• Title, Summary, Keyword: E-Tongue

Search Result 104, Processing Time 0.035 seconds

Tegumental ultrastructure of juvenile and adult Echinostoma cinetorchis (이전고환극구흡충 유약충 및 성충의 표피 미세구조)

  • 이순형;전호승
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
    • /
    • v.30 no.2
    • /
    • pp.65-74
    • /
    • 1992
  • The tegumental ultrastructure of juvenile and adult Echinostoma cinetorchis (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Three-day (juvenile) and 16-day (adult) worms were harvested from rats (Sprague-Dawley) experimentally fed the metacercariae from the laboratory-infected fresh water snail, Hippeutis cantori. The worms were fifed with 2.5% glutaraldehyde, processed routinely, and observed by an ISI Korea DS-130 scanning electron microscope. The 3-day old juvenile worms were elongated and ventrally curved, with their ventral sucker near the anterior two-fifths of the body. The head crown was bearing 37∼38 collar spines arranged in a zigzag pattern. The lips of the oral and ventral suckers had 8 and 5 type II sensory papillae respectively, and bewteen the spines, a few type III papillae were observed. Tongue or spade-shape spines were distributed anteriorly to the ventral sucker, whereas peg-like spines were distributed posteriorly and became sparse toward the posterior body. The spines of the dorsal surface were similar to those of the ventral surface. The 16-day old adults were leaf-like, and their oral and ventral suckers were located very closely. Aspinous head crown, oral and ventral suckers had type II and type III sensory papillae, and numerous type I papillae were distributed on the tegument anterior to the ventral sucker. Scale-like spines, with broad base and round tip, were distributed densely on the tegument anterior to the ventral sucker but they became sparse posteriorly. At the dorsal surface, spines were observed at times only at the anterior body. The results showed that the tegument of E. cinetorchis is similar to that of other echinostomes, but differs in the number and arrangement of collar spines, shape and distribution of tegumenal spines, and type and distribution of sensory papillae.

  • PDF

The Society Page of Newspaper of the colonized Korea, its politics of sentiment and modulation of social facts (식민지 신문 '사회면'의 감정정치 -사회적 사실들의 정치적 서사화)

  • Yoo, Sun Young
    • Korean journal of communication and information
    • /
    • v.67
    • /
    • pp.177-208
    • /
    • 2014
  • This study inquires how human interest news on society section of newspapers had been modulated as multi-layered political narratives that would consistently have Koreans consider, realize and question on colonial situation as well as ethnic identity. Under totalitarian censorship of the colonial government, newspapers could not publish reports on political issues and current affairs, so society page of human interest such as crime, accident, conflict, disaster, and many kinds of sufferings of peoples to death would take great public attention and consequently be considered as a substitute of political section. Society page had enjoyed its influence on formation of public opinion of the colonized ethnic society and had maintained cultural-nationalist position ever since the founding of newspaper in mother-tongue in 1920. In colonial context, there is nothing non-political to the lives of the colonized, social facts would be necessary and happen to be modulated into a narrative that could trigger nationalist sentiment. For this end, news reporting of society section usually concentrated on aspects of 'Les Mis${\acute{e}}$rqbles', dramatic quality, and psychological factors in detail. Narrative style of news reporting got used to modulate factual informations with a proper taste of exaggeration, emotional expression, and commercial touch of exciting words. Even in a case of death by drug abuse, news was written to indicate what made him/her drive to miserable death on street, that is, what is de facto reason of all of social problems like as migration, hunger, leaving home, crime, suicide, violence, gambling, love affairs to death, adultery, and even opium habit. Those social problems and personal sufferings appeared up on newspaper 3rd page at daily base. Readers could acknowledge and identify what the real matter that should be resolved and then blame colonialism, capitalism, and militarism for those social problems. Journalists put values on inciting the colonized to realize the national and ethnic situation and feel sympathy for their people tied up by a common destiny. In this terms, news on society section of newspaper under Colonial Occupation were encoded as narratives of politically layered text and then decoded as intriguing sentiments against colonial dominance. I argue that society page of newspaper of colonial period engaged in a sort of cultural politics of sentiment and emotion which is a private area outside of imperial sight.

  • PDF

Interspecific Competition and spatial Ecology of three Species of Vipers in Korea: An Application of Ecological niche-based Models and GIS (한국산 살모사과 3종의 경쟁과 공간적 생태 - 생태적 지위를 기반으로 한 모델과 지리정보시스템 적용 -)

  • Do, Min Seock;Lee, Jin-Won;Jang, Hoan-Jin;Kim, Dae-In;Yoo, Jeong-Chil
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
    • /
    • v.30 no.2
    • /
    • pp.173-184
    • /
    • 2016
  • Knowledge of the relationships among interspecific competition, spatial distributions and ecological niches plays an important role in understanding biogeographical distribution patterns of species. In this study, the distributional characteristics and ecological niches of the three Viperidae species (Gloydius ussuriensis, G. brevicaudus, and G. saxatilis) in South Korea were determined based on observation data and species distribution model. The effects of interspecific competition on geographical distribution and the division of the ecological niches of the vipers were also examined based on the models of predicted species distribution. The results showed that altitude was the most important environmental variable for their distribution, and the altitudes at which these snakes were distributed correlated with the climate of that region. Although interspecific ecological niches are quite overlapped, their predicted distribution patternsvary by the Taebaek Mountains. When overlaying the distribution models, most of the overlapping habitats were forest areas, which were relatively less overlapped than were the entire research areas. Thus, a parapatric distribution pattern was expected. The abundance of species occurring sympatrically was positively correlated with each other, indicating the lack of serious interspecies competition in this region. In conclusion, although the three Viperidae species in South Korea occupy similar ecological niches, these snakes exhibit parapatric distribution patterns without direct competition. Further research on various geographic variables (e.g., altitude, microhabitat characteristics) using relatively fine grid sizes, as well as further detailed ecological and behavioral research, is needed to determine the causative factors for the parapatric distribution pattern.

Results of Conventional Radiotherapy in Oropharyngeal Cancer (구인두암의 방사선 치료 성적)

  • Nam Taek Keun;Ahn Sung Ja;Chung Woong Ki;Nah Byung Sik
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
    • /
    • v.14 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-8
    • /
    • 1996
  • Purpose: We tried to evaluate the role of conventional radiotherapy alone or with neoadjuvant chemotherapy in oropharyngeal cancer in terms of survival rates and to identify prognostic factors affecting survival by retrospective analysis. Materials and Methods: Forty seven patients of oropharyngeal cancer were treated by conventional radiotherapy in our hospital from Nov. 1985 to APr. 1993. Of these, twenty six patients were treated by conventional radio-therapy alone, and 21 patients with neoadjuvant chemotherapy of mostly two or more cycles of cisplatin and pepleomycin. The Patient characteristics of radiotherapy alone group and neoadjuvant chemotherapy group were not different generally. Radiotherapy was performed by 6MV-LINAC and the total radiation doses of Primary tumors were 54.0-79.2 Gy and cervical lymph nodes were 55.8-90.0 Gy with a fraction size of 1.8 or 2.0 Gy per day. The range of follow-up periods was 3-102 months and median was 20 months. The range of a9e was 33-79 years old and median was 58 years old. Results : Overall 3-year actuarial survival rate (3YSR) of all patients was $39\%$. The 3YSRS of stage I (n=5), II (n=11), III (n=12) and IV (n=19) were 60, 55, 33 and $32\%$, respectively The 3YSRS of Tl+2, T3+4 and No, N+ were 55, $18\%$ (p=0.005) and 43, $36\%$ (p>0.1), respectively. There was no difference in 3YSRS between radiotherapy alone group and neoadjuvant chemotherapy group (38 vs $43\%$, p>0.1). According to the original site of primary tumor, the 3YSRS of tonsil (n=32), base of tongue (n=8), soft palate or uvula (n=6) and pharyngeal wall (n=1) were 36 38, 67 and $0\%$, respectively The Patients of soft palate or uvular cancer had longer survival than other primaries but the difference was not significant statistically (p>0.1). Of 32 patients of tonsillar cancer, 22 Patients who had primary extension to adjacent tissue showed inferior survival rate to the ones who had not Primary extension, but the difference was marginally significant statistically (24 vs $60\%$, p=0.08). On Cox multivariate analysis in entire patients with variables of age, T stage, N stage, total duration of radiotherapy, the site of primary tumor and the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, only T stage was a significant Prognostic factor affecting 3YSR. Conclusion : The difference of 3YASRS of conventional radiotherapy alone group and neoadjuvant chemotherapy group was not significant statistically. These treatments could be effective in oropharyngeal cancer of early stage, especially such as soft palate, uvular or tonsillar cancer which did not extend to adjacent tissue. But in order to improve the survival of patients of most advanced oropharyngeal cancer, other altered fractionated radiotherapy such as hyperfractionation rather than conventional fractionation or multi-modal approach combining radiotherapy and accessible surgery or concurrent chemotherapy might be beneficial.

  • PDF