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Normalized gestural overlap measures and spatial properties of lingual movements in Korean non-assimilating contexts

  • Son, Minjung
    • Phonetics and Speech Sciences
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 2019
  • The current electromagnetic articulography study analyzes several articulatory measures and examines whether, and if so, how they are interconnected, with a focus on cluster types and an additional consideration of speech rates and morphosyntactic contexts. Using articulatory data on non-assimilating contexts from three Seoul-Korean speakers, we examine how speaker-dependent gestural overlap between C1 and C2 in a low vowel context (/a/-to-/a/) and their resulting intergestural coordination are realized. Examining three C1C2 sequences (/k(#)t/, /k(#)p/, and /p(#)t/), we found that three normalized gestural overlap measures (movement onset lag, constriction onset lag, and constriction plateau lag) were correlated with one another for all speakers. Limiting the scope of analysis to C1 velar stop (/k(#)t/ and /k(#)p/), the results are recapitulated as follows. First, for two speakers (K1 and K3), i) longer normalized constriction plateau lags (i.e., less gestural overlap) were observed in the pre-/t/ context, compared to the pre-/p/ (/k(#)t/>/k(#)p/), ii) the tongue dorsum at the constriction offset of C1 in the pre-/t/ contexts was more anterior, and iii) these two variables are correlated. Second, the three speakers consistently showed greater horizontal distance between the vertical tongue dorsum and the vertical tongue tip position in /k(#)t/ sequences when it was measured at the time of constriction onset of C2 (/k(#)t/>/k(#)p/): the tongue tip completed its constriction onset by extending further forward in the pre-/t/ contexts than the uncontrolled tongue tip articulator in the pre-/p/ contexts (/k(#)t/>/k(#)p/). Finally, most speakers demonstrated less variability in the horizontal distance of the lingual-lingual sequences, which were taken as the active articulators (/k(#)t/=/k(#)p/ for K1; /k(#)t/

Relationship between Formants and Constriction Areas of Vocal Tract in 9 Korean Standard Vowels (우리말 모음의 발음시 음형대와 조음위치의 관계에 대한 연구)

  • 서경식;김재영;김영기
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Laryngology, Phoniatrics and Logopedics
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.44-58
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    • 1994
  • The formants of the 9 Korean standard vowels(which used by the average people of Seoul, central-area of the Korean peninsula) were measured by analysis with the linear predictive coding(LPC) and fast Fourier transform(FFT). The author already had reported the constriction area for the Korean standard vowels, and with the existing data, the distance from glottis to the constriction area in the vocal tract of each vowel was newly measured with videovelopharyngograms and lateral Rontgenograms of the vocal tract. We correlated the formant frequencies with the distance from glottis to the constriction area of the vocal tract. Also we tried to correlate the formant frequencies with the position of tongue in the vocal tract which is divided into 2 categories : The position of tongue in oral cavity by the distance from imaginary palatal line to the highest point of tongue and the position in pharyngeal cavity by the distance from back of tongue to posterior pharyngeal wall. This study was performed with 10 adults(male : 5, female : 5) who spoke primary 9 Korean standard vowels. We had already reported that the Korean vowel [i], [e], $[{\varepsilon}]$ were articulated at hard palate level, [$\dot{+}$], [u] were at soft palate level, [$\wedge$] was at upper pharynx level and the [$\wedge$], [$\partial$], [a] in a previous article. Also we had noted that the significance of pharyngeal cavity in vowel articulation. From this study we have concluded that ; 1) The F$_1$ is related with the oral cavity articulated vowel [i, e, $\varepsilon$, $\dot{+}$, u]. 2) Within the oral cavity articulated vowel [i, e, $\varepsilon$, $\dot{+}$, u] and the upper pharynx articulated vowel [o], the F$_2$ is elevated when the diatance from glottis to the constriction area is longer. But within the lower pharynx articulated vowel [$\partial$, $\wedge$, a], the F$_2$ is elevated when the distance from glottis to the constriction area is shorter. 3) With the stronger tendency of back-vowel, the higher the elevation of the F$_1$ and F$_2$ frequencies. 4) The F$_3$ and F$_4$ showed no correaltion with the constriction area nor the position of tongue in the vocal tract 5) The parameter F$_2$- F$_1$, which is the difference between F$_2$ frequency and F$_1$ frequency showed an excellent indicator of differenciating the oral cavity articulated vowels from pharyngeal cavity articulated vowels. If the F$_2$-F$_1$ is less than about 600Hz which indicates the vowel is articulated in the pharyngeal cavity, and more than about 600Hz, which indicates that the vowel is articulated in the oral cavity.

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Articulatory Manifestation of Prosodic Strengthening in English /i/ and /I/

  • Kim, Sa-Hyang;Cho, Tae-Hong
    • Phonetics and Speech Sciences
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.13-21
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    • 2011
  • The present study investigated the effects of two different sources of prosodic strengthening, i.e., boundary and accent, in the articulation of English high front vowels, /i/ and /I/. The vowels were investigated in vowel-initial ('eat' vs. 'it'), /h/-initial ('heat' vs. 'hit') and /p/-initial words ('Pete' vs. 'pit'), which were placed in varying prosodic conditions. Using Electromagnetic Articulograph (EMA), the tongue dorsum positions in the x and y dimensions, the lip opening and the jaw opening (lowering) were measured. With respect to the boundary-induced strengthening, results showed that /i/ and /I/ in vowel-initial words ('eat' - 'it') are produced with a higher tongue position in the domain-intial than domain-medial positions. The fact that the vowels only in the vowel-initial condition showed the domain-intial strengthening (DIS) effect suggests that the DIS effect is localized mainly to the initial position (the locality account). As for the accent-induced strengthening, vowels were produced with a more fronted tongue position and larger lip opening in accented than unaccented positions. This suggests that the presence of accent increases overall sonority of the vowels in various prosodic contexts, and enhances primarily the frontedness of the front high vowels. Taken together, the results indicate that the two types of prosodic strengthening are articulatorily realized differently, supporting the view that they are encoded separately in the speech planning process. The present study also showed the distinction between the two high front vowels in the tongue position (in both the frontedness and the height dimensions), while the jaw did not seem to contribute to the distinction robustly, suggesting that the tongue contributes more in distinguishing the two vowels than the jaw does.

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The Relationship between Muscle Fiber Composition and Pork Taste-traits Assessed by Electronic Tongue System

  • Hwang, Young-Hwa;Ismail, Ishamri;Joo, Seon-Tea
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.1305-1314
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    • 2018
  • To investigate relationships of electronic taste-traits with muscle fiber type composition (FTC) and contents of nucleotides, porcine longissimus lumborum (LL), psoas major (PM), and infra spinam (IS) muscles were obtained from eight castrated LYD pigs. FTC and taste-traits in these three porcine muscles were measured by histochemical analysis and electronic tongue system, respectively. IS had significantly higher proportion of type I fibers while LL had significantly higher proportion of type IIB than other muscles (p<0.05). IS had the highest inosine monophosphate (IMP) content while LL had the lowest IMP content (p<0.05). In contrast, LL had significantly higher hypoxanthine content compared to PM and IS (both p<0.05). For taste-traits, IS had significantly higher umami and richness values but lower sourness value than LL and PM (p<0.05). Sourness and astringency values of LL were significantly higher than those of IS (p<0.05). The proportion of type IIB fiber was positively correlated with sourness and astringency but negatively correlated with saltiness. These results suggest that sourness and astringency tastes are increased with increasing proportions of type IIB fibers in porcine muscles due to increase of hypoxanthine content. These results also imply that umami and richness tastes are increased with increasing contents of type I and IIA fibers because of increased IMP content in porcine muscles.

Cellular Effects of Troglitazone on YD15 Tongue Carcinoma Cells

  • Loan, Ta Thi;Yoo, Hoon
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.113-118
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    • 2016
  • An FDA approved drug for the treatment of type II diabetes, Troglitazone (TRO), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist, is withdrawn due to severe idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity. In the search for new applications of TRO, we investigated the cellular effects of TRO on YD15 tongue carcinoma cells. TRO suppressed the growth of YD15 cells in the MTT assay. The inhibition of cell growth was accompanied by the induction of cell cycle arrest at $G_0/G_1$ and apoptosis, which are confirmed by flow cytometry and western blotting. TRO also suppressed the expression of cell cycle proteins such as cyclin D1, cdk2, cdk4, cyclin B1, cdk1(or cdc2), cyclin E1 and cyclin A. The inhibition of cell cycle proteins was coincident with the up-regulation of $p21^{CIP1/WAF1}$ and $p27^{KIP1}$. In addition, TRO induces the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-7, as well as the cleavage of PARP. Further, TRO suppressed the expressions of Bcl-2 without affecting the expressions of Bad and Bax. Overall, our data supports that TRO induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis on YD15 cells.

Vowel Training Method Using Formant Space Information

  • Bak, Il-Suh;Jo, Cheol-Woo
    • Speech Sciences
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.7-15
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    • 2004
  • In this paper, we develop a vowel training assistant method using vowel formant statistics. Formant statistics were obtained from a PBW set consisting of 452 words from 8 persons. Then we calculated distance from input formants to each center of vowel formant space. Based on the distance, directions could be given to correct the speaker's manner of articulations, i.e. position of jaw and tongue.

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Ethanol Elicits Inhibitory Effect on the Growth and Proliferation of Tongue Carcinoma Cells by Inducing Cell Cycle Arrest

  • Le, Thanh-Do;Do, Thi Anh Thu;Yu, Ri-Na;Yoo, Hoon
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.153-158
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    • 2012
  • Cellular effects of ethanol in YD-15 tongue carcinoma cells were assessed by MTT assay, caspase activity assay, Western blotting and flow cytometry. Ethanol inhibited the growth and proliferation of YD-15 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner in an MTT assay. The effects of ethanol on cell cycle control at low percent range of ethanol concentration (0 to 1.5%), the condition not inducing YD-15 cell death, was investigated after exposing cells to alcohol for a certain period of time. Western blotting on the expression of cell cycle inhibitors showed that p21 and p27 was up-regulated as ethanol concentration increases from 0 to 1.5% whilst the cell cycle regulators, cdk1, cdk2, and cdk4 as well as Cyclin A, Cyclin B1 and Cyclin E1, were gradually down-regulated. Flow cytometric analysis of cell cycle distribution revealed that YD-15 cells exposed to 1.5% ethanol for 24 h was mainly arrested at G2/M phase. However, ethanol induced apoptosis in YD-15 cells exposed to 2.5% or higher percent of ethanol. The cleaved PARP, a marker of caspase-3 mediated apoptosis, and the activation of caspase-3 and -7 were detected by caspase activity assay or Western blotting. Our results suggest that ethanol elicits inhibitory effect on the growth and proliferation of YD-15 tongue carcinoma cells by mediating cell cycle arrest at G2/M at low concentration range and ultimately induces apoptosis under the condition of high concentration.

Age and Growth of Red Tongue Sole (Cynoglossus joyneri) in the Southern Sea of Korea (남해 참서대 (Cynogiossus joyneri)의 연령과 성장)

  • BAECK Gun Wook;HUH Sung-Hoi
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.307-311
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    • 2004
  • Age and growth of red tongue sole (Cynoglossus joyneri), were studied using samples from the coastal waters off Yeosu, Korea, from January to December, 2001. Sagittal otoliths had relatively clear annuli. Marginal index of otolith dropped sharhly in August suggesting that each annulus was formed once a year In August. Monthly changes in the gonadosomatic index indicated that spawning peaked between July and September. The oldest fish observed in this study was 4 years old for both of females and males. Relationships between the otolith radius (R) and total length (L) were: L=14.1R-0.098 for females, and L=11.9R+1.83 for males. Relationships between total length and body weight $(W)\;were:\;W=0.0021L^{3.24}\;for\;females,\;and\;W=0.0014L^{3.39}$ for males. Growth in length of the fish was expressed by the von Bertalanffy's growth equation as:$L_{t}=29.06\;(1-e^{-0.19(t+2.40)})\;for\;females\;and\;L_{t}=27.44 (1-e^{-0.17(t+2.84)})$ for males.

The Etiologic Roles and Carcinogenic Mechanisms of Human Papilloma Virus in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (두경부 편평세포암종의 발암 원인으로 인간유두종 바이러스(Human Papilloma Virus)의 역할 및 이와 관련된 발암 기전에 관한 연구)

  • Shin, Dong-Hyun;Lee, Sei-Young;Koo, Bon-Seok;Kim, Se-Heon
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.28-32
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    • 2009
  • Background : The most frequently reported risk factors for head and neck suamous cell carcinoma are smoking and alcohol. But in a recent overview, human papilloma virus(HPV) infection was revealed the important carcinogenic factor in oropharyngeal cancer. We aimed to clarify whether HPV directly effects on the oncogenesis and biologic behavior of hean and neck squamous cell carcinoma by comparison with infection prevalence, and physical status of virus. Material and Method : We used HPV genotyping DNA chip(Biocore, Korea, Seoul) arrayed by multiple oligonucleotide probes of L1 sequence of 26 types of HPV and HPV genotypes are identified by fluorescence scanner. The copy numbers of HPV E2 and E6 open reading frames(ORF) were assessed using a TaqMan-based 5'-exonuclease quantitative real-time PCR assay. The ratio of E2 to E6 copy numbers was calculated to determine the physical status of HPV-16 viral gene. Results : We observed a significant difference in HPV prevalence between tonsillar cancer group and control group(73.1% vs. 11.6%), and most of the HPVs were type 16(87.2%) and integrated(94.1%) state. In terms of oral tongue cancer, we demonstrate that 30.5% has integrated HPV-16 in cancer tissue. But Glottic cancer only 1% is related to HPV-16 integration. Conclusion : This study revealed significant relationship of HPV prevalence with oropharyngeal and oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Most of HPV were 16 type and integrated or mixed, HPV-16 integration could be directly related to the carcinogenesis.

Morphological Study on the Dorsal Lingual Papillae of Myotis macrodactylus (큰발윗수염박쥐(Myotis macrodactylus)의 혀 유두의 형태학적 연구)

  • Hwang, Hyun-Suk;Lee, Jung-Hun
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.147-156
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    • 2007
  • The dorsal lingual papillae of Myotis macrodactylus were investigated morphologically using scanning electron microscopy. Three types of lingual papillae from Myotis macrodactylus were recognized. The filiform(Fi) papillae were distributed over the entire dorsal surface of the tongue, and they could be classified into 5 types of papillae by the shape, size and number of the protrusion. Type I was distributed on dorsal surface of the apex in the anterior region of the tongue, has a crow-like shape with ten to fifteen formed projections. Type II was located in the medial portion of the anterior region of the tongue, has an eight to ten spin-like protrusion. Type III was distributed on the medial portion of the tongue, has a scale-like papille with five to seven protrusion. Type IV was distributed on the both lateral portion of the posterior region of the tongue, has a small conical papillae, does not have needle projection. Type V have not needle projection, a large of conical papillae, on the both lateral portion of the posterior region of the tongue. Most Fu(Fungiform) papillae were distributed the both lateral region or medial portion of the posterior region of the tongue, has a round or oval shape with $40{\sim}45$ papillae. The small $(65{\mu}m)$, meddle $(75{\mu}m)$ and large $(120{\mu}m)$ fungiform papillae were distributed on dorsal surface of the apex in the anterior, the both lateral portions and medial portion of the posterior region of the tongue, respectively. Two large oval vallate (V) papillae are located in the medial portion of the posterior region of the tongue. In conclusion, the morphology of lingual papillae is useful to determine species relationship among Myotis species. It suggests that the difference of types and number of lingual papillae caused by the difference of food habit.