• Title, Summary, Keyword: Dual Airways

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A Study on Congestion Change of Dual Airways between Korea-China (한·중 항로 복선화 전후 혼잡도 변화 연구)

  • Cho, Jin Ho;Baik, Ho Jong;Chang, Jo Won
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aviation and Aeronautics
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.7-13
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    • 2020
  • A significant growth in local air traffic volume is leading to airway congestion and flight delays especially for Incheon-China and Incheon-Europe sectors. A key method to increase the airway capacity is to place a supplemental airway parallel to the existing one and in cooperation between the aviation authorities between China and Korea, a dual airway track was implemented on December 6, 2018. Here, we use airline A's flight data to analyze the congestion change effect of the new airway. Results show total delay time to Europe is reduced 51% (13.4 to 6.6 minutes) as the delay distribution for 16-30 minutes, 31 minutes and greater decreased from 23.2% to 8.2% and 8.7% to 1.0% respectively. The delay to China also decreased but the drop is not as significant as flights to Europe. This is caused by the difference in flight distance, traffic volume, and characteristics of flights landing and transiting China. Flights to Europe show a broad distribution in altitude allocation and reduction in aircraft separation demonstrating the effectiveness of a dual airway track.

Oxidative Stress, Chromatin Remodeling and Gene Transcription in Inflammation and Chronic Lung Diseases

  • Rahman, Irfan
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.95-109
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    • 2003
  • Inflammatory lung diseases are characterized by chronic inflammation and oxidant/antioxidant imbalance. The sources of the increased oxidative stress in patients with chronic inflammatory lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) derive from the increased burden of inhaled oxidants, and from the increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by several inflammatory, immune and various structural cells of the airways. Increased levels of ROS produced in the airways is reflected by increased markers of oxidative stress in the airspaces, sputum, breath, lungs and blood in patients with lung diseases. ROS, either directly or via the formation of lipid peroxidation products such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal may play a role in enhancing the inflammation through the activation of stress kinases (JNK, MAPK, p38) and redox sensitive transcription factors such as NF-${\kappa}B$ and AP-1. Recent evidences have indicated that oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory mediators can alter nuclear histone acetylation/deacetylation allowing access for transcription factor DNA binding leading to enhanced pro-inflammatory gene expression in various lung cells. Understanding of the mechanisms of redox signaling, NF-${\kappa}B$/AP-1 regulation, the balance between histone acetylation and deacetylation and the release and expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators may lead to the development of novel therapies based on the pharmacological manipulation of antioxidants in lung inflammation and injury. Antioxidants that have effective wide spectrum activity and good bioavailability, thiols or molecules which have dual antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, may be potential therapeutic agents which not only protect against the direct injurious effects of oxidants, but may fundamentally alter the underlying inflammatory processes which play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory lung diseases.

Effects of FK224, a $NK_1$ and $NK_2$ Receptor Antagonist, on Plasma Extravasation of Neurogenic Inflammation in Rat Airways (미주 신경의 전기적 자극으로 유발된 백서의 기도내 혈장 유출에 대한 FK224의 효과)

  • Shim, Jae-Jeong;Lee, Sang-Yeub;Lee, Sang-Hwa;Park, Sang-Myun;Seo, Jeong-Kyung;Cho, Jae-Yun;In, Kwang-Ho;Yoo, Se-Hwa;Kang, Kyung-Ho
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.42 no.5
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    • pp.744-751
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    • 1995
  • Background: Asthma is an inflammatory disease because there are many inflammatory changes in the asthmatic airways. Axon reflex mechanisms may be involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. Sensory neuropeptides are involved in this inflammation, which is defined as neurogenic inflammation. Substance p, neurokinin A, and neurokinin B may be main neuropeptides of neurogenic inflammation in airways. These tachykinins act on neurokinin receptors. Three types of neurokinin receptors, such as $NK_1$, $NK_2$, and $NK_3$, are currently recognized, at which substance p, neurokinin A, and neurokinin B may be the most relevant natural agonist of neurogenic inflammation in airways. The receptor subtypes present in several tissues have been characterized on the basis of differential sensitivity to substance p, neurokinin A, and neurokinin B. Plasma extravasation and vasodilation are induced by substance p more potently than by neurokinin A, indicating NK1 receptors on endothelial cells mediate the response. But airway contraction is induced by neurokinin A more potently than by substance P, indicating the $NK_2$ receptors in airway smooth muscles. These receptors are used to evaluate the pathogenesis of brochial asthma. FK224 was identified from the fermentation products of Streptomyces violaceoniger. FK224 is a dual antagonist of both $NK_1$ and $NK_2$ receptors. Purpose: For a study of pathogenesis of bronchial asthma, the effect of FK224 on plasma extravasation induced by vagal NANC electrical stimulation was evaluated in rat airway. Method: Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 180~450gm were anesthetized by i.p. injection of urethane. Plasma extravasation was induced by electrical stimulation of cervical vagus NANC nerves with 5Hz, 1mA, and 5V for 2 minutes(NANC2 group) and for sham operation without nerve stimulation(control group). To evaluate the effect of FK224 on plasma extravasation in neurogenic inflammation, FK224(1mg/kg, Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co., dissolved in dimethylsulphoxide; DMSO, Sigma Co.) was injected 1 min before nerve stimulation(FK224 group). To assess plasma exudation, Evans blue dye(20mg/kg, dissolved in saline) was used as a plasma marker and was injected before nerve stimulation. After removal of intravascular dye, the evans blue dye in the tissue was extracted in formamide($37^{\circ}C$, 24h) and quantified spectrophotometrically by measuring dye absorbance at 629nm wavelength. Tissue dye content was expressed as ng of dye per mg of wet weight tissue. The amount of plasma extravasation was measured on the part of airways in each groups. Results: 1) Vagus nerve(NANC) stimulation significantly increased plasma leakage in trachea, main bronchus, and peripheral bronchus compared with control group, $14.1{\pm}1.6$ to $49.7{\pm}2.5$, $17.5{\pm}2.0$ to $38.7{\pm}2.8$, and $12.7{\pm}2.2$ to $19.1{\pm}1.6ng$ of dye per mg of tissue(mean ${\pm}$ SE), respectively(p<0.05). But there was not significantly changed in lung parenchyma(p>0.05) 2) FK224 had significant inhibitory effect upon vagal nerve stimulation-induced airway plasma leakage in any airway tissues of rat,such as trachea, main bronchus, and peripheral bronchus compared with vagus nerve stimulation group, 49%, 58%, and 70%, respectively(p<0.05). Inhibitory effect of FK224 on airway plasma leakage in neurogenic inflammation was revealed the more significant in peripheral bronchus, but no significant in lung parenchyma. Conclusion: These results suggest that FK224 is a selective NK receptor antagonist which effectively inhibits airway plasma leakage induced by the endogenous neurotransmitters relased by neurogenic inflammation in rat airway. Tachykinin receptor antagonists may be useful in the treatment of brochial asthma.

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