• Title, Summary, Keyword: EMS

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A Study on Improvement of EMS Fund Using in Korea (우리나라 응급의료기금 운영실태 및 문제점)

  • Baek, Hong-Sok
    • The Korean Journal of Emergency Medical Services
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.101-110
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    • 2005
  • In Korea, EMS Fund Operation seems to move the opposite direction to right way. The most initial EMS fund was consumed loan for some emergency patients without any particular results. Since 2002, the use of EMS fund also has shown a tendency to shift one side. By the results, it was 44.3% to support emergency medical centers, so called hospital EMS system and 28.4% to purchase ambulances and helicopters, and 1.6% to operate Central Medical Center, prehospital base in the EMS fund consumed in 2004. It was never supported for the environmental improvement and development of universities, colleges, and private EMS units having the primary responsibilities. The initial EMS fund using should be used for prehospital base, e.g., prehospital staffs, communications, and facilities and balanced development between public and private EMS units than any other fund using.

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Effect of NaCl Concentration on the Emulsifying Properties of Myofibrilla Protein in the Soybean Oil and Fish Oil Emulsion

  • Jo, Yeon-Ji;Kwon, Yun-Joong;Min, Sang-Gi;Choi, Mi-Jung
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.315-321
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    • 2015
  • The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of NaCl concentration on the emulsifying and rheological properties of porcine myofibrillar protein (MF)-stabilized soybean oil and fish oil emulsion (SO-EMs and FO-EMs). Emulsions (EMs) were prepared from 1% MF with 10% SO or FO at various NaCl concentration (0-0.5 M). The emulsifying ability index (EAI) of the EMs increased with increasing NaCl concentration for both oil types. Conversely, increasing NaCl manifested decrease in the emulsion stability index (ESI). In addition, creaming index (CI) also increased with NaCl concentration. From the microscopic observation, droplets of the EMs were more aggregated at relatively higher NaCl concentrations, especially for FO-EMs. All EMs had a gel-like structure owing to G' > G" from the rheological analysis. Comparing the oil types, the emulsifying capacity of SO-EMs was more stable than that of FO-EMs at all NaCl concentrations as determined from the CI value and microscopic observation. Therefore, it can be concluded that SO-EMs and FO-EMs are more stable at relatively lower concentrations of NaCl. In addition, the dispersed stability of SO-EMs was better than that of FO-EMs at the same concentration of NaCl.

EMS fund, is it functioning or fumbling? (응급의료기금, 무엇이 문제인가?)

  • Baek, Hong-Seok;Lee, Jun-Ho;Kim, Igic-Sung;Park, Hyun-Suk;Park, Sang-Sub
    • Journal of Korean Clinical Health Science
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.35-45
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    • 2013
  • Purpose. Based on the comparison and analysis with those of United States, the aim of this research is to find the problems in current management, operation and future directions of emergency medical service (EMS) fund in S. Korea and to provide basic resources and appropriate measures to make a right decision in policies for EMS fund. Methods. Data from Ministry of Health and Welfare and other various sources during 1995 to 2012 were collected and analyzed. Results. From our analyses, several problems are identified in EMS fund operation. In brief, problems discerned are as follows. First, whereas the purpose and direction of EMS fund operations in United States are highlighted and focused on pre-hospital EMS system and associated infrastructures which need to be constructed, those of S. Korea are emphasized mainly on the in-hospital EMS system so far. Second, on the contrary to the fact that the EMS funds in United States are tuned to pre-hospital EMS system to provide prompt and efficient emergency care at the emergency scene of pre-hospital stage and to achieve the development, design, planning and demonstration projects for pre-hospital EMS systems, up to date, our investment of EMS funds demonstrated an excess biased inclination toward the construction of in-hospital EMS system, which is far from the realization of constructive and vital pre-hospital infrastructures. Third, while emergency medical technician is important and principal body in the management of emergency medical funds in United States, so far, no EMS funds in S. Korea existed for EMTs including the job condition, improved treatment and working environment for them. Conclusion. In conclusion, we strongly suggest that the problems pointed out must be revised and corrected. Current usage of EMS fund needs to be redirected predominatly to pre-hospital EMS system. Otherwise, unless current management and investment of emergency medical funds in S. Korea are applied and used for the vital necessities and demands of EMTs, public EMS units and private EMS units as well as related units in pre-hospital EMS system as in the cases of United States, in our consideration, they must be suspended or abolished.

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Regeneration of Plants from EMS-treated Immature Embryo Cultures in Soybean [Glycine max(L.) Merr.]

  • Van, Kyu-Jung;Jang, Hyun-Ju;Jang, Young-Eun;Lee, Suk-Ha
    • Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.119-126
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    • 2008
  • Since somatic embryogenesis combined with ethylmethane sulfonate(EMS) treatments is the most efficient technique for mutagenesis, the embryogenic capacity of four soybean cultivars was evaluated at different EMS concentrations, treatment times, and preculture durations. Two to 4 mm long immature cotyledons were placed in induction medium after EMS treatment, and the numbers of somatic embryos formed per explant were counted four weeks after culture initiation. We observed genotypic differences in the efficiency of somatic embryogenesis from immature embryos among four cultivars treated with different concentrations of EMS for six hours. Cultivars, Sinpaldalkong 2 and Jack, displayed highly efficient somatic embryogenesis regardless of EMS concentration, whereas very low efficiency or no survival was observed in Jinju 1 and Iksannamulkong cultivars. Preculture duration did not influence the efficiency of somatic embryogenesis. Because Sinpaldalkong 2 exhibited the best somatic embryogenesis, much higher concentrations of EMS were used to test somatic embryo formation under different periods of time in this cultivar. Three and six hour treatments with both 1 and 2 mM EMS yielded higher embryo formation than longer periods of time. Increasing the time with embryos in 2 mM EMS caused a reduction in somatic embryogenesis in Sinpaldalkong 2, but many chlorophyll-deficient soybean variants were identified in the $M_1R_0$ and $M_2R_1$ generations. In addition to Jack, Sinpaldalkong 2 is a good genotype for plant regeneration from EMS-treated immature embryo cultures.

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Robust Zero Power Levitation Control of Quadruple Hybrid EMS System

  • Cho, Su-Yeon;Kim, Won-Ho;Jang, Ik-Sang;Kang, Dong-Woo;Lee, Ju
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.8 no.6
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    • pp.1451-1456
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    • 2013
  • This paper presents the improved zero power levitation control algorithm for a quadruple hybrid EMS (Electromagnetic Suspension) system. Quadruple hybrid EMS system is a united form of four hybrid EMS systems one on each corner coupled with a metal plate. Technical issue in controlling a quadruple hybrid EMS system is the permanent magnet's equilibrium point deviation caused by design tolerance which eventually leads to a limited zero power levitation control that only satisfies the zero power levitation in one or two hybrid EMS system among the four hybrid EMS system. In order to satisfy a complete zero power levitation control of the quadruple hybrid EMS system, the proposed method presented in this paper adds a compensating algorithm which adjusts the gap reference of each individual axe. Later, this paper proves the stability and effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm via experiment and disturbance test.

A Comparative Analysis of 119 Emergency Medical Service Operation of Korea and Japan (한국과 일본의 구급실태 비교연구)

  • Baek, Hong-Sok
    • The Korean Journal of Emergency Medical Services
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.199-210
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    • 2004
  • Since the 119 fire department was legally permitted to serve in Emergency Medical Service(EMS)Operation of emergency patients in 1983, 119 EMS operation in general has made a big progress in serving the needs for emergency patients. Currently EMS operation is carried out by 119 EMS unit, private ambulance Co.,etc. But due to the public recognition and volunteers, 119 EMS operation carries the major share of the service. This observation is not surprising in that such a trends occured in Japan 20 years ago. This paper compared the 119 EMS operation conducted by the fire department in Korea with that of Japan in order to draw some inferences from the comparison. The results of the study compared to Japan were as follows: 1. Japan was higher 1.5 times in the number of EMS units per population(100,000), 1.1 times in the number of patient transports per unit. 2. Japan was higher 4.54 times in the number of the 119 EMS personnel per population(100,000), 30.6 times in that per square killometers, 30.6 times per 119 EMS unit, in per ambulance 2.48times. 3. Japan was higher 1.83 times in the number of ambulance per population(100,000), 1.26 times in that per square killo meters. 4. Japan was higher 1.7 times in the number of transport patients per population (100,000), but Korea was higher 2.68 times in the transport patients per EMS personal. 5. Compared to Japan, there was no emergency care related to ALS, for example, such as administering dugs orally and intravenously, interpreting elctrocardiograms, performing endotracheal tube or LMA insertion, using monitors and other complex equipments in Korea.

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A Novel High Precision Electromagnetic Suspension for Long-Stroke Movement and Its Performance Evaluation

  • Lee, Ki-Chang;Moon, Seokhwan;Ha, Hyunuk;Park, Byoung-Gun;Kim, Ji-Won;Baek, Jun-Young;Lee, Min-Cheol
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.514-522
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    • 2014
  • A new type of high precision electromagnetic suspension (EMS) which can support heavy tray along long stroke rail is proposed in this paper. Compared with the conventional EMS, the suggested moving-core typed EMS has the levitation electromagnets (EMs) on the fixed rail. This scheme has high load capability caused by iron-core and enables simple tray structure. Also it does not have precision degradation caused by heat generation from EMs, which is a drawback of conventional EMS. With these merits, the proposed EMS can be an optimal contactless linear bearing in next generation flat panel display (FPD) manufacturing process if the ability of long stroke movement is proved. So a special Section Switching Algorithm (SSA) is derived from the resultant force and moment equations of the levitated tray which enables long stroke movement of the tray. In order to verify the feasibility of the suggested SSA, a simple test-setup of the EMS with 2 Section-changes is made up and servo-controlled in the simulation and experiment. The simulation shows the perfect changeover the EMs, and the experiment shows overall control performance of under ${\pm}40{\mu}m$ gap deviations. These results reveal that the newly suggested contactless linear bearing can simultaneously achieve high load capability and precision gap control as well as long stroke.

Effect of Low Dose Mutagens on Adoptive Response and Plasma Membrane Glycoconjugates in Sarcoma 180 Cells

  • Lee, Jong Hwa;Choi, Eun Sili;Oh, Kyu Seon;Lee, Dong Wook;Chang, Jeong Hyun;Um, Kyung Il
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.293-297
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    • 2000
  • The present investigation was performed to elucidate the effect of pretreatment with low dose ultraviolet radiation (UV) and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) on cell survival by trypan blue dye exclusion method and plasma membrane glycoconjugates by lectin-cytochemistry in sarcoma 180 (S180) cells. Pretreatment with 2 J/$m^2$ UV or 2 mM EMS increased the percentage of survival of cells subsequently treated with high dose UV (10 or 20 J/$m^2$) or EMS (10 or 20 mM), respectively. Staining intensity of concanavalin A (Con A) of the cells pretreated with 2J/$m^2$ UV or 2 mM EMS and subsequently treated with 10 or 20 mM EMS was stronger than that of the cellstreated with 10 or 20 mM EMS. These results suggest that there is an adaptive response on cell survival to EMS or UV in S180 cells. And the results show a change in mannose-containing glycoconjugates of plasma membrane in S180 cells pretreated with EMS or UV and subsequently treated with EMS.

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Functional Properties of Stand-alone Microgrid EMS Application (에너지 자립섬 EMS 어플리케이션의 기능적 특성)

  • Lee, Ha-Lim;Chun, Yeong-Han;Chae, Wookyu;Park, Jungsung
    • KEPCO Journal on Electric Power and Energy
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.115-119
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    • 2016
  • For many past years, research in the operation of stand-alone Microgrid, which provides electric power generated from renewable energy sources and energy storage system instead of diesel generators, has been a major issue in order to prepare the exhaustion of fossil fuel and to protect environment, in island grids. Samso Island, known as the world's first stand-alone Microgrid in Denmark, is connected to the mainland grid through AC system, which has different technical conditions with Korea's isolated power system. Korea's first stand-alone Microgrid has been built in Ga-sa island, Chun-la-nam-do, based on Energy Management System (EMS) operation, and other islands are under construction to follow the next step. These stand-alone Microgrid's has large capacity of Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) and the proportion of the renewable energy sources are large, which makes it necessary to use a Microgrid-Energy Management System (MG-EMS) to operate the grid effectively and economically. However, since the main subject of MG-EMS is different from EMS, specific characteristics and functions must be different as well. In this paper, the necessary characteristics and functions are explained for a general MG-EMS compared to a large power system EMS.

A Research of Analyze Chart for Electronics Manufacturing Service Industries (전자 제조서비스 위탁전문업체의 평가지표 개발)

  • 이용훈;최창호
    • Journal of the Korea Safety Management and Science
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.157-166
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    • 2002
  • With the introduction of the Internet in the 21st century, the manufacturing-oriented industry, so called EMS(Electronic Manufacturing Service) specialized in manufacturing only, is rapidly expanding. From the beginning of the year 2000, the EMS industry in advanced countries around the world, whereas a strong Motivation System in which a manufacturing related staff plays a main role, has began providing the source of competitiveness. And this industry is regarded as a core of management linking productivity directly to management performance. Thus, all the manufacturing sectors including not only the electronic industry but also mechanical industry in the future are observed to be divided into two industries; a Maker strategy industry focused on marketing and development, and a EMS industry specialized in manufacturing. Therefore, we need to evaluate whether the industries should continue to support the Manufacturers Strategy or attempt to change into the EMS industry However, with no approved evaluation standard on hand as to an actual EMS industry, in this thesis, we develop the EM(EMS-Maker) Chart in order to analyze both the Manufacturer Strategy and the EMS industries.