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The Survey for Improvement in Clinical Practice Curriculum of Physiotherapy (물리치료 임상실습 교과내용 개선을 위한 조사연구)

  • Jang, Su-Gyeong
    • Journal of Korean Physical Therapy Science
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.659-674
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    • 1998
  • This Study was to investigate elaborated research themes and direction through specifying the problems of clinical practice education and looking for the direction of improvement. It was in the basis of the viewpoint of the educators that professors and therapists who were the subjects of this study. Perform this study, the 15 colleges' professors and the 55 hospitals' therapists was made up questionnaire, and the data was analysing by Chi-square test and percentage. The results were as follow : ${\cdot}$ In a personal history among the general qualities, professors have little clinical practice history(l-5 years, 53.3%), and therapists have little lecture career(1-5 years, 43.6%, have no 49.0%), ${\cdot}$ The 78.6% subjects were unsatisfied of clinical practice systems. ${\cdot}$ The correlation between clinical history, school career and lecture career and the satisfaction level of clinical practice systems has no(P<.005), ${\cdot}$ The subjects were agreed to that clinical practice curriculum should be changed(67.1%), reinforced(82.9%), and specified(90.0%). ${\cdot}$ The clinical practice credits are 11 points averagely. ${\cdot}$ In the clinical practice curriculum, it made no difference in the practicum of diseases, modality, and the therapeutic techniques between professors and therapists. ${\cdot}$ The 100% professors said that the practicum of the patients' assessment is necessary, and the 63.6% therapists were training for that. ${\cdot}$ The 66.7% professors said that the practicum of the clinical psychology is necessary, and only the 20.0% therapists were training for that. ${\cdot}$ The 93.3% professors said that the practicum of the patients' management is necessary, and the 50.9% therapists were training for that. ${\cdot}$ The 66.7% professors said that the practicum of the medical ethics is necessary, and the 34.5% therapists were training for that. ${\cdot}$ The 46.7% professors said that the practicum of the hospital administration is necessary, but the 54.5% therapists have not training. ${\cdot}$ The 33.3% professors said that the practicum of the pharmacology is necessary, but the 81.8% therapists have not training. ${\cdot}$ The 86.7% professors said that the practicum of the patient's education is necessary, and the 43.6% therapists have training. ${\cdot}$ The 66.7% professors said that the practicum of the prosthesis and brace is necessary, but the 14.5% therapists have not training. ${\cdot}$ The 60.0% professors said that the practicum of the exercise prescription is necessary, but the 25.5% therapists have not training. ${\cdot}$ The 53.5% professors said that the practicum of the emergency treatment is necessary, but the 52.7% therapists have not training. ${\cdot}$ Drawing up the plan about the curriculum of clinical practice, the professors (46.7%) were agreed to national master plan framing by an expert advisor, but the therapists (58.2%) said that the plan that make the most of hospitals' characteristics should be specified. ${\cdot}$ It was found that a clinical special therapists(54.5%) was good as a person in charge of clinical practice education, in that each therapist's own good time (34.5%) was. ${\cdot}$ It made use of the form framing by college(40.0%) as the clinical practice textbook, the form framing by hospital (42.9%) and each therapist(22.9%) as the plan, and the form framing by college (74.3%) as the measurement. ${\cdot}$ The most difficult point in clinical practice education was the lacks of the theory-praciticum linkage(78.2%). ${\cdot}$ It was found that the period of clinical practice was in the second semester-third grade (40.0%) and the desirable period was in the first semester-third grade(50.0%). ${\cdot}$ Professors (53.3%) were agreed that the desirable clinical practice duration was from four months to six months(60.0%), and the therapists (60.0%) were agreed that from one month to three months. ${\cdot}$ This study presented the lacks of rearing the experts, the lacks of cultural education, and the lacks of the theory-clinical practice linkage. There were need to develop the systematic programs, clinical practice textbooks, the measurements and the special hospital for clinical practice. And it was need to reduce the gab between of the hospitals for clinical practice, to cut down the costs. and to improve the labour conditions of leaders. In view of this findings, it takes notice of that both professor and therapist were dissatisfied at the present clinical practice systems. These results point out the problems of clinical practice systems, and do not make expect to us the successive and positive clinical practice. The general, specific and intensive plan about the problems and the direction of improvement that establishing the level of hospital for clinical practice and physiotherapy can be elaborated.

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Rhizofiltration Process with Helianthus annuss L., Phaseolus vulgaris var., and Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. to Remediate Uranium Contaminated Groundwater (해바라기, 갓, 강낭콩을 이용한 수생법(Rhizofiltration)의 우라늄으로 오염된 지하수 정화 효율 규명)

  • Yang, Min-June;Lee, Min-Hee
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.30-39
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    • 2008
  • The uranium removal efficiency of rhizofiltration was investigated in lab scale experiment. Three plants such as sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris var.), and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) were cultivated in artificially contaminated solution by uranium at 30 ${\mu}g$/L and 80 ${\mu}g$/L for 72 hours. The removal efficiencies of three cultivars were calculated from the ICP/MS analysis of uranium mass in solution and the plant. For Helianthus annuus L., more than 80% of initial uranium were removed from the solution and the uranium concentration of residual solution maintained lower than 10 ${\mu}g$/L. For Phaseolus vulgaris var. and Brassica juncea (L.) Czern., their uranium removal efficiencies ranged from 60 to 80%. Even the uranium concentration of solution was higher than 500 ${\mu}g$/L, these cultivars removed more than 70% of initial uranium by rhizofiltration, suggesting that the rhizofiltration has a great capability to remove uranium in the contaminated groundwater. The removal efficiency of rhizofiltration by using Brassica juncea (L.) Czern decreased from 83% to 42% with the increase of pH in solution. From the results of the analysis for the uranium accumulation in plants, 99% of uranium transferred into the plant from solution were accumulated in the root and only 1% of uranium existed in the shoot part (including leaves), suggesting that the cost and the time to treat massive grown plants after the rhizofiltration could be dramatically cut down because only their root parts needs to be treated. Finally, the genuine groundwater having high uranium concentration (81.4 ${\mu}g$/L), sampled from Daejoun area, was used in the experiment. The uranium removal efficiency of Helianthus annuus L. for the real groundwater was higher than 95%, investigating that the rhizofiltration is the very useful method to remediate uranium contaminated groundwater.

Economic Performance Test of Commercial Chickens (CC) Crossbred with Parent Stock (PS) of Korean Native Chicken (KNC) (토종 부모계통 종계 간 교배 실용계의 경제능력 검정)

  • Cha, Jae-Beom;Hong, Eui-Chul;Kim, Sang-Ho;Kim, Chong-Dae;Heo, Kang-Nyeong;Choo, Hyo-Jun;Oh, Ki-Seok;Kang, Bo-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.207-212
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    • 2016
  • This work was carried out to investigate the ability of thirteen crossbreds for production of commercial chicken (CC) of Korean native chicken to be cut out for Korean circumstance. Total of one thousand three hundred of crossbreds were divided thirteen groups (100 birds/group) that were twelve groups (1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 3A, 3B, 4A, 4B, 5A, 5B, 6A, 6B) to crossbreed with two sires (A, B) and six dams (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) of parent stock (PS) of Korean native chicken and one group (HH) as commercial Korean native chicken. Experimental diets were starter diet (0~7d; CP 22.0% ME 3,150 kcal/kg), early diet (8d~Wt 800 g; CP 19.0% ME 3,150 kcal/kg) and finished diet (Wt 800 g~12 wk; CP 18.0% ME 3,150 kcal/kg). Fertility of 1B group was higher than other groups. Hatchability per fertilization eggs and hatchability per setting eggs were 87.5~89% and 87.9~96.3%, respectively, and those of 4B and 6B groups were lower compared to other groups. Weekly body weight of HH group was lower than other groups. CV values of body weight of thirteen groups were showed over 12% as 12.5~18.2%, and especially, those of 2B, 3B, 5B, HH groups were lower compared to other groups. Weekly feed conversion ratios (FCRs) of 13 crossbreds were 1.7~2.3, 2.1~2.5, 2.4~2.7 and 2.7~3.2 at the age of 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks, respectively. Weekly production indexes of 2A, 3A and HH groups were the lower than other groups and those of thirteen groups decreased following weeks. Feed costs per body weight gain (kg) were 1,069~1,255 won, 1,100~1,263 won, and 1.468~1,696 won at starter, earlier and finished period of broilers. These results leaded down to conclusion to be possible selection of new Korean native commercial chicken that have the excellent performance and economics.

A Study on the Space Organization and Garden Language of Mongsimjae in Namwon (남원 몽심재(夢心齋)의 정원구성과 조형언어 해석)

  • Rho, Jae-hyun;Choi, Yung-hyun;Shin, Sang-sup
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.32-45
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    • 2014
  • In this study, the characteristics of Mongsimjae in Namwon-si, Jeollabuk-do have been researched focusing on the writings engraved in huge stones and rocks of pavilion standing beside a lotus pond and its formative languages in the garden has been interpreted as follows. Name of pavilion(堂號) Mongsimjae(夢心齋) includes a classical scholar's spirit, refusing to serve two kings and homecoming after resignation from a government office(歸去來) of Songam(松菴) Park Moonsu(朴門壽), an ancestor who has brought to the Juksan(竹山) Park's family again. A pavilion standing beside a lotus pond(蓮塘) built in the reception garden is a gardening facility symbolizing 'Yeondang(蓮堂)' Park Dongsik(朴東式) who built Mongsimjae. The bamboo hill connected to the backyard seems to be relevant to 'Juksan', the family clan of Mongsimjae's owner and this kinds of intention can be found in the bamboos in the outer garden naturally led to inside the garden through the flower beds. The purpose for the western arrangement of the main building and gate contrary to the 'chukjwamihyaug'(丑坐未向; a direction toward to the south-southwest) of the prospect of Sarangchae(guesthouse) is interpreted to naturally attract people's eyes to the pavilion standing beside a lotus pond and to mitigate the sense of closure resulting from the huge stones located in the reception garden. Also the writing engraved in the three huge stones, 'Jonsimdae(存心臺)', implies that it is a place where was selected with heart by Juksan Park family who settled down in Homsil, Namwon after 'Haengchon(杏村) Park Jaryang(朴子良)' in Yiphyangjo(入鄕祖), Namwon and 'Jeongwa(靖窩)' is interpreted as a signature representing that it is the most comfortable house where Jeongwa Park Haechang(朴海昌: 1876~1933), the third owner of Mongsimjae, has lived. The pavilion standing beside a lotus pond of the 'Bangjibangdo(方池方島; square pond and square island)' type has no lotus for now and waterside cornerstones roughly piled with broken stones naturally mitigate the slope. There are two water inflows gathering rainwater in the reception garden other than the water inflow of valley and the upper-side water inflow was built using a high waterfall method. The middle island cut into a square was designed to use in two ways, as 'island' or 'steppingstone', according to the water level and the old name of the pavilion standing beside a lotus pond was revealed as 'Cheonundam(天雲潭)' from the engraved writing located in the side of the middle island. In addition, 'Imni(臨履)', engraved writing in the finishing stone of waterside by citing a line of 'Sigyeong(詩經)', implies 'Be a upright classical scholar who pays close attention to one's own behaviors' and 'Jeongchuk(渟?)' is interpreted as a message that desires the eternal staying of the Juksan Park family's wealth. Ultimately, the writings engraved in the huge stones and rocks of the pavilion standing beside a lotus pond are interpreted as a symbol language that wishes the heaven protects and maintains the wealth of the Juksan Park family who is the owner of Mongsimjae.

Internal Changes and Countermeasure for Performance Improvement by Separation of Prescribing and Dispensing Practice in Health Center (의약분업(醫藥分業) 실시(實施)에 따른 보건소(保健所)의 내부변화(內部變化)와 업무개선방안(業務改善方案))

  • Jeong, Myeong-Sun;Kam, Sin;Kim, Tae-Woong
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.19-35
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    • 2001
  • This study was conducted to investigate the internal changes and the countermeasure for performance improvement by Separation of Prescribing and Dispensing Practice (SPDP) in Health Center. Data were collected from two sources: Performance report before and after SPDP of 25 Health Centers in Kyongsangbuk-do and 6 Health Centers in Daegu-City and self-administerd questionnaire survey of 221 officials at health center. The results of this study were summarized as follows: Twenty-four health centers(77.4%) of 31 health centers took convenience measures for medical treatment of citizens and convenience measures were getting map of pharmacy, improvement of health center interior, introduction of order communication system in order. After the SPDP in health centers, 19.4% of health centers increased doctors and 25.8% decreased pharmacists. 58.1% of health centers showed that number of medical treatments were decreased. 96.4%, 80.6% 80.6% 96.7% of health centers showed that number of prescriptions, total medical treatment expenses, amounts paid by the insureds and the expenses to purchase drugs, respectively, were decreased. More than fifty percent(54.2%) of health centers responded that the relative importance of health works increased compared to medical treatments after the SPDP, and number of patients decreased compared to those in before the SPDP. And there was a drastic reduction in number of prescriptions, total medical treatment expenses, amounts paid by insureds, the expenses to purchase drugs after the SPDP. Above fifty percent(57.6%) of officers at health center responded that the function of medical treatment should be reduced after the SPDP. Fields requested improvement in health centers were 'development of heath works contents'(62.4%), 'rearrangement of health center personnel'(51.6%), 'priority setting for health works'(48.4%), 'restructuring the organization'(36.2%), 'quality impro­vement for medical services'(32.1%), 'replaning the budgets'(23.1%) in order. And to better the image of health centers, health center officers replied that 'health information management'(60.7%), 'public relations for health center'(15.8%), 'kindness of health center officers'(15.3%) were necessary in order. Health center officers suggested that 'vaccination program', 'health promotion', 'maternal and children health', 'communicable disease management', 'community health planning' were relatively important works, in order, performed by health center after SPDP. In the future, medical services in health centers should be cut down with a momentum of the SPDP so that health centers might reestablish their functions and roles as public health organizations, but quality of medical services must be improved. Also health centers should pay attention to residents for improving health through 'vaccination program', 'health promotion', 'mother-children health', 'acute and chronic communicable disease management', 'community health planning', 'oral health', 'chronic degenerative disease management', etc. And there should be a differentiation of relative importance between health promotion services and medical treatment services by character of areas(metropolitan, city, county).

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An Analytical Study on Stem Growth of Chamaecyparis obtusa (편백(扁栢)의 수간성장(樹幹成長)에 관(關)한 해석적(解析的) 연구(硏究))

  • An, Jong Man;Lee, Kwang Nam
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.77 no.4
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    • pp.429-444
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    • 1988
  • Considering the recent trent toward the development of multiple-use of forest trees, investigations for comprehensive information on these young stands of Hinoki cypress are necessary for rational forest management. From this point of view, 83 sample trees were selected and cut down from 23-ear old stands of Hinoki cypress at Changsung-gun, Chonnam-do. Various stem growth factors of felled trees were measured and canonical correlaton analysis, principal component analysis and factor analysis were applied to investigate the stem growth characteristics, relationships among stem growth factors, and to get potential information and comprehensive information. The results are as follows ; Canonical correlation coefficient between stem volume and quality growth factor was 0.9877. Coefficient of canonical variates showed that DBH among diameter growth factors and height among height growth factors had important effects on stem volume. From the analysis of relationship between stem-volume and canonical variates, which were linearly combined DBH with height as one set, DBH had greater influence on volume growth than height. The 1st-2nd principal components here adopted to fit the effective value of 85% from the pincipal component analysis for 12 stem growth factors. The result showed that the 1st-2nd principal component had cumulative contribution rate of 88.10%. The 1st and the 2nd principal components were interpreted as "size factor" and "shape factor", respectively. From summed proportion of the efficient principal component fur each variate, information of variates except crown diameter, clear length and form height explained more than 87%. Two common factors were set by the eigen value obtained from SMC (squared multiple correlation) of diagonal elements of canonical matrix. There were 2 latent factors, $f_1$ and $f_2$. The former way interpreted as nature of diameter growth system. In inherent phenomenon of 12 growth factor, communalities except clear length and crown diameter had great explanatory poorer of 78.62-98.30%. Eighty three sample trees could he classified into 5 stem types as follows ; medium type within a radius of ${\pm}1$ standard deviation of factor scores, uniformity type in diameter and height growth in the 1st quadrant, slim type in the 2nd quadrant, dwarfish type in the 3rd quadrant, and fall-holed type in the 4 th quadrant.

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Musical Analysis of Jindo Dasiraegi music for the Scene of Performing Arts Contents (연희현장에서의 올바른 활용을 위한 진도다시래기 음악분석)

  • Han, Seung Seok;Nam, Cho Long
    • (The) Research of the performance art and culture
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    • no.25
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    • pp.253-289
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    • 2012
  • Dasiraegi is a traditional funeral rite performance of Jindo located in the South Jeolla Province of South Korea. With its unique stylistic structure including various dances, songs and witty dialogues, and a storyline depicting the birth of a new life in the wake of death, embodying the Buddhism belief that life and death is interconnected; it attracted great interest from performance organizers and performers who were desperately seeking new contents that can be put on stage as a performance. It is needless to say previous research on Dasiraegi had been most valuable in its recreation as it analyzed the performance from a wide range of perspectives. Despite its contributions, the previous researches were mainly academic focusing on: the symbolic meanings of the performance, basic introduction to the components of the performance such as script, lyrics, witty dialogue, appearance (costume and make-up), stage properties, rhythm, dance and etc., lacking accurate representation of the most crucial element of the performance which is sori (song). For this reason, the study analyzes the music of Dasiraegi and presents its musical characteristics along with its scores to provide practical support for performers who are active in the field. Out of all the numbers in Dasiraegi, this study analyzed all of Geosa-nori and Sadang-nori, the funeral dirge (mourning chant) sung as the performers come on stage and Gasangjae-nori, because among the five proceedings of the funeral rite they were the most commonly performed. There are a plethora of performance recordings to choose from, however, this study chose Jindo Dasiraegi, an album released by E&E Media. The album offers high quality recordings of performances, but more importantly, it is easy to obtain and utilize for performers who want to learn the Dasiraegi based on the script provided in this study. The musical analysis discovered a number of interesting findings. Firstly, most of the songs in Dasiraegi use a typical Yukjabaegi-tori which applies the Mi scale frequently containing cut-off (breaking) sounds. Although, Southern Kyoung-tori which applies the Sol scale was used, it was only in limited parts and was musically incomplete. Secondly, there was no musical affinity between Ssitgim-gut and Dasiraegi albeit both are for funeral rites. The fundamental difference in character and function of Ssitgim-gut and Dasiraegi may be the reason behind this lack of affinity, as Ssitgim-gut is sung to guide the deceased to heaven by comforting him/her, whereas, Dasiaregi is sung to reinvigorate the lives of the living. Lastly, traces of musical grammar found in Pansori are present in the earlier part of Dasiraegi. This may be attributed to the master artist (Designee of Important Intangible Cultural Heritage), who was instrumental in the restoration and hand-down of Dasiaregi, and his experience in a Changgeuk company. The performer's experience with Changgeuk may have induced the alterations in Dasiraegi, causing it to deviate from its original form. On the other hand, it expanded the performative bais by enhancing the performance aspect of Dasiraegi allowing it to be utilized as contents for Performing Arts. It would be meaningful to see this study utilized to benefit future performance artists, taking Dasiraegi as their inspiration, which overcomes the loss of death and invigorates the vibrancy of life.

Broadening the Understanding of Sixteenth-century Real Scenery Landscape Painting: Gyeongpodae Pavilion and Chongseokjeong Pavilion (16세기(十六世紀) 실경산수화(實景山水畫) 이해의 확장 : <경포대도(鏡浦臺圖)>, <총석정도(叢石亭圖)>를 중심으로)

  • Lee, Soomi
    • MISULJARYO - National Museum of Korea Art Journal
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    • v.96
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    • pp.18-53
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    • 2019
  • The paintings Gyeongpodae Pavilion and Chongseokjeong Pavilion were recently donated to the National Museum of Korea and unveiled to the public for the first time at the 2019 special exhibition "Through the Eyes of Joseon Painters: Real Scenery Landscapes of Korea." These two paintings carry significant implications for understanding Joseon art history. Because the fact that they were components of a folding screen produced after a sightseeing tour of the Gwandong regions in 1557 has led to a broadening of our understanding of sixteenth-century landscape painting. This paper explores the art historical meanings of Gyeongpodae Pavilion and Chongseokjeong Pavilion by examining the contents in the two paintings, dating them, analyzing their stylistic characteristics, and comparing them with other works. The production background of Gyeongpodae Pavilion and Chongseokjeong Pavilion can be found in the colophon of Chongseokjeong Pavilion. According to this writing, Sangsanilro, who is presumed to be Park Chung-gan (?-1601) in this paper, and Hong Yeon(?~?) went sightseeing around Geumgangsan Mountain (or Pungaksan Mountain) and the Gwandong region in the spring of 1557, wrote a travelogue, and after some time produced a folding screen depicting several famous scenic spots that they visited. Hong Yeon, whose courtesy name was Deokwon, passed the special civil examination in 1551 and has a record of being active until 1584. Park Chung-gan, whose pen name was Namae, reported the treason of Jeong Yeo-rip in 1589. In recognition of this meritorious deed, he was promoted to the position of Deputy Minister of the Ministry of Punishments, rewarded with the title of first-grade pyeongnan gongsin(meritorious subject who resolved difficulties), and raised to Lord of Sangsan. Based on the colophon to Chongseokjeong Pavilion, I suggest that the two paintings Gyeongpodae Pavilion and Chongseokjeong Pavilion were painted in the late sixteenth century, more specifically after 1557 when Park Chung-gan and Hong Yeon went on their sightseeing trip and after 1571 when Park, who wrote the colophon, was in his 50s or over. The painting style used in depicting the landscapes corresponds to that of the late sixteenth century. The colophon further states that Gyeongpodae Pavilion and Chongseokjeong Pavilion were two paintings of a folding screen. Chongseokjeong Pavilion with its colophon is thought to have been the final panel of this screen. The composition of Gyeongpodae Pavilion recalls the onesided three-layered composition often used in early Joseon landscape paintings in the style of An Gyeon. However, unlike such landscape paintings in the An Gyeon style, Gyeongpodae Pavilion positions and depicts the scenery in a realistic manner. Moreover, diverse perspectives, including a diagonal bird's-eye perspective and frontal perspective, are employed in Gyeongpodae Pavilion to effectively depict the relations among several natural features and the characteristics of the real scenery around Gyeongpodae Pavilion. The shapes of the mountains and the use of moss dots can be also found in Welcoming an Imperial Edict from China and Chinese Envoys at Uisungwan Lodge painted in 1557 and currently housed in the Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies at Seoul National University. Furthermore, the application of "cloud-head" texture strokes as well as the texture strokes with short lines and dots used in paintings in the An Gyeon style are transformed into a sense of realism. Compared to the composition of Gyeongpodae Pavilion, which recalls that of traditional Joseon early landscape painting, the composition of Chongseokjeong Pavilion is remarkably unconventional. Stone pillars lined up in layers with the tallest in the center form a triangle. A sense of space is created by dividing the painting into three planes(foreground, middle-ground, and background) and placing the stone pillars in the foreground, Saseonbong Peaks in the middle-ground, and Saseonjeong Pavilion on the cliff in the background. The Saseonbong Peaks in the center occupy an overwhelming proportion of the picture plane. However, the vertical stone pillars fail to form an organic relation and are segmented and flat. The painter of Chongseokjeong Pavilion had not yet developed a three-dimensional or natural spatial perception. The white lower and dark upper portions of the stone pillars emphasize their loftiness. The textures and cracks of the dense stone pillars were rendered by first applying light ink to the surfaces and then adding fine lines in dark ink. Here, the tip of the brush is pressed at an oblique angle and pulled down vertically, which shows an early stage of the development of axe-cut texture strokes. The contrast of black and white and use of vertical texture strokes signal the forthcoming trend toward the Zhe School painting style. Each and every contour and crack on the stone pillars is unique, which indicates an effort to accentuate their actual characteristics. The birds sitting above the stone pillars, waves, and the foam of breaking waves are all vividly described, not simply in repeated brushstrokes. The configuration of natural features shown in the above-mentioned Gyeongpodae Pavilion and Chongseokjeong Pavilion changes in other later paintings of the two scenic spots. In the Gyeongpodae Pavilion, Jukdo Island is depicted in the foreground, Gyeongpoho Lake in the middle-ground, and Gyeongpodae Pavilion and Odaesan Mountain in the background. This composition differs from the typical configuration of other Gyeongpodae Pavilion paintings from the eighteenth century that place Gyeongpodae Pavilion in the foreground and the sea in the upper section. In Chongseokjeong Pavilion, stone pillars are illustrated using a perspective viewing them from the sea, while other paintings depict them while facing upward toward the sea. These changes resulted from the established patterns of compositions used in Jeong Seon(1676~1759) and Kim Hong-do(1745~ after 1806)'s paintings of Gwandong regions. However, the configuration of the sixteenth-century Gyeongpodae Pavilion, which seemed to have no longer been used, was employed again in late Joseon folk paintings such as Gyeongpodae Pavilion in Gangneung. Famous scenic spots in the Gwandong region were painted from early on. According to historical records, they were created by several painters, including Kim Saeng(711~?) from the Goryeo Dynasty and An Gyeon(act. 15th C.) from the early Joseon period, either on a single scroll or over several panels of a folding screen or several leaves of an album. Although many records mention the production of paintings depicting sites around the Gwandong region, there are no other extant examples from this era beyond the paintings of Gyeongpodae Pavilion and Chongseokjeong Pavilion discussed in this paper. These two paintings are thought to be the earliest works depicting the Gwandong regions thus far. Moreover, they hold art historical significance in that they present information on the tradition of producing folding screens on the Gwandong region. In particular, based on the contents of the colophon written for Chongseokjeong Pavilion, the original folding screen is presumed to have consisted of eight panels. This proves that the convention of painting eight views of Gwangdong had been established by the late sixteenth century. All of the existing works mentioned as examples of sixteenth-century real scenery landscape painting show only partial elements of real scenery landscape painting since they were created as depictions of notable social gatherings or as a documentary painting for practical and/or official purposes. However, a primary objective of the paintings of Gyeongpodae Pavilion and Chongseokjeong Pavilion was to portray the ever-changing and striking nature of this real scenery. Moreover, Park Chung-gan wrote a colophon and added a poem on his admiration of the scenery he witnessed during his trip and ruminated over the true character of nature. Thus, unlike other previously known real-scenery landscape paintings, these two are of great significance as examples of real-scenery landscape paintings produced for the simple appreciation of nature. Gyeongpodae Pavilion and Chongseokjeong Pavilion are noteworthy in that they are the earliest remaining examples of the historical tradition of reflecting a sightseeing trip in painting accompanied by poetry. Furthermore, and most importantly, they broaden the understanding of Korean real-scenery landscape painting by presenting varied forms, compositions, and perspectives from sixteenth-century real-scenery landscape paintings that had formerly been unfound.