• Title, Summary, Keyword: EIA

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New Environmental Impact Assessment Technology (신환경영향평가기술(新環境影響評價技術)의 개발방향(開發方向))

  • Han, Sang-Wook;Lee, Jong-Ho;Nam, Young-Sook
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.277-290
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study is to identify the problems of environmental impact assessment(EIA) and to suggest new EIA technology. The problems of EIA in Korea can be summarized as follows. First, the EIA does not reflect the impact of policy, plan and program on environment. Second, the project EIA does not consider the cumulative impacts such as additive impacts, synergistic impacts, threshold/saturation impacts, induced and indirect impacts, time-crowded impacts, and space-crowded impacts. Third, the EIA techniques in Korea are not standardized. Finally, the present EIA suggests only alternatives to reduce adverse impacts. To solve above-mentioned problems, the development of new EIA technology is essential. First, the new EIA technology should be developed toward pollution prevention technology and comprehensive and integrated environmental management technology. Second, new fields of EIA for pollution prevention contain strategic environmental assessment, cumulative impacts assessment, socio-economic impact assessment, cyber EIA and EIA technology necessary after the reunification of Korean Peninsula. Third, EIA technology for integrated environmental management contains the development of integated environment assessment system and the development of packaged EIA technology. The EIA technology for integrated environmental assessment system contains (1) development of integrated impact assessment technology combining air/water quality model, GIS and remote sensing, (2) integrated impact assessment of EIA, traffic impact assessment, population impact assessment and disaster impact assessment. (3) development of integrated technology combining risk assessment and EIA (4) development of integrated technology of life cycle assessment and EIA, (5) development of integrated technology of spatial planning and EIA, (6) EIA technology for biodiversity towards sustainable development, (7) mathematical model and GIS based location decision techniques, and (8) environmental monitoring and audit. Furthermore, there are some fields which need packaged EIA technology. In case of dam development, urban or industrial complex development, tourist development, landfill or combustion facilities construction, electric power plant development, development of port, road/rail/air port, is necessary the standardized and packaged EIA technology which considers the common characteristics of the same kind of development project.

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Comparative Analysis of EIA Systems of Algeria and Korea (알제리와 한국 EIA 제도 비교 분석)

  • Ladj, Nawel;Hong, Sang-Pyo
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.927-936
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    • 2011
  • 환경영향평가(Environmental Impact Assessment : EIA)는 대규모 개발사업에 관련된 의사결정의 효과성을 향상시킬 수 있는 제도이다. 알제리와 한국의 EIA 제도를 비교분석하여 특징 및 장단점을 파악하여 다른 계획관련 정부기관과 환경관련 기관과의 조정 및 협조 수준의 차이점을 연구하였다. 알제리와 한국의 EIA 제도는 의사결정 절차에 관련된 규정에서는 유사하지만 주민참여 수준에서는 한국이 발달되어 있다. 스크리닝 제도에서는 프랑스의 영향을 받은 알제리의 제도가 비교적 잘 발달되어 있다.

Development of Act and Regulation in Environmental Impact Assessment (환경영향평가 제도변천)

  • Han, Eui-Jung;Kang, In-Goo;Mun, Hyun-Saing;Bang, Kyu-Chul;Jeong, Dong-Hwan
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.85-92
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    • 1994
  • EIA has been developed as a tool for environmental protection into promulgation of the Environment Preservation Act in 1977, with the introduction of EIA concept in the Pollution Control Act amended in 1971. EIA system has been improved with the enlargement of project type, public participation, guiderline improvement, and amendment of Act and presidential decree. Also, this system has been developed to reduce adverse effects affecting environment and human beings for environmentally sound and sustainable development. This study is to analyze contents of Acts and regulations relative to Environmental Impact Assessment from 1971 to recently.

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A Study on the Improvement of the EIA Items and the Operating System Based on the Analysis of EIA Items Usage (환경영향평가의 평가항목 이용현황 분석을 통한 평가항목 조정 및 운영체계 개선안 도출)

  • Park, Ji Hyeon;Choi, Joon Gyu
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.1-16
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    • 2018
  • Selecting target items of EIA(Environmental Impacts Assessment) is very important process in conducting the EIA. In Korea, like other countries, the EIA Council selects the target items before starting the EIA process. However, the assessment items stipulated in the Enforcement Decree of the Environmental Impact Assessment Act is almost wholly applied to most businesses. Thus, the EIA is difficult to carry out reflecting the characteristics of the target business. Additionally, the items of EIA have a structure that is difficult to change, so that the items of EIA is easy to fall apart from the current social needs. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to suggest adjustment of the items of EIA by reflecting the changes in the assessment and social conditions based on analysis of the usage and effectiveness of the current EIA items. In addition, this study would like to propose a improvement of the operating system in order to ensure that EIA items can be selected effectively.

A Study on Introduction Scheme of Health Impact Assessment Compared to EIA System in the United States (미국의 EIA 사례에 비추어 본 건강영향평가 도입 방안)

  • Han, Young-Han;Kim, Im-Soon;Han, Sang-Wook
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.129-141
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    • 2007
  • With its more than 35 years of experience with EIA of NEPA in United States, the extensive knowledge base of EIA could be the most suitable place for initial field of HIA to explore lessons available for. However, caution is needed as the technical differences in analysis, different policy context, and distinct professional culture between EIA and HIA might be. The successe of EIA of NEPA is the integration of environmental goals into decision making process, improved planning, and increased transparency and public involvement, whereas shortcomings of it were defined as the excessive volume and complexity of EIA documents, the limited and adversarial public involvement, the procedural process (not substantive), focus on projects (not on policies and programs), and the limited consideration of health impacts. Integrating HIA into existing EIA process is positive in two reasons that the human health is closely related with natural environment and EIA process is a fully established process that effectively cuts across bureaucratic and sectoral boundaries. Also, integrating of HIA into EIA might be a way with least resistance for the widespread use. A freestanding HIA separated from EIA is desirable in terms of excessive volume of EIA documents and the procedural and legal focus of EIA. It is needed to develop the formulated methodologies for advancing HIA whether it is a part of or separated from EIA, and to estimate the potential values of HIA in the substantial society context. When possible, HIA should be established on the ways that EIAs have been used successfully.

A Study on Assessment Standard for Environmental Impact Assessment (한국에서의 환경영향평가 평가기준에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Mu-Choon
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.111-116
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    • 1993
  • The EIA system was developed during ten odd years of introduction. On the other hand, the contentional development representing systematical fidelity does not match to it. I surveyed the problems of EIA on the point of environmental items with no legal standards. EIA is being executed only once on the planning stage. If the present EIA system has two times of execution, the quality of EIA will be much better. First, on the stage of deciding location of the project, EIA should be done. And next, detailed EIA should be done on the stage of executing the project. To describe the problems of EIA, I surveyed the legislations on the point of the former stages, investigation of present status and anticipation. And I tried a theoretical approach to EIA. The knowledge of things, the subject's standpoint and his valuation are all put together in the EIA. The knowledge of relationship between air and water pollutants and their impact on human is accumulated much. On the other hand, the knowledge of the compounded item, fauna-flora(natural ecology) is partial and causes many difficulties. I pointed out the absurdities of assessment technique dealing the standards and introduced assessment technique being applied to items with no physico-chemical standards such as wild lives.

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Environmental Impact Assessment Using Remote Sensing Data : the Land Use Change (인공위성자료를 이용한 환경영향평가 : 토지이용 변화를 중심으로)

  • Mun, Hyun-Saing;Kim, Myung-Jin;Han, Eui-Jung;Lee, Jae-Woon;Bang, Kyu-Chul;Lee, Hee-Seon
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.23-28
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    • 1995
  • Remote sensing begins to be applied in Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA), and it can systematically assess land use which is an important factor in EIA. This study is to predict land use change of Ulsan region and to assess impact on land use using the past and the present data of remote sensing. Also we analyzed an impact area influenced by EIA projects through the integration of remote sensing and GIS. This technique will be applied to the screening stage in EIA.

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The Status Quo and Direction of Development of Environmental Impact Assessment System in Korea (우리나라 환경영향평가제도의 현주소와 발전방향에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Joon-Gyu
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.155-161
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    • 2000
  • Environmental impact assessment(EIA), the only preventive system to manage development projects destroying the nature and ecosystem systematically, has been accomplished since the late 1970. EIA connotes intrinsic limits predicting uncertain future with the aid of present data. Furthermore, EIA has been used as not decision-making tools but regulatory means. Therefore, EIA has been criticized severely. In order to present direction of development of EIA, we analyzed problems of management of EIA, and concluded measures as follows are needed. 1. Control of investigation of environmental impact statements 2. Development of evaluating methods and publication 3. Fostering of institute for research and investigation of EIA 4. Construction of harmony of environment and development 5. Upgrade of state of proxy executing EIA.

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A Study on the Systematization of the Legal Framework for Environmental Impact Assessment Systems (환경영향평가법(環境影響評價法)의 체계정립(體系定立)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Jeong, Yeon-Man
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.195-209
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    • 2001
  • The objective of this study is intended to propose plans for reforming environmental impact assessment(EIA) systems by reviewing the current legal systems of EIA related laws and their implementation status in Korea, and by comparing the Korean situation to EIA systems in several foreign countries. This study tried to integrate all EIA related systems scattered over several laws into one comprehensive EIA law, and also to develop legal procedures necessary to accomplish the legislative purpose of the integrated EIA law. Therefore, I propose four reforms (1) All EIA systems should be integrated into one comprehensive EIA act. (2) Administrative plans and policies, though environmentally harmful, which are not currently subject to any prior consultation system, should be covered by the prior consultation system. (3) A screening or scoping should be adopted. (4) Widen civil participation should be encouraged and the administrative control enforcement and introduction of group litigation or citizen suits would be considered.

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The Environmental Impact Assessment - An Instrument of Environmental Policy in Germany (독일 환경정책 수단으로서의 환경영향평가의 의미)

  • Bechmann, Arnim
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.13-25
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    • 1993
  • Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) serves to identify a project's possible effects on the environment early enough sufficiently allowing for them to be taken into account in the decision-making process. The EIA in Germany is an instrument of environmental Policy which considers nature as an integrated system (ecosystem). In the german process of developing environmental policy, the EIA has been one of the instruments which introduced by law rather late. This means that the German Law of EIA has been made in 1900, 20 years after the beginning of the environmental policy in Germany. In the following paper I intend to ${\cdot}$ explain the basic concept of the EIA in Germany ${\cdot}$ describe the process of law building for EIA ${\cdot}$ give a short overview of applications and experiences with EIA ${\cdot}$ show the links between EIA and general environmental policy in Germany.

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