• Title, Summary, Keyword: EC-Mechanism

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Erythrinae Cortex inhibits Synthesis of Inflammatory Cytokines induced by IL-1$\beta$ and TNF-$\alpha$ in Cultured Human Synovial Cells

  • Lee Ho;Kim Dong Hee
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.1101-1111
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    • 2003
  • Our study shows that EC extract has inhibitory effect on pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, iNOS and COX2 in hFLSs. IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS and COX2 mRNA expression is suppressed at a low dasage (1㎍/ml) of EC extract. TNF-α was also suppressed at higher dosages (10 ㎍/ml, 100㎍/ml). EC extract also inhibited TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 production in pro-inflammatory cytokine stimulated-hFLSs. Expecially IL-1β(p<0.05) production are suppressed significantly. On the other hand, EC extract did not show any cytotoxicity. Thses data suggest that EC extract has anti-inflammatory effect mostly by inhibiting IL-1β production, and thus could be used to prevent or treat some inflammatory disease such as RA. It remains to be known what are the major components responsible for anti-inflammatory effect and what is the main mechanism.

Electrochemical Studies on Some Substituted Thiadiazoles (몇 가지 치환 Thiadiazole에 대한 전기화학적 연구)

  • El Maghraby, A. A.;Abou-Elenien, G. M.;Abdel-Reheem, N. A.;Abdel-Tawab, H. R.
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.307-314
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    • 2006
  • The redox characteristics of 2-ketohydrazono-3-phenyl-5-substituted-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-thiadiazoles and its derivatives (1a-h) has been investigated in nonaqueous solvents such as 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE), dichloromethane (DCM), acetonitrile (AN), tetrahydrofuran (THF), and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) containing 0.1 mol.dm-3 tetra n-butylammonium perchlorate (TBAP) as supporting electrolyte at platinum ectrode. Through controlled potential electrolysis, the oxidation and reduction products of the investigated compounds can be separated and indentified. The redox mechanism is suggested and proved. It was found that all the investigated compounds are oxidized in two irreversible one-electron processes following the well known pattern of EC-mechanism. On the other hand, these compounds are reduced in a single two electron or in a successive two one electron processes following the well known pattern of EEC-mechanism according to the nature of the substituent

An Agent System Protection Mechanism for Secure Action of Mobile Agent in Open Network Systems (Open Network 시스템에서 이동에이전트의 안전한 역할 수행을 위한 에이전트 보호메커니즘)

  • Jung, Chang-Ryul;Yoon, Hong-Sang;Koh, Jin-Gwang
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.371-378
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    • 2002
  • In the resent years, the term mobile agent is probably one of the most overused words in many appliable areas of distributed open systems as electronic commerce and electronic data interchange, and it has very different meanings in the area of artificial intelligence, network management, or distributed systems. However, the use of mobile agent adds significant problems, primarily in the area of EC/EDI. Therefore it is very important to control the roaming agents to keep one's privacy or property in distributed open networks. The surge in secure intranets for commercial applications provides a robust, secure environment to which trading partners can increasingly entrust their interactions to some mobile agents. In this paper, we introduce a mechanism to protect mobile agent itself from the malicious server he is visiting and also we introduce a mechanism to protect vital resources of the open systems as internet.

Isolation and In Vitro Culture of Vascular Endothelial Cells from Mice

  • Choi, Shinkyu;Kim, Ji Aee;Kim, Kwan Chang;Suh, Suk Hyo
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.35-42
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    • 2015
  • In cardiovascular disorders, understanding of endothelial cell (EC) function is essential to elucidate the disease mechanism. Although the mouse model has many advantages for in vivo and in vitro research, efficient procedures for the isolation and propagation of primary mouse EC have been problematic. We describe a high yield process for isolation and in vitro culture of primary EC from mouse arteries (aorta, braches of superior mesenteric artery, and cerebral arteries from the circle of Willis). Mouse arteries were carefully dissected without damage under a light microscope, and small pieces of the vessels were transferred on/in a Matrigel matrix enriched with endothelial growth supplement. Primary cells that proliferated in Matrigel were propagated in advanced DMEM with fetal calf serum or platelet-derived serum, EC growth supplement, and heparin. To improve the purity of the cell culture, we applied shearing stress and anti-fibroblast antibody. EC were characterized by a monolayer cobble stone appearance, positive staining with acetylated low density lipoprotein labeled with 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethyl-indocarbocyanine perchlorate, RT-PCR using primers for von-Willebrand factor, and determination of the protein level endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Our simple, efficient method would facilitate in vitro functional investigations of EC from mouse vessels.

Overview of Hydrolysis : A Review Part I- Hydrolysis Mechanism

  • Kim, Kwang-Jea
    • Elastomers and Composites
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    • v.55 no.2
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    • pp.128-136
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    • 2020
  • The hydrolysis mechanisms as well as the hydrolysis measurement technique and its practical applications in material manufacturing fields are revised. This chapter, Part 1, elaborates the theoretical aspects of the hydrolysis mechanism. Acid-catalyzed and base-catalyzed hydrolysis mechanisms are reviewed. The quantitative analysis method based on the SIM technique using py-GC-MS is reviewed. Examples of hydrolysis of alkoxysilane in elastomer composites currently used in the industry and hydrolysis of amine in plastic composites are shown. Moreover, Part 2 discusses the mechanical property changes in elastomer and plastic composites after hydrolysis.

A Study to Promote the EC Collaboration of the South and North Korea based on the Preemptive Dispute Resolution Policies (남북한 전자상거래 추진에 따른 활성화 방안 -분쟁방지를 위한 사전조정 기능을 중심으로-)

  • Choi, Yong-Rok
    • Journal of Arbitration Studies
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.191-216
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    • 2006
  • It has been talked about the responsibility of the South-North Korean e-market place(e-MP) collaboration project every you since 2003. However, the feasibility as the business has not been dealt with in detail due to the uncertain environment as well as the complicated procedures of the project. The research focuses on the workable mechanism of the South-North Korean E-Market Place collaboration project. The feasibility of the project results from the newly installed fiber telecommunication network as well as the 1 billion dollars of the trading volume between South and North Korea. The research analyzes on the capabilities as well as willingness of the South and North Korea for the e-MP, and concludes with two paradigms of the future tasks. First, the unified but step-wise structure should be made to promote the project by the political committee (South and North Korea EC Committee) and the economical administration body (South and North Korea EC Corporation). Second, the market-oriented resolution system such as South and North Korea Arbitration Body should be involved to create legal environment. Above all, the discussion should be on the main body of e-MP settlement to abolish the psychological as well as practical barriers to enter the South-North Korean electronic commerce.

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Performance Analysis of Error Classification running on Digital Carousel System of Home Network (홈 네트워크의 디지털 캐로절 시스템에서 오류분류 성능 분석)

  • Ko, Eung-Nam
    • Journal of Digital Contents Society
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.587-592
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    • 2007
  • This paper explains the design and implementation of the EC_NH. EC_NH is a system that is suitable for detecting, sharing and recovering software error based on multimedia CSCW(Computer Supportes Cooperated Work). With error sharing system, a group cooperating users can share error applications. From the perspective of multimedia collaborative environment, an error application becomes another interactive presentation error is shared with participants engaged in a cooperative work. Our Digital Carousel enables user to share media objects through media synchronization mechanism. We implemented the Digital Carousel so that the users participated in collaborative work may refer shared media or error objects as the same view to others.

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An Error Control running on Digital Carousel System for Media Object Sharing (미디어 객체 공유를 위한 디지털 캐로절 시스템에서의 오류 제어)

  • Ko Eung-Nam;Kang Heau-Jo
    • Journal of Digital Contents Society
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.79-83
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    • 2005
  • Our Digital Carousel enables user to share media objects through media synchronization mechanism. We implemented the Digital Carousel so that the users participated in collaborative work may refer shared media or error objects as the same view to others. This paper explains the design and implementation of the EC_DXS(Error Control in Digital Carousel System). EC_DCS is a system that is suitable for detecting sharing and recovering software error based on multimedia CSCW(Computer Supportes Cooperated Work). With error sharing system, a group cooperating users can share me. applications. From the perspective of multimedia collaborative environment, an error application becomes another interactive presentation error is shared with participant engaged in a cooperative work.

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Crystallographic snapshots of active site metal shift in E. coli fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase

  • Tran, Huyen-Thi;Lee, Seon-Hwa;Ho, Thien-Hoang;Hong, Seung-Hye;Huynh, Kim-Hung;Ahn, Yeh-Jin;Oh, Deok-Kun;Kang, Lin-Woo
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.49 no.12
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    • pp.681-686
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    • 2016
  • Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) is important for both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis in life. Class II (zinc dependent) FBA is an attractive target for the development of antibiotics against protozoa, bacteria, and fungi, and is also widely used to produce various high-value stereoisomers in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry. In this study, the crystal structures of class II Escherichia coli FBA (EcFBA) were determined from four different crystals, with resolutions between $1.8{\AA}$ and $2.0{\AA}$. Native EcFBA structures showed two separate sites of Zn1 (interior position) and Zn2 (active site surface position) for $Zn^{2+}$ ion. Citrate and TRIS bound EcFBA structures showed $Zn^{2+}$ position exclusively at Zn2. Crystallographic snapshots of EcFBA structures with and without ligand binding proposed the rationale of metal shift at the active site, which might be a hidden mechanism to keep the trace metal cofactor $Zn^{2+}$ within EcFBA without losing it.

Convolutive Cyclic Voltammetry Investigation of Dicarboximide Laser Dye at a Platinum Electrode in 1,2-Dichloroethane (1,2-Dichloroethane 내 백금 전극에서의 dicarboximide 레이저 염료에 대한 convolutive 순환 전압-전류법 연구)

  • Al-Bishri, Hassan M.;El-Mossalamy, E.H.;El-Hallag, Ibrahim;El-Daly, Samy
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.55 no.2
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    • pp.169-176
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    • 2011
  • The electrochemical investigation of N,N-bis (2,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-3,4,9,10 perylenebis (dicarboximide) laser dye have been carried out using cyclic voltammetry and convolution - deconvolution voltammetry combined with digital simulation technique at a platinum electrode in 0.1 mol/L tetrabutyl ammonium perchlorate (TBAP) in solvent 1,2 dichloroethane ($CH_2Cl-CH_2Cl$). The investigated dye was reduced via consumption of two sequential electrons to form radical anion and dianion (EE mechanism). In switching the potential to positive scan, the compound was oxidized by loss of two electrons, which were followed by a fast aggregation process ($EC_1EC_2$ mechanism). The electrode reaction pathway and the chemical and electrochemical parameters of the investigated compound were determined using cyclic voltammetry and convolutive voltammetry. The extracted electrochemical parameters were verified and confirmed via digital simulation method.