• Title, Summary, Keyword: E-Tongue

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Physicochemical Qualities and Flavor Patterns of Traditional Chinese Vinegars Manufactured by Different Fermentation Methods and Aging Periods

  • Gao, Yaping;Jo, Yunhee;Chung, Namhyeok;Gu, Song-Yi;Jeong, Yong-Jin;Kwon, Joong-Ho
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.30-36
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    • 2017
  • Physicochemical properties of Fujian Yongchun aged vinegar (FYAV) and Shanxi mature vinegar (SMV) were compared in terms of the fermentation methods applied and aging periods (3, 5, 8, and 10 years), and combined E-nose/E-tongue analyses were performed to assess their flavors. Compared with submerged fermentation-derived FYAV, solid-state fermentation-derived SMV showed higher values of pH, brix, soluble solids, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity, but not total acidity or total organic acids. Aging period resulted in an increase in pH, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Principal component analysis based on E-tongue/E-nose analyses was performed to distinguish between the vinegars produced by different fermentation methods and under aging periods. Solid-state fermentation and an aging process were considered good techniques for vinegar brewing, considering the various organic acids and high levels of total phenolics and antioxidant activity.

Comparative analysis of sensory profiles of commercial cider vinegars from Korea, China, Japan, and US by SPME/GC-MS, E-nose, and E-tongue (한국, 중국, 일본, 미국산 시판 사과식초의 관능적 품질 비교를 위한 SPME-GC/MS, 전자코 및 전자혀 분석)

  • Jo, Yunhee;Gu, Song-Yi;Chung, Namhyeok;Gao, Yaping;Kim, Ho-Jin;Jeong, Min-Hee;Jeong, Yong-Jin;Kwon, Joong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.430-436
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    • 2016
  • Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS), electronic nose, and electronic tongue were used to characterize the sensory profiles of cider vinegars from Korea (K1-2), China (C1-2), Japan (J1-2), and US (U1-2). SPME-GC/MS detected acetic acid as the common volatile compound in all vinegars, in addition to isovaleric acid, octanoic acid, and phenethyl acetate. Acids and acetic esters were the major components of Korean and US vinegar samples, respectively. Chinese vinegars had high ethyl acetate content, while Japanese samples were characterized by a low content of acetic acid. Principal component analysis (PCA) pattern provided a clear categorical discrimination of Chinese vinegars by E-nose and E-tongue analyses. The instrumental sensory scores and the taste attributes for flavor ($r^2=0.9431$), sourness ($r^2=0.9515$), and sweetness ($r^2=0.8325$) were highly correlated. Therefore, SPME/GC-MS, E-nose, and E-tongue analyses may be useful tools to discriminate the sensory profiles of cider vinegars of different origins.

Assessment of Physicochemical Characteristics among Different Types of Pale Ale Beer (Pale ale류에 속하는 맥주 신제품의 이화학적 특성 평가)

  • Kim, Ki Hwa;Park, Sue Jee;Kim, Jee Eun;Dong, Hyemin;Park, In Seon;Lee, JaeHwan;Hyun, So Yang;Noh, Bong Soo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.142-147
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to evaluate and compare new beer (NB) with market beers, e.g., New castle brown ale (NC), Victoria bitter (VB), and Coopers pale ale (CP) using physicochemical parameters. In addition, pattern recognition analyses were carried out using an electronic nose based on mass spectrometry (MS-E nose) and an electronic tongue (E-tongue) for differentiation of the different types of beer. The measured alcohol content of NB was 4.37%. NB was not significantly different compared with other types of beer with regard to bitterness unit, color, and polyphenol content (p<0.05). On the basis of the flavor pattern determined by the MS-E nose, NB was separated by DF1 (first score from discriminant function analysis), while NC, VB, and CP were located in the same group. The result of the E-tongue showed that the different samples could be clearly discriminated; NB was less sour. It was suggested that the discriminant function analysis (DFA) given by the MS-E nose and E-tongue could be used for evaluations during new product development. Furthermore, because of its simplicity, it might be possible to use the validated method for the evaluation of beer.

Quality Characteristics of Modified Doenjang and Traditional Doenjang (개량된장과 전통된장의 품질 특성)

  • Jeon, Hyeonjin;Lee, Sanghoon;Kim, Sangsook;Kim, Yoonsook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.7
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    • pp.1001-1009
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between quality factors and palatability of modified Doenjang and traditional Doenjang. Fourteen types of Doenjang, including three modified Doenjang and 11 traditional Doenjang samples, were analyzed to evaluate their physicochemical and sensorial properties. There were differences in e-tongue, which indicates overall acceptability. Water contents, minerals, total sugar contents, salt contents, pH, titratable acidity, and free amino acids of Doenjang did not show significant differences. From the correlation and regression analysis, palatability was closely related to the e-tongue sensor such as $X_1$ (sourness), $X_3$ (saltiness), and $X_4$ (umami) to -0.772, -0.642, and 0.678, respectively. The regression equation for sensorial palatability (Y) was Y=$45.356-0.008X_1-0.010X_3$ with a coefficient of 0.882.

Alterations of Mucosal Vibration of True Vocal Folds on Tongue-Tip Trill : Preliminary Study Using the Electroglottography (Trill 발성시 전기성문파 측정검사로 분석한 성대점막 진동의 변화 : 예비연구)

  • 진성민;반재호;김남훈;이경철;권기환;이용배
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Laryngology, Phoniatrics and Logopedics
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.76-80
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    • 2000
  • Tongue-tip trill is a sound made by the tongue tip making contract with the alveolar ridge and oscillating rapidly as sound is produced. It is an exercise used by many singers to warm up the voice and used as one of the methods of voice rehabilitation for patients who have the vocal folds scarred postoperatively and also who present with a variety of disorders, particularly hypofunction and presbyphonia. We intended to investigate the mucosal vibration of the true vocal folds on tongue-tip trill by electroglottography and to find e effective methods of tongue-tip trill. One adult male volunteer participated. Spectrography and electroglottography were checked repeatedly 15 times, more than 5 second in each times, at same pitch, in three conditions of phonation : sustained /a/ vowel, anterior trill in which tongue-tip vibrated at anterior portion of alveolar ridge just behind the anterior tooth, and posterior trill in which at palatal crest behind the transverse palatine fold We measured the first and second formant to determine indirectly the position of tongue and calculated speed quotient and the ratio of closing phase to closed phase. Speed quotients of posterior trill were higher than sustained /a/ vowel and anterior trill in 14 times. The ratio of closing phase to dosed phase of posterior trill were lower than the others in 14 times. Mucosa of true vocal folds is vibrated more effectively on posterior trill rather than sustained /a/ vowel and anterior trill. So, when tongue-tip trill is used as a method of voice rehabilitation, we suggest that posterior trill is better in producing effective mucosal vibration

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Some Notes on Articulatory Correlates of Three-way Bilabial Stop Contrast in /Ca/ Context in Korean: An Electromagnetic Articulography (EMA) Study

  • Son, Min-Jung;Cho, Tae-Hong
    • Phonetics and Speech Sciences
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.119-127
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    • 2010
  • Recently, we have launched a large-scale articulatory study to investigate how the three-way contrastive stops (i.e., lenis, fortis, and aspirated) in Korean are kinematically expressed (i.e., in terms of articulatory movement characteristics) in various contexts, using a magnetometer (Electromagnetic Articulography). In this paper, we report some preliminary results about how the three-way bilabial series /p,$p^h,p^*$/ produced in /Ca/ context in isolation are kinematically characterized not only during the lip closure but also during the following vocalic articulation. Some important notes could be made from the results. First, the degree of lip constriction (as measured by the lip aperture between the upper and lower lips) was smaller for the lenis /p/ and larger for the fortis/aspirated /$p^*,p^h$/, showing a two-way distinction during the closure. Second, the tongue lowering for the following vowel was more extreme after the lenis /p/ than after the fortis/aspirated /$p^*,p^h$/. Regarding this vocalic articulatory difference in the tongue height, we discussed the possibility that the articulatory tension associated with the fortis/aspirated stops is further reflected in the lingual vocalic movement maintaining the tongue position to a certain level for the following vowel /a/, while the lenis consonant does not impose such articulatory constraints, resulting in more tongue lowering. Finally, the temporal relationship between the release of the stop closure and the lowest tongue position of the following vowel remained constant, suggesting that CV coordination is invariantly maintained across the consonant type. This pattern was interpreted as supporting the view that the consonant and vowel gestures are coordinated in much the same way across languages.

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AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF Co-60 IRRADIATION ON THE RAT TONGUE TISSUE (방사선 조사가 백서 설조직에 미치는 영향에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Lee Seon-Gee;Lee Sang Rae
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Maxillofacial Radiology
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.125-133
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    • 1990
  • It is known that radiation therapy is a kind of treatment choices of the maxillofacial tumors. This study is designed to investigate the effects of irradiation on rat's tongue tissues as functional tissues which relate to taste, mastication, and pronunciation. 88 rats (Sprague Dawley branch, male) were divided into control group of 4 and experimental group of 84. Experimental group was singly exposed to Co-60 irradiation with 8, 13, 18 Gy in the head and neck region. Animals were sacrificed on 1 hour, 3 hours, 6 hours, 1day, 3 days, 7 days, and 28 days after the irradiation. The specimens were observed by histopathological examination employing H-E stain and Van-Gieson stain. The results were follows; 1. The tongue tissue were severely swollen on the 1 hour after irradiation, but gradually decreased in course of time. 2. The basal cells of epithelium of tongue proliferated at initial stage of irradiation, but gradually decreased. The Keratin layer were gradually increased. 3. The muscles within the tongue were severely degenerated at initial stage of irradiation, but gradually recovered almost normally. 4. The tissue changes after irradiation were gradually increased by the degree of irradiation.

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Experimental Study on the Korean Monophthongs by Vietnamese Advanced Korean Learners. (베트남인 고급 학습자의 한국어 단모음에 대한 실험음성학적 연구)

  • Jang, Hyejin
    • Korean Linguistics
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    • v.80
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    • pp.211-234
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    • 2018
  • This study aims to research the acoustic properties of Korean and Vietnamese monophthongs by Vietnamese advanced Korean learners, and to discuss the realization of Korean monophthongs compared to Koreans. The Vietnamese advanced Korean learners do not distinguish between /e/ and /${\varepsilon}$/, which are the same as Korean. They pronounce Korean /e(${\varepsilon}$)/ close to /e/ in their native language. In the case of /ʌ/, it is reported that many errors are observed in previous studies. However, /ʌ/ of Vietnamese advanced learners is realized similar to /ʌ/ spoken by Koreans. /ɯ/ of Vietnamese advanced Korean learners is pronounced in the back of the tongue, whereas in the central by Koreans. In the case of /o/ and /u/, there is no significant difference by the Vietnamese advanced Korean learners. /ɯ/ and /u/ are pronounced in relatively front side of the tongue in Korean, but it is not observed in the Vietnamese advanced Korean learners.

Context-sensitive lingual gestures in the Korean tap /r/

  • Kim, Dae-Won
    • Speech Sciences
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.11-19
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    • 2000
  • The present electropalatographic study reports the production of the allophones. i.e., [l] and [r], of Korean tap /r/ and their coarticulatory characteristics in /$C{\'{a}}r#g$/ and /$C{\'{a}}r#i$/ sequences. The finding that tap /r/ involves a complete oral closure with less lingual contact, i.e., apico-frontalveolar coupling. than lateralized /r/ which involves apico-bladealveolar coupling and tongue dorsum lowering for adequate airflow through either side and/or both of the tongue body suggests that the two allophones of the tap /r/ have different lingual gestures. Moreover. in comparison with the tap. the lateral exerts longer lingual contacts. The mean ratio between them is 3.7. In the sequences /Car#g/. the two adjacent antagonistic segments (i.e., /r/ and /g/) show mutual coarticulation effects taking on features of adjacent segment. but either of them is precisely constrained without blocking the formation of involved major lingual gestures for the other segment. In sequences /Car#i/ occurs anticipatory V-to-C coarticulation but not vocalic carryover effects. In both sequences. the allophones reveal insignificant wordinitial consonantal carryover coarticulatory effects and insignificant speaker-specific lingual contacts.

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