• Title, Summary, Keyword: EC-Mechanism

Search Result 151, Processing Time 0.046 seconds

A Study on the Usage of STEP data on the Construction CALS/EC Environment - Focusing on linking the Drawing Information and Material Information - (건설 CALS/EC 환경에서의 STEP 데이터 활용방안에 관한 연구 - 도면정보와 자재정보 연계 중심으로 -)

  • 서종철;김인한
    • The Journal of Society for e-Business Studies
    • /
    • v.8 no.1
    • /
    • pp.121-139
    • /
    • 2003
  • Currently, it is not popular to use the STEP based product information in the construction drawing files, in spite of the importance and possibility of using various product data in drawing files on the CALS/EC environment. This paper aims to demonstrate a construction drawing information management system based on ISO 10303/STEP. To achieve this aim, the authors have analyzed the current construction drawing information classification hierarchy widely used for domestic and international, and examined the material data connection mechanism within CAD drawing data, and finally investigated the management systems for construction documentations and drawings in a public companies. Therefore, the expected benefit of the proposed system is that STEP drawing information management will be done standardization and the information of STEP construction drawing can be managed, shared and supported design business through materials data connection.

  • PDF

Streamlined Shape of Endothelial Cells

  • Chung, Chan-Il;Chang, Jun-Keun;Min, Byoung-Goo;Han, Dong-Chul
    • Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.14 no.8
    • /
    • pp.861-866
    • /
    • 2000
  • Flow induced shape change is important for spatial interpretation of vascular response and for understanding of mechanotransduction in a single cell. We investigated the possible shapes of endothelial cell (EC) in a mathematical model and compared these with experimental results. The linearized analytic solution from the sinusoidal wavy wall and Stokes flow was applied with the constraint of EC volume. The three dimensional structure of the human umbilical vein endothelial cell was visualized in static culture or after various durations of shear stress (20 $dyne/cm^2$ for 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 120min). The shape ratio (width: length: height) of model agreed with that of the experimental result, which represented the drag force minimizing shape of stream-lining. EC would be streamlined in order to accommodate to the shear flow environmented by active reconstruction of cytoskeletons and membranes through a drag force the sensing mechanism.

  • PDF

Crystal Structure of Hypothetical Fructose-Specific EIIB from Escherichia coli

  • Park, Jimin;Kim, Mi-Sun;Joo, Keehyung;Jhon, Gil-Ja;Berry, Edward A.;Lee, Jooyoung;Shin, Dong Hae
    • Molecules and Cells
    • /
    • v.39 no.6
    • /
    • pp.495-500
    • /
    • 2016
  • We have solved the crystal structure of a predicted fructose-specific enzyme $IIB^{fruc}$ from Escherichia coli ($EcEIIB^{fruc}$) involved in the phosphoenolpyruvate-carbohydrate phosphotransferase system transferring carbohydrates across the cytoplasmic membrane. $EcEIIB^{fruc}$ belongs to a sequence family with more than 5,000 sequence homologues with 25-99% amino-acid sequence identity. It reveals a conventional Rossmann-like ${\alpha}-{\beta}-{\alpha}$ sandwich fold with a unique ${\beta}$-sheet topology. Its C-terminus is longer than its closest relatives and forms an additional ${\beta}$-strand whereas the shorter C-terminus is random coil in the relatives. Interestingly, its core structure is similar to that of enzyme $IIB^{cellobiose}$ from E. coli ($EcIIB^{cel}$) transferring a phosphate moiety. In the active site of the closest $EcEIIB^{fruc}$ homologues, a unique motif CXXGXAHT comprising a P-loop like architecture including a histidine residue is found. The conserved cysteine on this loop may be deprotonated to act as a nucleophile similar to that of $EcIIB^{cel}$. The conserved histidine residue is presumed to bind the negatively charged phosphate. Therefore, we propose that the catalytic mechanism of $EcEIIB^{fruc}$ is similar to that of $EcIIB^{cel}$ transferring phosphoryl moiety to a specific carbohydrate.

Fuzzy Membership Functions and AHP-Based Negotiation Support in Electronic Commerce (퍼지 멤버십 함수와 AHP 추론기법을 이용한 전자상거래 협상지원)

  • Kim, Jin-Sung
    • Journal of Korean Institute of Intelligent Systems
    • /
    • v.12 no.4
    • /
    • pp.347-352
    • /
    • 2002
  • This paper propose the Fuzzy AHP(Analytic Hierarchical Process)-based negotiation support (FAHP-NEGO) mechanism to support the dynamic negotiation process in Electronic Commerce(EC). Negotiation is a form of decision-making with two or more actively involved agents who can not make decisions independently, and therefore must make concessions to achieve a compromise. Having concerned that point, the theoretical framework of FAHP-NEGO mechanism is presented by means of fuzzy membership functions and AHP. This mechanism encompasses both qualitative and quantitative conditions, and the use of multiple negotiation procedures for solving the electronic negotiation problem, adjusting the fuzzy membership function, and restructuring the problem representation. A hypothetical example of a healthcare products purchase is given to illustrate the quality of the proposed mechanism. The results showed that the Fuzzy AHP-based negotiation support mechanism could reflect both qualitative and quantitative conditions in EC. The implications of the study for future directions of research on electronic negotiation support modeling and systems are presented.

Aerospace Industry promotion under WTO regime (WTO 체제 내의 항공우주산업진흥)

  • Lee, Joon
    • Current Industrial and Technological Trends in Aerospace
    • /
    • v.6 no.2
    • /
    • pp.11-21
    • /
    • 2008
  • This paper focuses on finding the way of aerospace industry promotion in Korea compatible with fair trade system under international rules by considering and analysing the WTO subsidy rules and WTO dispute settlement cases. As for subsidy rules in WTO, the paper deals with two matters such as financial contribution and benefit and further studies provisions on the prohibited subsidies and actionable subsidies. And as for the dispute settlement matters, it reviews the Brazil-Canada case and the US-EC case on civil aircraft export subsidies. While aerospace industry in Korea is not yet internationally competitive still requiring government's continuous supports, it must not be in conflict with subsidy rules under WTO mechanism. This paper makes several suggestions to meet these conditions.

  • PDF

On Formation of Residual Carbon Layer in CuInSe2 Thin Films Formed via direct Solution Coating Process (직접 용액 코팅법에 의해 제조한 CuInSe2 에 잔존하는 탄소 불순물층 형성에 관한 연구)

  • Ahn, SeJin;Rehan, Shanza;Eo, Young-Joo;Gwak, Jihye;Yoon, Kyunghoon;Cho, Ara
    • Current Photovoltaic Research
    • /
    • v.2 no.1
    • /
    • pp.36-39
    • /
    • 2014
  • Formation mechanism of residual carbon layer, frequently observed in the $CuInSe_2$ (CIS) thin film prepared by direct solution coating routes, was investigated in order to find a way to eliminate it. As a model system, a methanol solution with dissolved Cu and In salts, whose viscosity was adjusted by adding ethylcellulose (EC), was chosen. It was found that a double layer, a top metal ion-derived film and bottom EC-derived layer, formed during an air drying step presumably due to different solubility between metal salts and EC in methanol. Consequently, the top metal ion-derived film acts as a barrier layer inhibiting further thermal decomposition of underlying EC, resulting a formation of bottom carbon residue layer.

통합데이터베이스 환경에서 CORBA기반의 디렉토리 서비스 설계

  • 박재형;김기봉;진성일
    • Proceedings of the CALSEC Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.563-574
    • /
    • 1999
  • In CALS/EC environment, there are geographically dispersed heterogeneous databases and various applications. Integrated database environment provides transparent access mechanism for heterogeneous and distributed databases and interoperability between applications in various platforms. Because elements exist geographically in integrated database environment, directory service is necessary for providing unique access mechanism for elements. In this paper, we design a directory service using CORBA based access interface and object-oriented DIB model for accessing transparently to elements and interoperability with other information system.

  • PDF

Enzyme Production Related to Alcohol Metabolism from Thermophilic Fungus Thermoascus aurantiacus (호열성 사상균 Thermoascus aurantiacus의 알코올분해대사 관련 효소학적 특성)

  • Ko Hee-Sun;Kim Hyun-Soo
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
    • /
    • v.34 no.3
    • /
    • pp.216-220
    • /
    • 2006
  • Thermophillic fungus Thermoascus aurantiacus showed excellent growth and produced high amount of alcohol oxidase and catalase in a pectin medium. Besides, the strain produced enzymes which related with pectin or alcohol decomposition. We detected extracellular pectin esterase (EC 3.1.1.11) activity and, both intracellular and extracellular pectinase (EC 4.2.2.10) activity, as pectinolytic enzymes produced by T. aurantiacus. The production of methanol decomposition enzymes, such as alcohol oxidase (AOD, EC 1.1.3.13), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, EC 1.1.1.1), formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FADH, EC 1.2.1.1) and formate dehydrogenase (FDH, EC 1.2.1.2) follows by pectin esterase reaction which is converted to methanol. We concluded that T. aurantiacus has pectinolytic and alcohol - oxidative enzymological mechanism which produced carbon dioxide as a final material, started from pectin.

An Analysis of the Operation of the WTO Dispute Settlement System for the first four and a half years (WTO 분쟁해결제도(紛爭解決制度)의 운영사례분석(運營事例分析))

  • Park, No-Hyoung
    • The Korean Research Institute of International Commerce and Law
    • /
    • v.13
    • /
    • pp.699-733
    • /
    • 2000
  • This article analyzes the state-of-play of WTO dispute settlement for first four and a half years. Remarkable points found on this analysis are as follows: First, the Quad consisting of the United States, the European Community (EC), Canada and Japan has participated in the WTO dispute settlement mechanism more frequently than any other WTO member. Second, among developing country members some leading countries such as Korea, Brazil and India have relied actively upon the mechanism to claim and defend their rights and obligations under the WTO rules. Third, bilateral dispute settlements generally have been preferred to multilateral dispute settlements by the panel or Appellate Body. Fourth, observation of the Appellate Body proceedings well shows WTO members' strategy to use every process available to them. Fifth, the provisions of GATT 1994 have been most frequently invoked by the members. GATS and TRIPS Agreement disputes are mainly involved in developed countries, in particular the U.S. and the EC. Sixth, very high winning ratio in the panel and Appellate Body process indicates that complaining parties review the possibility to get favorable rulings even before referring to the Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) and prepare for the case very thoroughly. Seventh, roughly speaking, disputes were settled within two or three years. Therefore, seeking bilateral dispute settlement can be more advantageous to a complaining party than referring to a panel or an arbitrator because of low costs and short time period in dispute settlement. Finally, the DSB approved retaliatory actions for winning complaining parties against the defending parties who had rejected implementation of its rulings and recommendations. In conclusion, it can be said that the WTO dispute settlement mechanism has been operated very successfully for the first four and a half years. It is hoped that continued study on state-of-play of WTO dispute settlement mechanism will be contributory to improved national interest of Korea.

  • PDF