• Title, Summary, Keyword: E-Tongue

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Development of Portable Electronic Tongue using Fuzzy clustering algorithm (Fuzzy Clustering 알고리즘을 이용한 휴대용 전자 혀 개발)

  • Kim, Joeng-Do;Ham, Yu-Kyung;Jung, Woo-Suk;Jung, Young-Chang
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.602-604
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    • 2004
  • A portable electronic tongue(E-Tongue) system using an array of ion-selective electrode(ISE) and personal digital assistants(PDA) for recognizing and analyzing food and drink have been designed. By the employment of PDA, the complex algorithm such as fuzzy c-means algorithm(FCMA) could be used in E-Tongue, FCMA could iteratively solve the cluster centers of pre-determined standard patterns. And the membership between the standard patterns and unknown pattern could be analyzed easily by the present E-Tongue combined with PDA.

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Design of a Portable Electronic Tongue System using Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm (Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm을 이용한 휴대용 전자혀 시스템 설계)

  • Kim, Jeong-Do;Kim, Dong-Jin;Ham, Yu-Kyung;Jung, Young-Chang;Yoon, Chul-Oh
    • Journal of Sensor Science and Technology
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.446-453
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    • 2004
  • A portable electronic tongue (E-Tongue) system using an array of ion-selective electrode (ISE) and personal digital assistants (PDA) for recognizing and analyzing food and drink have been designed. By the employment of PDA, the complex algorithm such as fuzzy c-means algorithm (FCMA) could be used in E-Tongue, PUMA could iteratively solve the cluster centers of pre-determined standard patterns. And the membership between the standard patterns and unknown pattern could be analyzed easily by the present E-Tongue combined with PDA.

Development of Electronic Tongue System Using Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm Combined to PCA Method (PCA와 결합된 Fuzzy C-Means 알고리즘을 이용한 전자 혀 시스템 개발)

  • Jung Woo Suk;Hong Chul Ho;Kim Jeong Do
    • Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.109-116
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    • 2005
  • In this paper, we investigate the visual and quantitative analysis at the same time with an electronic tongue(e-tongue) system using an array of ISE(ion-selective electrode). We apply the FCM(fuzzy c-means) algorithm combined with PCA(principal component analysis), which can be reduced multi-dimensional data to third-dimensional data, to classify data patterns detected by E-Tongue system. The proposed technique can be designed to solve the cluster centers and membership grade of patterns combined with the output results obtained by PCA method. According to the proposed technique, the membership grade of unknown pattern, which does not shown previously can be determined and analyzed visually. Conclusionally, the relationship between the standard patterns and unknown pattern can be easily analyzed. Throughout the experimental trials, the proposed technique has been confirmed using developed E-Tongue system.

Discrimination of Korean Tobacco's Aroma and Tastes using the Eloctronic Nose/Tongue and Their feasibility in Tobacco Sensory Evaluation

  • Lee Whan-Woo;Lee Seung-Yong;Shon Hyun-Joo;Kim Young-Hoh
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.134-140
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was the discrimination of different tobacco types by the E-Nose/tongue and the analysis of what human sensory attributes are correlated with e-instrument's sensors. Samples were made from five groups of Korean domestic tobacco leaves, aged burley and not aged, aged flue-cured and not aged and blending types of the four. Instrumental tests were conducted to discriminate characteristics among different tobacco samples by the E-Nose and the E-Tongue. Sensory attributes of tobacco tastes were impact, irritation, bitterness, hay-like, tobacco taste, smoke volume, smoke pungent and mouth cleanness. STATISTICA software was used to analyze correlation between the human sensory data and the raw data of e-instruments. Discrimination analysis can be achieved using principal components analysis (PCA) and discriminant factorial analysis(DFA). As a result, impact, bitterness, irritation, smoke volume and smoke pungent of human sensory attributes were correlated with data from the several clustered E-Nose sensors(p < 0.10). And bitterness, irritation, and smoke pungent of human sensory attributes were correlated with data from the E-Tongue sensors(p < 0.10). PCA plot by the E-Nose shows that aged tobacco and not aged were discriminated and DFA plot shows that three groups(aged burley, not aged burley and flue-cured) were discriminated. PCA plot by the E- Tongue shows that flue-cured tobacco was separated from burley. Our results indicated that the e-instruments are sensitive enough to distinguish among tobacco types and their several sensors are reacted to the human sensory attributes.

Tongue Image Segmentation via Thresholding and Gray Projection

  • Liu, Weixia;Hu, Jinmei;Li, Zuoyong;Zhang, Zuchang;Ma, Zhongli;Zhang, Daoqiang
    • KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.945-961
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    • 2019
  • Tongue diagnosis is one of the most important diagnostic methods in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Tongue image segmentation aims to extract the image object (i.e., tongue body), which plays a key role in the process of manufacturing an automated tongue diagnosis system. It is still challenging, because there exists the personal diversity in tongue appearances such as size, shape, and color. This paper proposes an innovative segmentation method that uses image thresholding, gray projection and active contour model (ACM). Specifically, an initial object region is first extracted by performing image thresholding in HSI (i.e., Hue Saturation Intensity) color space, and subsequent morphological operations. Then, a gray projection technique is used to determine the upper bound of the tongue body root for refining the initial object region. Finally, the contour of the refined object region is smoothed by ACM. Experimental results on a dataset composed of 100 color tongue images showed that the proposed method obtained more accurate segmentation results than other available state-of-the-art methods.

The way to standardize electronic tongue system using IEEE 1451.4 (IEEE 1451.4를 이용한 전자혀 시스템의 표준화 방안)

  • Kim, Dong-Jin;Kim, Jeong-Do;Byun, Hyung-Gi;Ham, Yu-Kyung;Han, Dong-Won
    • Journal of Sensor Science and Technology
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.444-454
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    • 2005
  • The IEEE 1451.4 standards defines an architectural model for interfacing smart transducers for sensors & actuators. This standard allows analogue transducers to communicate their identification and calibration data in a digital format. A digital format is called the TEDS (transducer electronic data sheet). However, the standard template TEDS of IEEE 1451.4 do not supports sensors to use in electronic tongue system, such as arrayed-potentiometric and voltametric sensors. In this paper, a solution to standardize sensors for E-Tongue (electronic tongue) and electronic tongue systems is presented.

Visual and Quantitative Analysis of Different Tastes in liquids with Fuzzy C-means and Principal Component Analysis Using Electronic Tongue System

  • Kim, Joeng-Do;Kim, Dong-Jin;Byun, Hyung-Gi;Ham, Yu-Kyung;Jung, Woo-Suk;Choo, Dae-Won
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.133-137
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    • 2005
  • In this paper, we investigate visual and quantitative analysis of different tastes in the liquids using multi-array chemical sensor (MACS) based on the ion-selective electrodes (ISEs), which is so called the electronic tongue (E-Tongue) system. We apply the Fuzzy C-means (FCM) algorithm combined with Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which can be used to reduce multi-dimensional data to two- or three-dimensional data, to classify visually data patterns detected by E-Tongue system. The proposed technique can be determined the cluster centers and membership grade of patterns through the unsupervised way. The membership grade of an unknown pattern, which does not shown previously, can be visually and analytically determined. Throughout the experimental trails, the E-tongue system combined with the proposed algorithms is demonstrated robust performance for visual and quantitative analysis for different tastes in the liquids.

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Design of E-Tongue System using Neural Network (신경회로망을 이용한 휴대용 전자 혀 시스템의 설계)

  • Jung, Young-Chang;Kim, Dong-Jin;Kim, Jeong-Do;Jung, Woo-Suk
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.149-158
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    • 2005
  • In this paper, we have designed and implemented a portable e-tongue (electronic tongue) system using MACS (multi array chemical sensor) and PDA. The system embedded in PDA has merits such as comfortable user interface and data transfer by internet from on-site to remote computer. MACS was made up 7 electrodes (${NH_4}^+$, $Na^+$, $Cl^-$, ${NO_3}^-$, $K^+$, $Ca^{2+}$, $Na^+$, pH) and a reference electrode. For learning the system, we adapted the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm based on the back-propagation, which could iteratively learned the pre-determined standard patterns, in e-tongue system. Conclusionally, the relationship between the standard patterns and unknown pattern can be easily analyzed. The e-tongue was applied to whiskeys and cognac (one high level whisky, one low level whiskey, two cognac) and 2 sample whiskeys for each standard patterns and unknown patterns. The relationship between the standard patterns and unknown patterns can be easily analyzed.

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A Comparison of Flavor and Taste of the Doenjang Solution by Instrumental Measurements and Sensory Evaluation based on Serving Temperature (기기적 평가와 패널 기반 평가를 이용한 된장 용액의 제시 온도에 따른 맛과 향미 특성 분석 및 비교)

  • Heo, JeongAe;Kwak, Han Sub;Kim, Mi Jeong;Kim, Min Jung;Kim, Yoonsook;Chang, Min-Sun;Kim, Sang Sook
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.264-271
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    • 2018
  • The objective of this study was to investigate taste profiles and the correlation of Doenjang soup solution prepared with three different temperatures (5, 25, $45^{\circ}C$) and using an electronic nose (e-nose), electronic tongue (e-tongue), and descriptive analyses by trained panelists. A total of 17sensory attributes were generated from the descriptive analyses for the Doenjang soup solution. There were significant difference among the samples in the cooked soybean flavor, the cooked soybean odor, the soy sauce odor, the sweet odor, the sweet taste, and the sweet aftertaste attributes. The intensities of these sensory attributes tended to increase as the serving temperature of the Doenjang soup solution increased. There were seven volatile compounds detected by the electronic nose: ethanol, propanal, 2-methylpropanal, ethyl acetate, 3-methylbutanal, and beta-pinene. The intensities of the volatile compounds increased as the temperature of the Doenjang soup solution increased. On the other hand, the intensities of the basic tastes by the e-tongue decreased as the temperature of the Doenjang soup solution increased. In conclusion, the e-nose, e-tongue, and descriptive analysis results showed different correlations depending on the temperature of the Doenjang soup solutions.

Colour Interpolation of Tongue Image in Digital Tongue Image System Blocking Out External Light (디지털 설진 시스템의 색상 보정)

  • Kim, Ji-Hye;Nam, Dong-Hyun
    • The Journal of the Korean Medicine Diagnostics
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.9-18
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    • 2012
  • Objectives The aim of this study is to propose an optimized tongue colour interpolation method to achieve accurate tongue image rendering. Methods We selected 60 colour chips in the chips of DIC color guide selector, and then divided randomly the colour chips into two groups. The colour chips of a group (Gr I) were used for finding the optimized colour correction factor of error and those of the other group (Gr II) were used for verifying the correction factor. We measured colour value of the Gr I colour chips with spectrophotometer, and took the colour chips image with a digital tongue image system (DTIS). We adjusted colour correction factor of error to equal the chip colour from each method. Through that process, we obtained the optimized colour correction factor. To verify the correction factor, we measured colour value of the Gr II colour chips with a spectrophotometer, and took the colour chips image with the DTIS in the two types of colour interpolation mode (auto white balance mode and optimized colour correction factor mode). And then we calculated the CIE-$L^*ab$ colour difference (${\Delta}E$) between colour values measured with the spectrophotometer and those from images taken with the DTIS. Results In auto white balance mode, The mean ${\Delta}E$ between colour values measured with the spectrophotometer and those from images taken with the DTIS was 13.95. On the other hand, in optimized colour correction factor mode, The mean ${\Delta}E$ was 9.55. The correction rate was over 30%. Conclusions In case of interpolating colour of images taken with the DTIS, we suggest that procedure to search the optimized colour correction factor of error should be done first.