• Title, Summary, Keyword: Dynamic cone penetration test

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The Correlation Analysis between Dynamic Cone Penetration Test and Plate Loading Test Results for Evaluation of Dam Conditions (제체 상태 평가를 위한 동적 콘 관입시험과 평판재하시험 결과의 상관관계 분석)

  • Jung, Young-Hoon;Kim, Seongmin;Lim, Jeong-yeul
    • Journal of the Korean GEO-environmental Society
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.33-38
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    • 2018
  • The internal erosion due to poor compaction of the material was the main cause of collapse of the embankment in Korea. The assessment of the compaction state of the dam body was a very important check in the safety diagnosis of the embankment. In this study, the correlation between dynamic cone penetration test and plate loading test which is the most typical compaction evaluation technique was analyzed to verify the applicability of the dynamic cone penetration test in evaluating the compaction state of the dam body. The standard penetration tests were carried out six times to define soil properties and depth of the test site. The spatial distributions were obtained by the Kriging method after 15 times of plate loading tests and 47 times of dynamic cone penetration tests. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the spatial distribution of the plate loading test and the dynamic cone penetration test spatial distribution at the constant penetration depth was calculated. The load distribution in the plate loading test and the blow counts at penetration depths of 5 cm, 10 cm and 15 cm in the dynamic cone penetration test showed a weak positive correlation.

Analysis of Application Cases and Evaluation of Effectiveness on Portable Dynamic Cone Penetration Test (DCPT) to Identify the Deterioration Cause of Damaged Reinforced Earth Walls (보강토옹벽의 피해원인 규명을 위한 휴대형 동적콘관입시험(DCPT) 적용사례 분석 및 효용성 평가)

  • Lee, Kwang-Wu;Cho, Sam-Deok
    • Journal of the Korean Geosynthetics Society
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.95-109
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    • 2020
  • In this study, a total of six site cases were reviewed to assess the site applicability of portable dynamic cone penetration test (DCPT) by identifying the cause of damage to the damaged reinforced earth wall using portable dynamic cone penetration test. An improved dynamic concrete penetration tester was used at the site to enable ground surveys of more than 6 meters. The test results were compared with the results of the standard penetration test (SPT) and the correlation was analyzed. Through the analysis of various field application cases, it was found that portable dynamic cone penetration test was very convenient to apply at the site of the damaged reinforced earth wall, and DCPT could play a major role in identifying the cause of damage and verifying stability of the retaining wall by continuously identifying the ground strength. In addition, it was found that the results of the dynamic cone penetration test and the standard penetration test showed a correlation of N≒(1/3~2/3)·Nd in sandy soil.

Characterization of railway substructure using a hybrid cone penetrometer

  • Byun, Yong-Hoon;Hong, Won-Taek;Lee, Jong-Sub
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.1085-1101
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    • 2015
  • Changes in substructure conditions, such as ballast fouling and subgrade settlement may cause the railway quality deterioration, including the differential geometry of the rails. The objective of this study is to develop and apply a hybrid cone penetrometer (HCP) to characterize the railway substructure. The HCP consists of an outer rod and an inner mini cone, which can dynamically and statically penetrate the ballast and the subgrade, respectively. An accelerometer and four strain gauges are installed at the head of the outer rod and four strain gauges are attached at the tip of the inner mini cone. In the ballast, the outer rod provides a dynamic cone penetration index (DCPI) and the corrected DCPI (CDCPI) with the energy transferred into the rod head. Then, the inner mini cone is pushed to estimate the strength of the subgrade from the cone tip resistance. Laboratory application tests are performed on the specimen, which is prepared with gravel and sandy soil. In addition, the HCP is applied in the field and compared with the standard dynamic cone penetration test. The results from the laboratory and the field tests show that the cone tip resistance is inversely proportional to the CDCPI. Furthermore, in the subgrade, the HCP produces a high-resolution profile of the cone tip resistance and a profile of the CDCPI in the ballast. This study suggests that the dynamic and static penetration tests using the HCP may be useful for characterizing the railway substructure.

Development of Advanced Dynamic Cone Penetration Test Apparatus and Its Application Performance Evaluation (개량식 동적 콘 관입시험기의 개발 및 적용성 평가)

  • Kim, Uk-Gie;Zhuang, Li;Lee, Kwang-Wu
    • Journal of the Korean Geosynthetics Society
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.119-131
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    • 2014
  • For quick and accurate ground investigation in wide construction site being not easy to access, advanced dynamic cone penetration test equipment was developed based on widely used equipment abroad. Advantages of existing equipment of portability and simple testing method were reflected in the new developed equipment. Meanwhile, by extending connection of lower rod, penetration depth is raised to 6m from 1 m of the existing equipment. Moreover, by assembly of hammer (2+3+3kg) and cone (3 types) etc., it is possible to perform test under the same conditions with those by German and Japan dynamic cone penetration test equipment (Tsukuba, PWRI and SH types). Auxiliary equipment was applied to make sure of perpendicularity as penetration depth increases. Applicability of the new developed equipment was evaluated through tests on various fields and its reliability was verified.

Cone penetrometer incorporated with dynamic cone penetration method for investigation of track substructures

  • Hong, Won-Taek;Byun, Yong-Hoon;Kim, Sang Yeob;Lee, Jong-Sub
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.197-216
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    • 2016
  • The increased speed of a train causes increased loads that act on the track substructures. To ensure the safety of the track substructures, proper maintenance and repair are necessary based on an accurate characterization of strength and stiffness. The objective of this study is to develop and apply a cone penetrometer incorporated with the dynamic cone penetration method (CPD) for investigating track substructures. The CPD consists of an outer rod for dynamic penetration in the ballast layer and an inner rod with load cells for static penetration in the subgrade. Additionally, an energy-monitoring module composed of strain gauges and an accelerometer is connected to the head of the outer rod to measure the dynamic responses during the dynamic penetration. Moreover, eight strain gauges are installed in the load cells for static penetration to measure the cone tip resistance and the friction resistance during static penetration. To investigate the applicability of the developed CPD, laboratory and field tests are performed. The results of the CPD tests, i.e., profiles of the corrected dynamic cone penetration index (CDI), profiles of the cone tip and friction resistances, and the friction ratio are obtained at high resolution. Moreover, the maximum shear modulus of the subgrade is estimated using the relationships between the static penetration resistances and the maximum shear modulus obtained from the laboratory tests. This study suggests that the CPD test may be a useful method for the characterization of track substructures.

The Ground Investigation Technique of Railway Using Pagani Cone Test (Pagani Cone Test를 이용한 철도노반 조사 기법 연구)

  • Cho, Eun-Kyung;Cho, Kook-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Railway
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.792-801
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    • 2016
  • Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Cone Penetration Test (CPT) are widely used in geotechnical investigation methods for railway roadbed. However, SPT can not be used on the Railway track, since the equipment may contact to the electric lines. However, a portable equipment can be used for geotechnical investigation without electrical hazard. Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) is one of representative portable equipments. A normal portable DCP has usually not enough driving energy and the rigidity of cone-rod, so it is impossible to investigate the required investigate penetration depth. In this study, The adaptability of Pagani cone test which is one of portable dynamic cone penetrometer is studied and compared with SPT-N data. As a result of this study, the proposed correlation factors between Pagani cone test and SPT-N values after corrections is 1.48 for sandy soil and 1.33 for clayey soil.

Shear Wave Velocity Estimation of Railway Roadbed Using Dynamic Cone Penetration Index (동적 콘 관입지수를 이용한 철도노반의 전단파속도 추정)

  • Hong, Won-Taek;Byun, Yong-Hoon;Choi, Chan Yong;Lee, Jong-Sub
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.31 no.11
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    • pp.25-31
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    • 2015
  • Elastic behavior of the railway roadbed which supports the repeating dynamic loads of the train is mainly affected by the shear modulus of the upper roadbed. Therefore, shear wave velocity estimation of the uniformly compacted roadbed can be used to estimate the elastic behavior of the railway roadbed. The objective of this study is to suggest the relationship between the dynamic cone penetration index (DCPI) and the shear wave velocity ($V_s$) of the upper roadbed in order to estimate the shear wave velocity by using the dynamic cone penetration test (DCPT). To ensure the reliability of the relationship, the dynamic cone penetration test and the measurement of the shear wave velocity are conducted on the constructed upper roadbed. As a method for measurement of the shear wave velocity, cross hole is used and then the dynamic cone penetration test is performed at a center point between the source and the receiver of the cross hole. As a result of the correlation of the dynamic cone penetration index and the shear wave velocity at the same depths, the shear wave velocity is estimated as a form of involution of the dynamic cone penetration index with a determinant coefficient above 0.8. The result of this study can be used to estimate both the shear wave velocity and the strength of the railway roadbed using the dynamic cone penetrometer.

Study on the Measurement of Liquid Limit Using a Penetration Resistance of Small Cone in Clay Soil (소형콘의 관입저항력을 이용한 점토의 액성한계측정에 관한 연구)

  • Son, Moorak;Lee, Jaeyong
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.32 no.10
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    • pp.5-15
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    • 2016
  • This study investigated both water content and penetration resistance of small cone of various clay soils that were made of Kaolinite and Bentonite with different mixing ratios and compared the results with those of the existing dynamic (Casagrande test) and static (fall cone test) tests directly. The comparison showed that the water content at the inflection point on a curve of water content and penetration resistance was very similar to the liquid limit from a fall cone test. The penetration resistance of small cone at the inflection point was 0.2 kPa, and it was ascertained that the water content at the inflection point represents a liquid limit of clay soils. From the study results, it was found that the penetration resistance of 0.2 kPa with the small cone can be an indicator of the liquid limit of clay soils in practice. Finally a test procedure to measure the liquid limit of clay soil based on a penetration resistance of small cone was proposed.

A Study on the Ground Improvement Effective Evaluation of Reclaimed Land Using Cone Penetration Test (CPT를 이용한 준설매립지반의 개량효과 평가에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jong-Kook;Chae, Young-Su;Kim, Myoung-Mo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.910-921
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    • 2004
  • In this study, the pilot tests on the reclaimed land were performed in order to find the suitable construction method with dynamic compaction Type I, Type II at different dynamic energy and hydraulic hammer compaction. The estimation of the compaction through the various pilot tests was performed by the CPT-qc, SPT-N and field density tests. As the result of the pilot tests, it shows that the dynamic compaction method is better than the hydraulic hammer compaction method in the effect of the ground improvement, especially dynamic compaction Type I is much superior to others. When it comes to method for measuring the intensity of the ground, the value of the cone penetration test-resistance(qc) is much suitable for the ground. Besides, the standards for the compaction control, which showed that over 10Mpa at 0 through 5meters in the upper layer and 7Mpa at 5 through 8meters in the lower layer in the CPT-qc, could be found without discrimination of the upper road and lower road on the reclaimed land. And it also found that the intensity of the reclaimed land gets back to the original status in about 10 through 15 days.

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Study on Shear Strength Using a Portable Dynamic Cone Penetration Test and Relationship between N-Nc (소형동적콘관입시험을 이용한 전단강도 산정 및 N-Nc 상관관계 연구)

  • Kim, Hyukho;Lim, Heuidae
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.145-157
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    • 2017
  • Because of Recent intensive rainfall, nationally landslides and slope failure phenomenon has been frequently occur. Providing proposed-measures to the natural disasters that occur in these localities and the slope, must be derived ground of strength parameters(shear strength) as a design input data. However, it is such as extra deforestation and a lot of economic costs in order to make the access to the current area and the slopes ground survey is required. Thus, by small dynamic cone penetration test machine using the human to carry in the field, it is possible to easily measure the characteristics and strength constant of the ground of more than one region. In this study through researching analysis of the domestic and foreign small dynamic cone penetration test method, it has proposed a cone material and test methods suitable for the country. Cone penetration test Nc in the field has comparated with analysis of the value and the standard penetration test N value. And, in addition to this, direct shear test and borehole shear test were performed by depth, bedrock, and soil type and passing #200 and the correlation of the Nc value. In particular, in the present study, for the sandy soil that has distict distribute in mountain, it is proposed relation of shear strength corresponding to the Nc value (cohesion and internal friction angle) in order to calculate such effective ground shear strength.