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Oral and Nasal Spectral Outputs in Korean Oral Vowels (정상 모음에 대한 구강 및 비강 spectral output 분석)

  • Hong, Ki-Hwan;Choi, Seung-Chul;Kim, Byum-Kyu;Yang, Yoon-Soo;Shim, Hyun-Ah
    • Speech Sciences
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.145-157
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    • 2003
  • Vowels are classified by the shapes of vocal tract. These shapes form constriction points along the tract, which have an influence on such vocal tract resonance as F1, F2, F3, and so on. The formant frequency is influenced by aperture and placement of tongue and the intensity is influenced by air pressure of subglottis. The object of this study compares to characterize the spectral outputs of oral and nasal spectra for the formant frequencies and intensity of Korean oral vowels. Subjects consisted of 20 normal persons (10 male and 10 female) without laryngeal pathology. The speech sample included /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/ of Korean oral vowels. The spectrum of each vowel was analysed by Nasal View and Real Analysis Program using Dr. Speech. The result showed that nasal intensity is decreased manifestly from F1 to F2. But oral intensity and Intensity is decreased little bit from F1 to F2. The most of values of nasal formant frequency is similarity oral formant frequency and Formant frequency or little bit smaller.

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Oral manifestation and root canal therapy of the patient with mucopolysaccharidosis

  • Yoon, Ji-Hye;Lee, Hyo-Il;Jang, Ji-Hyun;Choi, Sung-Hyeon;Chang, Hoon-Sang;Hwang, Yun-Chan;Hwang, In-Nam;Lee, Bin-Na;Oh, Won-Mann
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.14.1-14.7
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    • 2019
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is an inherited metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency in enzymes that participate in the degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as heparin sulfate and dermatan sulfate. Left untreated, patients show progressive mental and physical deterioration due to deposition of GAGs in organs. Death often occurs due to cardiac or respiratory failure before patients reach their early twenties. MPS has several oral and dental manifestations. An enlarged head, short neck, and open mouth associated with a large tongue are major characteristics of MPS patients. Dental complications can be severe, including unerupted dentition, dentigerous cyst-like follicles, malocclusions, condylar defects, and gingival hyperplasia. A 21-year-old female patient with MPS was described in this article, with special emphasis on oral manifestations and dental treatment.

Accelerated Seaward Growth of Tidal Sand Bar during Giant Dyke Construction off the Mangyung River Mouth, West Coast of Korea

  • Lee, Hee-Jun;Choi, Kang-Won;Eo, Dae-Su;Chu, Yong-Shik
    • Journal of the korean society of oceanography
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.72-82
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    • 2001
  • The progress of giant dyke construction off the Mangyung and Donajin rivers, has yielded enormous impact on the estuarine environment, both hydrodynamically and sedimentologically. Especially the inter-dyke gap in the northern Saemankeum area, 4 km wide between Yamido and Piungdo, has acted as an artificial tidal inlet. Due to such a changed geometry, tidal regime has been reversed from being flood- to ebb-dominated with a directional change from NE-SW to E-W. As a result, a large tongue-like tidal sand bar (named Saemankeum Bar) has conspicuously grown seaward through the artificial tidal inlet. The Saemankeum Bar composed of well-sorted very fine sands (3.0-3.5${\phi}$) has grown at a rate of 1.63 km/yr for the past three yews (1996-1998). Such a rapid growth of the sand bar is attributed to enhanced sediment supply derived from the degradation of former tidal sand bars at the mouth of the Mangyung River. Eventually the reworking of the tidal sand bars also caused the pre-existing tidal channels to be wider, deeper and more straightened. All of these phenomena well examplify the critical effect of artificial modifications on the natural estuarine environments.

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Clinical study on mandibular invasion by oral cancer (구강암의 하악골 침윤에 관한 임상적 연구)

  • Kim, B.Y.;Kim, H.J.;Cha, I.H.;Lee, E.W.
    • Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.508-514
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    • 1994
  • For the complete cure of oral cancer suspected to have invaded the mandible in clinical & radiological evaluation, the mandible resection in planned. The aim of this clinical study was to help in decision making in the method & the extent of the mandibular resection surgery. This study was conducted on 46 oral cancer patients, who received cancer surgery including mandibulectomy. And we evaluated the relationship between the pathologic results of resected mandible and the location, size and clinical newk node involvement, tumor cell differentiation. The results are that ; (1) Hiher incidence of bone invasion patterns were observed in tumor of mouth floor & gingiva compared to those of tongue & tonsil, and (2) No significant relationship was found between bone invasion of tumor and tumor size, neck node involvement tumor cell differentiation. The approximation between tumor and bone seems to be the most reliable factor among the other factors in decision making of mandibular resection.

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The Patient Care During Before Radiotherapy in Oral Cavity Cancer (구강내 종양환자의 방사선 치료시의 Patient Care)

  • Jeon Byeong-chul;Park Jae-il
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.92-96
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    • 1995
  • All patients who will Undergo irraidiation of the oral cavity cancer will need dental before and during Radiotherapy. The extent of the region and the presence of numerous critical normal tissues(mucosa, gingiva, teeth and the alveolar ridge, alveolar bony structure, etc) in the oral cavity area, injury to which could result in serious functional impairment. Therefore I evaluate the Usefulness of custom-made intraoral shielding device before and during Radiotherapy in oral cavity cancer. Materials and Methods(1) : Manufacture process of Custom-made intraoral shielding device Containing Cerroband. A. Acquisition of impression B. Matrix Constitution C. Separation by Separator D. Sprincle on method E. Trimming F. Spacing G. Fill with Cerroband Materials and Methods (2) A. Preannealing B. TLD Set up C. Annealing D. TLD Reading = Results = Therefore dosimetric characteristics in oral cavity by TLD Compared to isodose curve dose distribution Ipsilateral oral mucosa, Contralateral oral mucosa, alveolar ridge, tongue, dose was reduced by intraoral shielding device containning Cerroband technique Compard to isodose plan = Conclusions = The custom-made intra-oral shielding device containing Cerroband was useful in reducing the Contralateral oral mucosa dose and Volume irradiated.

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Measurement of the vocal tract area of vowels By MRI and their synthesis by area variation (MRI에 의한 모음의 성도 단면적 측정 및 면적 변이에 따른 합성 연구)

  • Yang, Byung-Gon
    • Speech Sciences
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.19-34
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    • 1998
  • The author collected and compared midsagittal, coronal, coronal oblique, and transversal images of Korean monophthongs /a, i, e, o, u, i, v/ produced by a healthy male speaker using 1.5 T MR, VISION. Area was measured by computer software after tracing the cross-section at different points along the tract. Results showed that the width of the oral and pharyngeal cavities varied compensatorily from each other on the midsagittal dimension. Formant frequency values estimated from the area functions of the seven vowels showed a strong correlation (r=0.978) with those analyzed from the spoken vowels. Moreover, almost all of 35 students who listened to the synthesized vowels from area data perceived the synthesized vowels as equivalent to the spoken ones. Movement of constriction points of vowel /u/ with wider lip opening sounded /i/ and led to slight changes in vowel quality. Jaw and tongue movement led to major volume variation with an anatomical limitation. Each comer vowel varied systematically from a somewhat constant volume of the average area. Thus, the author proposed that any simulation studies related to vocal tract area variation should reflect its constant volume. The results may be helpful to verify exact measurement of the vocal tract area through vowel synthesis and a simulation study before having any operation of the vocal tract.

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A study on classification of tongue coating using multi-dimensional color vectors (다차원 컬러벡터를 이용한 설태 분류 - 백태, 황태)

  • Lee, J.;Choi, E.J.;Ryu, H.H.;Lee, H.J.;Lee, Y.J.;Kim, J.Y.
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.1900-1901
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    • 2007
  • 한의학에서 혀는 인체 내 생리, 병리적 변화를 반영하여 진단에 있어 중요한 지표자료로 사용하고 있다. 하지만 설진은 진단환경에 의한 영향을 많이 받게 되어 객관적이고 정량화된 결과를 얻기 힘들며, 그로 인해 한의사의 진단에 대한 신뢰성도 낮아 널리 활용되지 못하고 있다. 이를 해결하기 위해 본 연구에서는 제한된 측정환경을 제공하는 디지털 설진 시스템을 통해 한의사로부터 황태라 진단받은 48명과 백태라 진단받은 14명의 설 영상을 획득하고, 설태의 컬러벡터값을 구하여 백태와 황태를 구분하는데 유의한 변수를 도출하였으며, 이를 이용하여 한의사의 설태 진단과 일치율이 높은 판별함수를 도출하였다. 이와같은 연구방법은 백태, 황태 뿐 아니라 회태나 흑태 또는 후태나 박태를 구분하는 데에도 유용하게 쓰일 수 있을 것이며 앞으로 한의사의 설진과정을 객관화, 과학화하는 과정에 기여할 수 있을 것이다.

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Grounded Theory Approach to the Procedure of International Students' Learning Korean (국제 유학생들의 한국어 학습과정에 대한 근거이론적 연구)

  • KIM, A-Young;KANG, E-Wha;KIM, Dae-Hyun
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.523-542
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study was to figure out the procedure of learning Korean for international students. A research question was set up as follows: What is the procedure of leaning Korean for international students in Korean universities? To achieve the research purpose, this study implemented a method of semi-constructed interviews. Nineteen international students participated in the interview. The collected data for this study included transcripts from each interview. The transcripts of 60 minutes of interviews with all the participants was audio-taped recorded. This study investigated the research question based on the grounded theory. The analysis of open coding, axial-coding, and selective coding was used in the study. Results indicated that international students learned Korean in a daily basis, and then they adapted to academic Korean in their majored fields. Both personality and mother tongue influenced Korean language learning positively and negatively. International students' improvement of Korean was related in studying with Korean mass media such as TV soap dramas, talk shows, and songs. International students think that TOPIK(Test Of Proficiency In Korean) is not much related with their Korean language fluency. In conclusion, the researchers suggested to give more emphasis on academic training courses for Korean language and to improve the TOPIK in general academic Korean.

'Language of Presence' and Perceptual Meaning (소리시-'존재의 언어'와 지각적 의미)

  • Choi, Moonsoo
    • Journal of English Language & Literature
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    • v.57 no.4
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    • pp.675-693
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    • 2011
  • In its restricted sense, 'sound poetry' refers to the poetic performance that rejects words and verbal meaning and instead foregrounds the aural materiality of poetry. Behind this seeking for materiality lies a quest for a 'language of presence,' which operates through a denial of signification toward an ideal of the Adamic tongue, a purely emotional and universal language. In the same light, it is argued that sound poetry is a unique and unrepeatable event devoid of meaning due to its directness to the body allowing no intervention of intellectual and semiotic process. But language may involve perceptual meaning as well as verbal or conceptual meaning ascribed to words. This implies that even though devoid of conceptual meaning by means of using grammatically non-articulated sounds, sound poetry cannot but have meaning whose articulation is differently, i.e., iconically made about the aural features of the sounds. Perceptual meaning is unavoidable because everything we are conscious of is a reduced form, a repeatable pattern that works as a sign. 'Language of presence' is then actually impossible, and therefore sound poetry should be seen rather as a fest of diverse perceptual meanings.

Some Acoustical Aspects of Korean Stops in Various Utterance Positions : focusing on their temporal characteristics (음성 환경에 따른 한국어 폐쇄음의 음향적 특성 : 시간적 특성을 중심으로)

  • Pae, Jae-Yeon;Shin, Ji-Young;Ko, Do-Heung
    • Speech Sciences
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.139-159
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    • 1999
  • The purposes of this study are two-folds: to find out the acoustic features of Korean stops in various utterance positions and their influence on the neighbouring segments. Korean stops($/p,\;p',\;p^{h};\;t,\;t',\;t^{h};\;k,\;k',\;k^{h}/$) are examined from CV, $V_1CV_2,\;V_1NCV_2,\;V_1LCV_2$ sequences. Three speakers (two male and one female speakers of Seoul dialect) served as subjects for the present study. VOT, closure duration of the target stops and duration of the neighbouring segments were measured from acoustic data. The results can be summarized as follows. First, stops show different temporal aspects depending on their place of articulation as well as their voice types. Velar stops tend to have shorter closure duration and longer VOT due to relatively slower movement of the articulator (i.e. tongue body) and higher supraglottal air pressure during the closure, respectively. Second, temporal aspects of the neighbouring segments appear to be influenced by the voice type of stop. The preceding segment tends to be longer when a stop has shorter duration. On the other hand, the following segment tends to be shorter, when a stop has longer VOT.

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