics department is the most improvable part at present. Improving logistics will be highly effective to cut down the total cost. In this study, we present Pad Pool System(PPS) as the solution to save their logistics cost. PPS, which means the shared use of Styrofoam pads, will enable the textile companies to cut down their cost and strengthen enterprise competitiveness. Also, PPS will be helpful reducing environmental disruption because the system reuses retrieved Styrofoam pads many times.

A Tunnel Blasting Method Favorable to the Environment, which Utilizes Pre-splitting & an Upper Center Cut. (선균열과 상부 심빼기를 이용한 환경 친화적 터널발파공법)

  • 김일중;김영석;기경철
    • Explosives and Blasting
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.7-19
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    • 2002
  • The cut is placed high up in the section, the 1st sloping holes below the cut, and divided all the holes located below the 1st sloping holes into a certain area with longitudinal section, to lower pollution made from tunnel blasting. With the sequential blasting machine, after I first blasted holes around the cut holes by a pre-splitting method, blasted the cut area and the 1st sloping holes. The 1st and 2nd sloping holes divided areas are initiated gradually to free face upwards made by the cut. Especially, I pre-splinted contour holes previous blast the before sloping holes from the contours. The ground vibration from the earth surface just over the advance face decreased about 42.0% compare with the down blasting method under the condition of equal charge weight per delay. I controlled the crack and over break of the mother rock by pre-splitting contour holes before blast the first sloping holes from the contours. The peak values of noise and air blast by blasting decreased about 10dB more than the down blasting method. the noise and air blast diminished gradually as a round. The throw distance of the fly rock was decreased about 55%.

A top-down iteration algorithm for Monte Carlo method for probability estimation of a fault tree with circular logic

  • Han, Sang Hoon
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.50 no.6
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    • pp.854-859
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    • 2018
  • Calculating minimal cut sets is a typical quantification method used to evaluate the top event probability for a fault tree. If minimal cut sets cannot be calculated or if the accuracy of the quantification result is in doubt, the Monte Carlo method can provide an alternative for fault tree quantification. The Monte Carlo method for fault tree quantification tends to take a long time because it repeats the calculation for a large number of samples. Herein, proposal is made to improve the quantification algorithm of a fault tree with circular logic. We developed a top-down iteration algorithm that combines the characteristics of the top-down approach and the iteration approach, thereby reducing the computation time of the Monte Carlo method.

Guideliness of the Parameters Using Integrated Test in Down Syndrome Risk Prediction (다운증후군위험도 예측에서 통합선별검사를 이용한 파라미터의 유의성)

  • Lee, Jin-Won;Go, Sung-Jin;Kang, Se-Sik;Kim, Chang-Soo
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.549-555
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    • 2016
  • This study was an evaluation of the significance of each parameter through aimed at pregnant women subjected to screening test(integrated test) in predicting risk of Down syndrome. We retrospectively analysed the correlation of risk of Down's syndrome with Nuchal Translucency(NT) images measured by ultrasound, Pregnancy Associated Plasma Protein A(PAPP-A), alpha-fetoprotein(AFP), unconjugated estriol(uE3), human chorionic gonadotrophin(hCG) and Inhibin A by maternal serum. As a result, a significant correlation with NT, uE3, hCG, Inhibin A is revealed with Down's syndrome risk(P<.001). In ROC analysis, AUC of Inhibin A is analysed as the biggest predictor of Down's syndrome(0.859). And the criterion for cut-off was inhibin A 1.4 MoM(sensitivity 81.8%, specificity 75.9%). In conclusion, Inhibin A was the most useful in parameters to predict Down's syndrome in the integrated test. If we make up for the weakness based on the cut-off value of parameters they will be able to be used as an independent indicator in the risk of Down's syndrome screening.