• Title, Summary, Keyword: EFAS

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Protective effect of ethyl acetate fraction from Actinidia arguta sprout against high glucose-induced in vitro neurotoxicity (포도당으로 유도된 in vitro 뇌신경세포 독성에 대한 다래 순 아세트산에틸 분획물의 보호 효과)

  • Yoo, Seul Ki;Park, Seon Kyeong;Kim, Jong Min;Kang, Jin Yong;Park, Su Bin;Han, Hye Ju;Kim, Chul-Wo;Lee, Uk;Heo, Ho Jin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.50 no.5
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    • pp.517-527
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    • 2018
  • The current study investigated in vitro anti-diabetic and neuroprotective effects of the ethyl acetate fraction in Actinidia arguta sprouts (EFAS), on $H_2O_2$ and high glucose-induced cytotoxicity in human neuroblastoma MC-IXC cells. EFAS had high total phenolic and total flavonoid contents. An assessment of 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activity of EFAS, as well as its potential for inhibiting malondialdehyde production, indicated that EFAS may possess significant antioxidant properties. EFAS exerted inhibitory effects on ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ via glycemic regulation which forms advanced glycation end products. In addition, EFAS exhibited significant acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effects. Moreover, EFAS displayed protective effects against $H_2O_2$ and high glucose-induced cell death, and inhibited the generation of reactive oxygen species in MC-IXC cells. Finally, the main physiological compound of EFAS was identified via high performance liquid chromatography as a rutin.

The Stimulatory Effect of Essential Fatty Acids on Glucose Uptake Involves Both Akt and AMPK Activation in C2C12 Skeletal Muscle Cells

  • Park, So Yeon;Kim, Min Hye;Ahn, Joung Hoon;Lee, Su Jin;Lee, Jong Ho;Eum, Won Sik;Choi, Soo Young;Kwon, Hyeok Yil
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.255-261
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    • 2014
  • Essential fatty acid (EFA) is known to be required for the body to function normally and healthily. However, the effect of EFA on glucose uptake in skeletal muscle has not yet been fully investigated. In this study, we examined the effect of two EFAs, linoleic acid (LA) and ${\alpha}$-linolenic acid (ALA), on glucose uptake of C2C12 skeletal muscle cells and investigated the mechanism underlying the stimulatory effect of polyunsaturated EFAs in comparison with monounsaturated oleic acid (OA). In palmitic acid (PA)-induced insulin resistant cells, the co-treatment of EFAs and OA with PA almost restored the PA-induced decrease in the basal and insulin-stimulated 2-NBDG (fluorescent D-glucose analogue) uptake, respectively. Two EFAs and OA significantly protected PA-induced suppression of insulin signaling, respectively, which was confirmed by the increased levels of Akt phosphorylation and serine/threonine kinases ($PKC{\theta}$ and JNK) dephosphorylation in the western blot analysis. In PA-untreated, control cells, the treatment of $500{\mu}M$ EFA significantly stimulated 2-NBDG uptake, whereas OA did not. Phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and one of its downstream molecules, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) was markedly induced by EFA, but not OA. In addition, EFA-stimulated 2-NBDG uptake was significantly inhibited by the pre-treatment of a specific AMPK inhibitor, adenine 9-${\beta}$-D-arabinofuranoside (araA). These data suggest that the restoration of suppressed insulin signaling at PA-induced insulin resistant condition and AMPK activation are involved at least in the stimulatory effect of EFA on glucose uptake in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells.

Nanostructured Bulk Ceramics (Part IV. Polymer Precursor Derived Nanoceramics)

  • Han, Young-Hwan;Mukherjee, Amiya K.
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.205-209
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    • 2010
  • In the last (fourth) section, the discussion will entail a silicon-nitride/silicon-carbide nanocomposite, produced by pyrolysis of liquid polymer precursors, demonstrating one of the lowest creep rates reported so far in ceramics at the comparable temperature of $1400^{\circ}C$. This was first achieved by avoiding the oxynitride glass phase at the intergrain boundaries. One important factor in the processing of these nanocomposites was the use of the electrical field assisted sintering method.

Development of Shampoo Formulated by EPA for the Damaged Hair (손상 모발을 위한 EPA 함유 샴푸 개발)

  • Lee, Bo-Reum;Lee, Ok-Sang;Kang, Tae-Jin;Lim, Sung-Cil
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.256-269
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    • 2011
  • Omega-3 fatty acids are a specific type of unsaturated fat that the body cannot manufacture on its own, so they must be obtained from food which is essential fatty acids (EFAs). Omega-3 fatty acids consist of three types which are a-Linolenic Acid (ALA), Eicosapentaenoic (ELA), and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA). Especially, EFAs help to prevent skin and hair drying, acne, eczema, prevention from allergies, brittle nails, rashes, and tiny lumps. The aim of this study is to investigate improvement and protection for hair damaged by chemical treatment with omega-3 formulated shampoo. We selected virgin hair sample and divided into two groups for bleaching once and three times and then damaged hair by changing the number of hair bleaching (twice with interval of 15 minutes). Each bleached hair was treated by five different kinds of shampoo (Control, Horse shampoo, DHA shampoo, EPA shampoo, Omega-3 shampoo mixture). Apart from this, EPA/DHA 2, 5, 8, 10 and 12% shampoo were prepared and treated to hair for comparing rate of progress in damaged hair. To quantify improved condition of damaged hair, we performed Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for ultrastructure of damaged hair fraction, measurement of thickness change and BCA Protein Assay for recovery rate of damaged hair. The moisture in hair was measured by Thermal analysis machine. In results, we observed the particle of hair surface damaged by bleaching treatment were well improved with treatment with EPA and DHA shampoo. Also, quantity of protein was lowered with higher concentration of EPA & DHA i.e., 8 and 12 % then compared with horse oil shampoo in three times treatment group. It shows that bleached hair have been recovered by treating rapidly and get protective coat. In conclusion, EPA and DHA shampoo improved damaged hair, especially with EPA / DHA 12% shampoo. Also, EPA shampoo could protect the damaged hair depending on increasing concentration of EPA. Therefore, we conclude omega-3 shampoo could make damaged hair protect and get healthy hair environment.

Effect of Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency on Blood and Tissue Lipid Compositions (필수 지방산 결핍이 성장기 쥐의 혈액 및 조직의 지방조성에 미치는 영향)

  • Song, Ji-Hyun;Kim, Hae-Young;Choi, Hay-Mie
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.89-96
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    • 1983
  • Weanling male rats were fed a semi - synthetic diet containing either 10% corn oil, or 10% hydrogenated coconut oil (HCO) for 5 weeks. They were analyzed for plasma, liver, heart, testis, kidney and adrenal lipid compositions ; total lipids, total cholesterol, phospholipid, and triglyceride. The rats fed essential fatty acids deficient diet grew comparably with corn oil group and did not any dermal symptoms of EFAs deficiency. The most remarkable changes found in lipids of rats in experimental groups were ; (1) an increase in the concentration of plasma TG and liver TG in HCO group. (2) a decrease in the concentration of plasma PL and an increase in the concentration of testis PL of HCO group. (3) A decrease in cholesterol level of testis, kidney and adrenal of HCO group. Although this study did not show the profound EFA deficiency in weanling rats, this study showed the possibility of early nutrition affecting subsequent development in various tissues.

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Studies on Requirements of Optimum Dietary Essential Fatty Acids in Juvenile Eel, Anguilla japonica (치어기 뱀장어의 사료내 필수지방산 요구량에 관한 연구)

  • 배준영;한경민;박건준;배승철
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.275-281
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    • 2004
  • The present study was conducted to evaluate dietary requirements for essential fatty acids (EFAs) such as linoleic acid (LA, l8:2n-6), -lenolenic acid (LNA, 18:3n-3), or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) in juvenile eel Anguilla japonica cultured in a recirculating system for 16 weeks. The experimental diets contained 50% crude protein, 10% crude lipid and 3800 kcal/kg energy.Brown fish meal and blood meal were used as the main protein sources, while coconut oil, com oil and linseed oil were used as the lipid source to yield target fatty acids ratios. At the end of the trial, the effects of essential fatty acids supplementation on weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), feeding efficiency (FE), proximate composition andwhole body fatty acids contents were examined. WG, SGR, and FEof eels fed diet D2, D3, was significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of fish fed the other diets. Whole body HUFA concentration of eels fed D 1 was significantly lower (P<0.05) than those fed the other diets. HUFA/SFA (saturated fatty acids) ratio of whole body in eels fed diets D2, D3 and D6 were significantly higher than that of eels fed diet D1 (P<0.05).DHA/EPA ratio of whole body in eels fed diet D7was significantly higher than those fed the other diets; and eels fed diet D5 showed the lowest DHA/EPA ratio among all the dietary treatments (P<0.05).Based on the experimental results, we concluded that LNA (n-3) and LA (n-6) were necessary for optimum growth of juvenile eel, and the dietary requirement of LNA and LA were 0.35∼0.5% and 0.5∼0.65%, respectively.