• Title, Summary, Keyword: EC-Mechanism

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An Extended AND-OR Graph-Based Expert System in Electronic Commerce

  • 이건창;조형래;권순재
    • Proceedings of the Korea Inteligent Information System Society Conference
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    • pp.281-289
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    • 1999
  • The objective of this paper is to propose a brand new interface mechanism to provide more intelligent decision making support for EC problems. Its main virtue is based on a numerical process mechanism by using an Extended AND-OR Graph (EAOG)-based logic algebra. Using this mechanism, decision makers engaged in electronic commerce (EC) can effectively deal with complicated decision making problems. In the field of traditional expert systems research, AND-OR Graph approach has been suggested as a useful tool for representing the logic flowchart of the forward and/or backward chaining inference methods. However, the AND-OR Graph approach cannot be effectively used in the EC problems in which real-time problem-solving property should be highly required. In this sense, we propose the EAOG inference mechanism for EC problem-solving in which heurisric knowledge necessary for intelligent EC problem-solving can be represented in a form of matrix. Finally, we have proved the validity of our approach with several propositions and an illustrative EC example

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An Extended AND-OR Graph-based Simulation and Electronic Commerce

  • Lee, Kun-Chang;Cho, Hyung-Rae
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society for Simulation Conference
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    • pp.242-250
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    • 1999
  • The objective of this paper is to propose an Extended AND-OR Graph (EAOG)-driven inferential simulation mechanism with which decision makers engaged in electronic commerce (EC) can effectively deal with complicated decision making problem. In the field of traditional expect systems research, AND-OR Graph approach cannot be effectively used in the EC problems in which real-time problem-solving property should be highly required. In this sense, we propose the EAOG inference mechanism for EC problem-solving in which heurisric knowledge necessary for intelligent EC problem-solving can be represented in a form of matrix. The EAOG method possesses the following three characteristics. 1. Realtime inference: The EAOG inference mechanism is suitable for the real-time inference because its computational mechanism is based on matrix computation.2. Matrix operation: All the subjective knowledge is delineated in a matrix form, so that inference process can proceed based on the matrix operation which is computationally efficient.3. Bi-directional inference: Traditional inference method of expert systems is based on either forward chaining or based on either and computational efficiency. However, the proposed EAOG inference mechanism is generically bi-directional without loss of both speed and efficiency.We have proved the validity of our approach with several propositions and an illustrative EC example.

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Fuzzy Cognitive Map-Based Simulation Framework for Supporting Electronic Commerce

  • Lee, Kun-Chang;Kwon, Soon-Jae
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society for Industrial Systems Conference
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    • pp.537-555
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    • 1999
  • As the Internet has been used widely in modern firms for gaining competitive advantage in the market, EC (Electronic Commerce) emerged as one of strong alternatives for this purpose. Many researchers and practitioners have proposed a wide variety of EC frameworks that can consider only the structured conditions, but there exists no EC mechanism in which engaged entities can take into account the various unstructured conditions. With the conventional EC framework, the structured EC conditions such as price, quantity, delivery date, etc. can be fully negotiated during the EC process. However, no studies have been conducted on the issue of incorporating those unstructured conditions which are difficult to represent in an explicit form and therefore hard to consider explicitly during the EC Process. They are characterized by causal properties. This means that we should have a new EC mechanism which is capable of dealing with causal knowledge. In this sense, we propose a FCM (Fuzzy Cognitive Map)-based simulation framework for EC to resolve the problem of considering the unstructured conditions during the EC process. We experimented our prototype with several illustrative examples and proved that our approach is robust and meaningful.

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Fuzzy Cognitive Map-Based Simulation Framework for Supporting Electronic Commerce

  • Lee, Kun-Chang;Kwon, Soon-Jae
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society for Industrial Systems Conference
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    • pp.557-575
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    • 1999
  • As the Internet has been used widely in modern firms for gaining competitive advantage in the market, EC (Electronic Commerce) emerged as one of strong alternatives for this purpose. Many researchers and practitioners have proposed a wide variety of EC frameworks that can consider only the structured conditions, but there exists no EC mechanism in which engaged entities can take into account the various unstructured conditions. With the conventional EC framework, the structured EC conditions such as price, quantity, delivery date, etc. can be fully negotiated during the EC process. However, no studies have been conducted on the issue of incorporating those unstructured conditions which are difficult to represent in an explicit form and therefore hard to consider explicitly during the EC process. They are characterized by causal properties. This means that we should have a new EC mechanism which is capable of dealing with causal knowledge. In this sense, we propose a FCM (Fuzzy Cognitive Map)-based simulation framework for EC to resolve the problem of considering the unstructured conditions during the EC process. We experimented our prototype with several illustrative examples and proved that our approach is robust and meaningful.

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Relaxation Effects of Eucomiae Cortex in Isolated Rabbit Corpus Cavernosum Smooth Muscle (杜冲의 토끼 음경해면체 평활근 이완효과)

  • Park, Sun Young
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.485-491
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    • 2015
  • This study was aimed to investigate the relaxation effects of Eucomiae Cortex (EC) extract in isolated rabbit corpus cavernosum smooth muscle and its mechanism. To evaluate the relaxation of EC extract in rabbit corpus cavernosum, EC extract was treated in corporal strips which were precontracted with phenylephrine(PE). To study its mechanism, Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) was pretreated after infuse of EC extract and compared with non-treated. In calcium chloride (Ca2+) -free krebs solution, EC extract and Ca2+ 1 mM were infused by turns after Ca2+ 1 mM was treated into corporal strips contracted by PE. Cell ability, nitric oxide (NO) and epithelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) were measured by MTT assay, Griess reagent system and histochemical, immunohistochemical methods. EC extract showed a significant relaxation effects on the corporal strips, this effects were inhibited by pretreatment of L-NNA. EC extract inhibited the increase of contraction by Ca2+ influx in Ca2+-free krebs solution, and eNOS positive reaction in corpus cavernosum, NO production in HUVEC increased by treatment of EC extract. These result suggest that the relaxation effects of EC extract in isolated corpus cavernosum smooth muscle are involved in increase of eNOS and NO production, blocking of extracellular Ca2+ influx.

The Relaxant Activity of Safranal in Isolated Rat Aortas is Mediated Predominantly via an Endothelium-Independent Mechanism - Vasodilatory mechanism of safranal -

  • Razavi, Bibi Marjan;Amanloo, Mojtaba Alipoor;Imenshahidi, Mohsen;Hosseinzadeh, Hossein
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.329-335
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: Safranal is a pharmacologically active component of saffron and is responsible for the unique aroma of saffron. The hypotensive effect of safranal has been shown in previous studies. This study evaluates the mechanism for the vasodilatory effects induced by safranal on isolated rat aortas. Methods: To study the vasodilatory effects of safranal (0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mM), we contracted isolated rat thoracic aorta rings by using $10^{-6}-M$ phenylephrine (PE) or 80-mM KCl. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used as a control. The vasodilatory effect of safranal was also evaluated both on intact and denuded endothelium aortic rings. Furthermore, to study the role of nitric oxide and prostacyclin in the relaxation induced by safranal, we incubated the aortic rings by using L-NAME ($10^{-6}M$) or indomethacin ($10^{-5}M$), each for 20 minutes. Results: Safranal induced relaxation in endothelium-intact aortic rings precontracted by using PE or KCl in a concentration-dependent manner, with a maximum relaxation of more than 100%. The relaxant activity of safranal was not eliminated by incubating the aortic rings with L-NAME ($EC_{50}=0.29$ vs. $EC_{50}=0.43$) or with indomethacin ($EC_{50}=0.29$ vs. $EC_{50}=0.35$), where $EC_{50}$ is the half maximal effective concentration. Also, the vasodilatory activity of safranal was not modified by endothelial removal. Conclusion: This study indicated that relaxant activity of safranal is mediated predominantly through an endothelium-independent mechanism.

Electro-Catalytic Hydrogenation and the Electrode Reaction Mechanism of the Carbon-6-Bromo groups of 6,6-Dibromopenicillanic acid 1,1-Dioxide (6,6-Dibromopenicillanic acid 1,1-Dioxide 분자내 탄소 6-위치 브롬기의 전극촉매 수소화반응과 전극반응기구)

  • Il Kwang Kim;Young Haeng Lee;Chai Ho Lee
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.165-171
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    • 1991
  • The electrochemical reduction of carbon-6-dibromo groups on 6,6-dibromo penicillanic acid 1,1-oxide(DBPA) was investigated by direct current, differential pulse polarography, cyclic voltammetry and controlled potential coulometry. The irreversible two electrons transfer on the reductive debromination of each bromo group proceeded by EC,EC mechanism at the two electrode reduction steps(-0.48, -1.62 volts). The 6-bromo-PA and 6,6-dihydro-PA was synthesized by controlled potential electrolysis. Upon the basis of results on the products analysis and interpretation of polarograms obtained at various pH, electrochemical reaction mechanism was suggested.

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Information Activities of European Communities : Mechanism in the Implementation of the Information Policies. (EC 정보활동의 구조 : 정보정책수행의 매카니즘)

  • Koo Jayoung
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Library and Information Science
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    • v.23
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    • pp.1-31
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    • 1992
  • The present study aims at a systematic access to EC information. EC information is the outcome of the complex organizations, the continuous changes in functions and the subsequent changes in policies. An attempt for an effective approach to the information requires the examination of the organizational structures and changes, the processes involved in formulating and implmenting the information policies, and the infrastucture for information. Information activities of the major organizations of EC have been examined with a special reference to the Commission of European Communities. The Commission is the EC institution from which the majority of the EC's documentation originates. The information functions of the Commission have been studied in such categories as information production and distribution, authorizing services, and information services to the public.

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A study on the degradation of the AC stressed MOV by using of the DLTS technique (DLTS기법에 의한 MOV소자의 교류과전경시 변화특성에 관한 연구)

  • 이동희
    • Electrical & Electronic Materials
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    • v.9 no.7
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    • pp.719-726
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    • 1996
  • DLTS measurements were performed to study the annealing induced changes of the trap centers in MOV and to shed more light on the stability mechanism of the MOV. Two electron traps, Ec-0.26[eV] and Ec-(O.2-0.3)[eV], were observed in the unannealed samples in large quantities(7-9 X 1014[CM 3]), whereas the three electron traps Ec-0.17 [eV], Ec-0.26[eV] and Ec-(O.2-0.3)[eV] were observed far less in the annealed samples. The minima in the Ec-0.26[eV] trap density, coupled with the presented results that unannealed devices are unstable whereas 600.deg. C annealed devices are most stable, suggests that the instability of the MOV under long term electrical stressing is related to the Ec-0.26[eV] trap. This results support that the ion migration model for the device instability where the Ec-0.26[eV] defects may be the interstitial zinc or the migrating ions. The interstitial zinc originated as a result of the nonstoichiometric nature of ZnO might cause the degradation of the I-V characteristics of the MOV with long term electrical stressing.

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A Study on the degradation mechanism of PAN-LiCLO$_4$ Polymer Electrolyte EC windows (PAN-LIClO$_4$ 계 고분자전해질 EC창의 열화 기구에 관한 연구)

  • 김용혁;김형선;조원일;조병원;윤경석;박인철
    • Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.223-230
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    • 1997
  • Tungsten oxide and nickel oxide thin films were deposited onto ITO(Indium Tin Oxide) transparent glass by the E-beam evaporation and were used as a cathode and an anode for the EC(Electrochromic) smart window, respectively. Stoichiometric structures of the deposited films were investigated by the implementation of XPS(X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy) analysis and the results were $WO_{2.42}$ and $NiO_{0.44}$. This oxygen deficincy might affect affect the transparency of the thin films. The electrolyte for the EC smart windows was PAN-$LiCIO_4$ conducting polymer. EC(Ethylene Carbonate)and PC(Propylene Carbonate) were added as plasticizer to enhance ion conductivity. When the weight ratio of the EC : PC was 3 : 1, transmission difference and cycle life performance were tested. Polymer EC windows showed 40% $\Delta$T at 1.5V operating volage for 3,200 cycles. Structural degradation was observed by the SIMS(Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy) analysis and it was confirmed that structural degradation of polymer caused by the solvent evaporation was the main cause to degrade EC smart windows.

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