• Title, Summary, Keyword: E-Tongue

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A SPEECH-PHONETIC STUDY ON THE PRONUNCIATION OF THE OPENBITE PATIENTS (개교환자의 발성에 관한 언어 음성학적 연구)

  • Kim, Ki-Dal;Yang, Won Sik
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.287-307
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    • 1991
  • This study aimed at examining speech defects of openbite patients, which were analized in terms of formant frequency for vowels and word pronunciation length for consonants. In addition, the upper and lower lip (perioral m.) activity was tested by the EMG. The tongue force was measured by the strain gauge, and the speech discrimination test was carried out. One experimental group and one control group were used for this study and they were respectively composed of six female openbite patients and six normal-occlusion females. Eight monophthongs, two fricatives and two affricatives were chosen for speech analysis. Speeches of the above-mentioned groups were recorded and then analized by the ILS/PC-1 software. Four hundred most frequently used monosyllables were also chosen for discrimination score. Openbite patients showed the following characteristics: 1. Abnormality in case of /a/, $/\varepsilon/$, /e/, /i/ $F_2$ and /e/, /a/ $F_1$. 2. Significantly elongated length in their pronunciation of /h/ and $/C^h/$ and somewhat elongated length also in their pronunciation of /s/ and /c/. 3. Significant upper lip activity according to the EMG test during pronunciation of the bilabial consonants. 4. Relatively weak tongue force according to the strain gauge measurement. 5. According to the speech discrimination test, high rate of misarticulation in case of (a) initial /p/ /s'/ and /ts'/, (b) /a/,$/\varepsilon/$,/e/,/je/,/o/, $/\phi/$,/jo/,/u/,/we/, and /i/ (c) final (equation omitted).

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Age-Related Changes in Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 and Reactive Oxygen Species and Mitochondrial Structure in the Tongues of Fischer 344 Rats

  • Baek, Min-Kwan;Lee, Hyon;Kim, Kyung-Ok;Kwon, Hyun-Jin;Chung, Myung-Hee;Park, Hyoung-Min;Woo, Joo-Hyun;Kim, Dong-Young
    • Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.357-362
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    • 2017
  • Objectives. Previously the authors reported age-related changes in the activities of anti-oxidative enzyme activities and protein expressions in the tongues of rats. Because more information is required about relations between aging and oxidative stress and anti-oxidative enzyme efficiency, the authors investigated differences between the expression of master regulator of anti-oxidative enzymes (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 [Nrf2]), levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondrial structures in the tongues of young and aged Fischer 344 rats. Methods. Age-dependent changes in Nrf2 protein and ROS were determined by Western blotting and using chemical kits, respectively. Tongue specimens were examined by electron microscopy. The study was conducted using rats aged 7 months (young, n=8) or 22 months (old, n=8). Results. Nrf2 protein levels in the tongues of aged rats were lower than in young rats. ROS levels were higher in older rats and mitochondrial structural deficits were observed their tongues. Three young rats showed moderate mitochondrial degeneration, whereas profound degeneration with mitochondrial cristae disruption, swelling, rupture, or intramitochondrial vacuole formation was observed in all 8 old rats. Notably, mitochondrial rupture was observed in 5 old rats. Conclusion. Antioxidant defense systems of old rats were compromised by Nrf2 deficiency, which could lead to the deleterious accumulation and release of ROS and probably mitochondrial structural deficits in aged tongue tissues.

Development of Vowel Training Assistant Method Using Formant Statistics (포만트 통계치를 이용한 장애모음 발음 훈련 보조 방법에 관한 연구)

  • 조철우;박일서;정은태
    • Proceedings of the IEEK Conference
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    • pp.325-328
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    • 2003
  • In this paper, we tried to develop a vowel training assistant method using vowel formant statistics. Formant statistics were obtained from PBW set consists of 452 words from 8 persons. Then, we calculated distance from input formants to each center of vowel formant space. Based on the distance, directions to correct the speaker's manner of articulation, i.e. position of jaw and tongue.

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Teaching Method of Correct Pronunciation from Formant Statistics (포먼트 통계치를 이용한 발음교정 지시 방법에 관하여)

  • Bak Il-Suh;Jo Cheol-Woo
    • Proceedings of the Acoustical Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.69-72
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    • 2004
  • In this paper, we tried to develop a vowel training assistant method using vowel formant statistics. Formant statistics were obtained from PBW set consists of 452 words from 8 persons. Then, we calculated distance from input formants to each center of vowel formant space. Based on the distance, direct ions to correct the speaker's manner of articulation, i .e. position of jaw and tongue.

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Changes in Sensory Compounds during Dry Aging of Pork Cuts

  • Hwang, Young-Hwa;Sabikun, Nahar;Ismail, Ishamri;Joo, Seon-Tea
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.379-387
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    • 2019
  • The effects of dry-aging on changes in taste compounds and electronic taste sensing traits of pork were investigated. Ten pork belly and shoulder blade cuts were divided into wet-aging and dry-aging treatments and stored for 21 days at $2^{\circ}C$. The contents of nucleotides and free amino acids, and electronic tongue analysis were investigated at different aging periods (1, 7, 14, and 21 days). The contents of inosine and hypoxanthine of dry-aged pork cuts increased more rapidly, and they were significantly (p<0.05) higher than wet-aged pork cuts. Total free amino acids of dry-aged pork cuts were also significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of wet-aged pork cuts after 21 days of aging. Consequently, umami intensity of dry-aged pork cuts increased more rapidly and the values were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of wet-aged pork during 21 days of aging. Results suggested that the better palatability of dry-aged pork cuts might be due to higher umami intensity in relation to higher contents of inosine, hypoxanthine, and free amino acids.

The relationship between vowel production and proficiency levels in L2 English produced by Korean EFL learners

  • Lee, Seohee;Rhee, Seok-Chae
    • Phonetics and Speech Sciences
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2019
  • This study explored the relationship between accurate vowel production and proficiency levels in L2 English produced by Korean EFL adult learners. To this end, nine English vowels /i, ɪ, ɛ, æ, ʌ, ɔ, ɑ, ʊ, u/ were selected and adjacent vowels paired up (e.g., /i/-/ɪ/, /u/-/ʊ/, /ɛ/-/æ/, /ʌ/-/ɔ/, /ɔ/-/ɑ/). The spectral features of the pairs were measured instrumentally, namely F1 (indicating tongue height) and F2 (indicating tongue backness). Meanwhile, the durations as well as spectral features of the tense and lax counterparts in /i/-/ɪ/ and /u/-/ʊ/ were measured, as both temporal and spectral features are important in distinguishing them. The findings of this study confirm that higher-rated speakers were better able to distinguish the contrasts in the front vowel pairs /i/-/ɪ/ and /ɛ/-/æ/ than lower-rated learners, but in the central and back vowel pairs /u/-/ʊ/and /ʌ/-/ɔ/ (though not /ɔ/-/ɑ/), Korean EFL learners generally showed difficulty distinguishing adjacent vowels with spectral cues. On the other hand, the durations of the tense and lax vowels showed that the lower-rated speakers were less able to use the temporal feature to differentiate tense vowels from their lax counterparts, unlike previous studies that found that in general Korean learners depend excessively on the temporal cue to distinguish tense and lax vowels.

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF WOUND HEALING FOLLOWING PARTIAL GLOSSECTOMY OF RAT TONGUE USING CO2 LASER AND SCALPEL ($CO_2$ 레이저와 일반 수술도를 이용한 백서의 부분적설 절제술 후의 창상치유에 관한 비교연구)

  • Jang, Jae-Pil;Kim, Kyung-Wook;Lee, Jae-Hoon;Kim, Chang-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.437-445
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    • 2000
  • Object This study is focused on the comparison between $CO_2$ laser and scalpel by examining the overal process of wound healing after partial glossectomy of rats so that the result from the research could be easily applied to actual clinical environment. Method and Material In this research, 2mm defect was formed on both lateral borders of the tongue of rats by using $CO_2$ laser and scalpel respectively. 4rats were sacrified each time on the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 7th, 14th and 21th day according to a general method. After fabricating $5{\mu}m$ paraffin specimen, H&E staining and MT staining were performed. Results Compared to scalpel, wound healing by $CO_2$ laser leads to a earlier initiation of vascular proliferation and re-epithelization. Therefore, some influence is exerted on the early stage of wound healing. However, the two methods seem to undergo the similar healing process.

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The Influence of L1 on L2 -Perception of Korean Monophthongs by Polish Speakers- (외국어 습득에 모국어가 미치는 영향에 대하여 -폴란드어 화자의 한국어 단순 모음 청취에 대한 연구-)

  • Paradowska Anna IBabella
    • MALSORI
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    • no.39
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    • pp.73-86
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    • 2000
  • This paper aims to research the influence of mother tongue (Polish) on the perception of a foreign language (Korean) i.e. how vowel sounds that are totally unfamiliar to the listeners are perceived, how the similar sounds are perceived and whether the perception differs according to the phonetic values of the neighbouring sounds. As a result, the degree of the influence of Ll on the vowels of L2 is different in each case and mostly depends on the familiarity of the vowel in question and on the articulatory similarities between the vowels in both languages. The results are as follows; The best perception was observed with Korean /i/ and /a/ (very similar places of articulation in both languages). The worst degree of perception was Korean /(equation omitted)/ that is very unfamiliar to Polish subjects. Vowels that are not so different from the Ll sounds were perceived fairly well. Another important result is that Polish listeners seem to be more sensitive to lip rounding than to the height of the tongue. The role of the neighbouring sounds seems to be of a considerable importance, Depending on the preceding vowel, a sudden drop or rise in the degree of the perception was observed.

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A Case on Risperidone-Induced Tardive Dyskinesia (Risperidone 유발 지연성 운동장애 1례(一例))

  • Kim, Hun-Soo;Kim, Hyun-Sil;Min, Byung-Kun
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.129-133
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    • 1998
  • Objective : Base on clinical practice, the authors report a case of tardive dyskinesia arising during the course of treatment with resperidal. Methods : This article was review and analysis of a case on risperidone-induced tardive dyskinea. Results : Mrs K, a 51-year-old woman with a 1-year history of schizophrenic disorder, gradually developed tardive dyskinetic movement of the mouth, lip, and tongue over a 4 month period(From July, 1996 to June, 1997) while taking risperidone. Initially she was treated with haloperidol and alprazolam. However, the haloperidol was subsequently discontinued because of EPS developed. From 11th March, 1997, she was observed to have a severe form of tardive dyskinesia involving her tongue, lip, and mouth. After risperidone was withdrawn at 9th May 1997, her tardive dyskinetic movement was disappeared. Conclusions : This is, to our knowledge, the first report of the onset of tardive dyskinesia in a patient taking risperidone. However, additional controlled studies of specific questions are needed ; e.g., the dose-response curves for produce tardive dyskinesia and the mechanism of producing risperidone-induced tardive dyskinea and so on.

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An Acoustic Study of English Non-Phoneme Schwa and the Korean Full Vowel /e/

  • Ahn, Soo-Woong
    • Speech Sciences
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.93-105
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    • 2000
  • The English schwa sound has special characteristics which are distinct from other vowels. It is non-phonemic and occurs only in an unstressed syllable. Compared with the English schwa, the Korean /e/ is a full vowel which has phonemic contrast. This paper had three aims. One was to see whether there is any relationship between English full vowels and their reduced vowel schwas. Second was to see whether there is any possible target in the English schwa sounds which are derived from different full vowels. The third was to compare the English non-phoneme vowel schwa and the Korean full vowel /e/ in terms of articulatory positions and duration. The study results showed that there is no relationship between each of the full vowels and its schwa. The schwa tended to converge into a possible target which was F1 456 and F2 1560. The Korean vowel /e/ seemed to have its distinct position speaker-individual which is different from the neutral tongue position. The evidence that the Korean /e/ is a back vowel was supported by the Seoul dialect speaker. In duration, the English schwa was much shorter than the full vowels, but there was no significant difference in length between the Korean /e/ and other Korean vowels.

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