• Title, Summary, Keyword: ETA

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Rheological Properties of Citrus Pectin Solutions (감귤류 펙틴 용액의 리올리지 특성)

  • Hwang, Jae-Kwan
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.799-806
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    • 1995
  • The steady shear and small amplitude oscillatory dynamic rheological properties of citrus pectin $([\eta]=3.75\;dL/g)$ were characterized for a wide range of pectin concentrations $({\sim}6%)$. The typical power-law flow was observed above 2.0% concentration, and the shear rate dependence of viscosity increased with pectin concentration. The transition from dilute to concentrated regime, determined from the double logarithmic plot of ${\eta_{sp.o}}\;vs\;C[\eta]$, occurred at a critical coil overlap parameter $C^{*}[\eta]\approx4.0$, at which ${\eta_{sp.o}}$ corresponded to approximately 10.0. The slopes of ${\eta_{sp.o}}\;vs\;C[\eta]$, at $C[\eta]\;at\;C[\eta]C^{*}[\eta]$were 1.1 and 4.5, respectively. The steady viscosity $(\eta)$ displayed a good superposition at ${\eta}/{\eta}_o\;vs\;{\gamma}/{\gamma}_{0.8}$ relation with an exception of high concentration (6%), which arised from the significant deviation of flow behavior index (n values of $\eta_{a}=K\gamma^{n-1}$) at high concentration. Dynamic measurements showed that the loss modulus $(G^{\prime\prime})$ was much higher than the storage modulus $(G^\prime)$for all concentrations studied, indicating predominant viscoelastic liquid-like behavior of pectin solutions. The frequency dependence of $G^\prime$ was higher than that of $G^\prime\prime$ at the same concentration, whose trend was more pronounced with decreasing pectin concentration. The shear viscosity $(\eta)$ was almost identical to the complex viscosity $(\eta^{*})$ at low concentration, following the Cox-Merz rule, but they became increasingly different at high concentration.

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Non-Newtonian Intrinsic Viscosities of Biopolymeric and Nonbiopolymeric Solutions (I)

  • Jang, Chun-Hag;Kim, Jong-Ryul;Ree, Tai-Kyue
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.318-324
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    • 1987
  • Experimental results for viscous flow of poly (${\gamma}$ -methyl L-glutamate) solutions have been published elsewhere. The data of $[{\eta}]^f / [{\eta}]^0$ are expressed by the following equation, $\frac{[{\eta}^f]}{[{\eta}^{\circ}]}=1-\frac{A}{\eta^\circ}{1-\frac{sin^{-1}[{\beta}_2(f/{\eta}_0)\;{e}xp\;(-c_2f^2/{\eta}_0^2kT)]}{{\beta}_2f/{\eta}_0}$ (A1) where $[{\eta}]^f\; and\; [{\eta} ]^0$ are the intrinsic viscosity at shear stress f and zero, respectively, $ A{\equiv}lim\limits_{C{\rightarrow}0}[(1/C)(X_2/{\alpha}_2)({\beta}_2/{\eta}_0)],{\eta}_0$ viscosity of the solvent, ${\beta}_2$ is the relaxation time of flow unit 2, $c_2$ is a constant related to the elasticity of flow unit 2. The theoretical derivation of Eq.(A1) is given in the text. The experimental curves of $[{\eta}]^f / [{\eta}]^0$ vs. log f are compared with the theoretical curves calculated from Eq.(A1) with good results. Eq.(A1) is also applied to non-biopolymeric solutions, and it was found that in the latter case $c_2 = 0.$ The reason for this is explained in the text. The problems related to non-Newtonian flows are discussed.

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A Study on Maximum Responses of Rotational Shells Subjected to Uneven Settlements by Stochastic Method (부등침하를 받는 회전 쉘의 최대응답 추정에 관한 연구)

  • 정명채
    • Computational Structural Engineering
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.175-184
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    • 1997
  • The objective of this paper is to study arelationship between maximum response and its standard deviation of rotational shells that are subjected to uneven settlements. For this, the ratio, .eta, of the maximum response to standard deviation and it's approximate, .eta./sub apr/, are investigated by stochastic methods. Also, an equation for .eta./sub apr/, that is a function of predominant harmonic number is suggested. The settlements are represented by the Fourier series. Each term in the series contains two coefficients; the amplitude and the phase angle. It is assumed that phase angles are random variables and amplitudes are deterministic. To investigate the characteristics of .eta. and .eta./sub apr/, 100 phase angles for two types of artificial amplitudes spectra are used in the analysis. .eta. and .eta./sub apr/, are almost constant regardless of amplitude type, position of a shell or type of responses; they fall into from 2.0 to 2.5. .eta./sub apr/ is always close to .eta., but tends to be somewhat greater. It may be concluded that a maximum responses of rotational shells subjected to uneven settlements are .eta./sub apr/ (about 2.5) times of its standard deviation. It is considered that this result is used when we design rotational shell structures subjected to differential settlements.

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Conditional Feynman Integrals involving indefinite quadratic form

  • Chung, Dong-Myung;Kang, Si-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.521-537
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    • 1994
  • We consider the Schrodinger equation of quantum mechanics $$ i\hbar\frac{\partial t}{\partial}\Gamma(t, \vec{\eta}) = -\frac{2m}{\hbar}\Delta(t, \vec{\eta}) + V(\vec{\eta}\Gamma(t, \vec{\eta}) (1.1) $$ $$ \Gamma(0, \vec{\eta}) = \psi(\vec{\eta}), \vec{\eta} \in R^n $$ where $\Delta$ is the Laplacian on $R^n$, $\hbar$ is Plank's constant and V is a suitable potential.

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A NOTE ON THE θ3(0, τ)

  • Kim, Daeyeoul;Jeon, Hyeong-Gon
    • Korean Journal of Mathematics
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.67-70
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    • 1998
  • Let ${\eta}(\tau)=q^{1/24}\prod_{n=1}^{\infty}(1-q^n)$, where $q=e^{2{\pi}i{\tau}}$ and ${\tau}{\in}\mathbb{C}$. Then the transformation $$g(\tau)={\rho}\frac{\{\eta(\frac{\tau+1}{2})\eta(\frac{\tau+2}{2})\}^{16}}{\eta(\tau)^{24}}({\bar{{\rho}}{\eta}}(\frac{\tau+1}{2})^8+{\eta}(\frac{\tau+2}{2})^8)^2$$ is holomorphic for Im ${\tau}$ > 0, and has the property $$g(\tau+1)=g(\tau),\;g(-\frac{1}{\tau})={\tau}^{12}g(\tau)$$. (Theorem)

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HYBRID-TYPE SET-VALUED VARIATIONAL-LIKE INEQUALITIES IN REFLEXIVE BANACH SPACES

  • Lee, Byung-Soo;Khan, Mohd. Firdosh;Salahuddin, Salahuddin
    • Journal of applied mathematics & informatics
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    • v.27 no.5_6
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    • pp.1371-1379
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    • 2009
  • In this paper, we introduce a relaxed hybrid-type$\eta$-f-${\alpha}$-pseudomo-notonicity. By using the KKM-technique, we establish some existence results for set-valued variational-like inequalities with $\eta-f-\alpha$-pseudomonotone, relaxed $\eta-f-\alpha$-pseudomonotone, Fan-KKM Theorem.

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Study on Condensation and Adsorption Characteristics of Ethanolamine for Removal COD and N (COD 및 N 제거를 위한 에탄올아민의 응축 및 흡착특성 연구)

  • Kim, Jong-Young;Jeong, Eun-Sun;Ku, Hee-Kwon;Rhee, In-Hyoung;Park, Byung-Gi
    • Proceedings of the KAIS Fall Conference
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    • pp.415-418
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    • 2008
  • 에탄올아민 (ETA; Ethanolamine)은 에틸렌옥시드를 진한 암모니아수와 함께 가열하여 얻어지는 물질로 흡수성이 있는 무색의 액체 또는 고체이며 탄소, 질소, 산소로 이루어진 매우 안정된 유기화합물이다. 이러한 ETA는 부식방지제, 산성가스 흡수제, 화장품 등 각종 산업에서 매우 유용하게 사용되는 물질이다. 하지만 ETA는 눈, 피부, 호흡기, 폐 등에 접촉하여 호흡기 질환 및 만성 천식을 유발하고 피부에 자극을 일으키므로 ETA를 제거하기 위한 물리화학적 연구가 필요하다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 냉각온도 및 진공펌프압력에 따른 ETA 응축 특성과, 흡착제에 따른 ETA 흡착특성을 조사하였다. 조사결과 ETA는 냉각수의 온도 및 진공펌프압력에 영향을 받았으며 냉각수 온도 및 진공펌프압력이 증가할수록 응축율은 감소하였다. ETA 흡착에서 활성탄의 경우 액상의 ETA와 상호간에 흡착력은 존재하지 않았으며, 기상의 ETA는 흡착되지만, $100^{\circ}C$이상에서 탈착 반응이 일어났다. 제올라이트의 경우 액상 및 기상의 ETA를 모두 흡착하였다.

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Determination of the Granulosa Cell-Specific Endothelin Receptor A Deletion on Ovarian Function

  • Cho, Jong-Ki
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.195-200
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    • 2014
  • Endothelin 2 (EDN2) induces follicular rupture by constricting periovulatory follicles. In this study, it was investigated the mechanisms of EDN2 action on follicular rupture with respect of receptor using the conditionally granulosa cell specific EDN2 receptor type A (ETa) KO mice (gcETaKO; $ETa^{flox/-}{\cdot}Amhr2^{Cre}$). It was generated the gcETaKO mice by breeding with $ETa^{flox/-}$ mice after mono-alleic ETa knockout by $ZP3^{Cre}$ and $Amhr2^{Cre}$ mice. Fertility, ovulation and maturation rates of ovulated oocytes after super ovulation were investigated in the gcETaKO mice compared with wild-type mice ($ETa^{flox/flox}$ and $ETa^{flox/-}$) as a control group. In the gcETaKO mice, normal fertility after breeding with male mice was shown compared with wild-type mice. And, there was no significant differences in ovulation rates after super ovulation, however its maturation rates was lower than that of wild type mice. These findings show that EDN2 in follicular rupture for ovulation is related with an other ETa not in granulosa cells. Further studies are needed to investigate how EDN2 is acted in ovarian follicular rupture for ovulation.

STATE EXTENSIONS OF STATES ON UHFn ALGEBRA TO CUNTZ ALGEBRA

  • Shin, Dong-Yun
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.471-478
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    • 2002
  • Let $Let\eta={\eta m}m$ be an eventually constant sequence of unit vectors $\eta m$ in $C^{n}$ and let $\rho$η be the pure state on $UHF_{n}$ algebra which is defined by $\rho\eta(\upsilon_i_1....\upsilon_i_k{\upsilon_{j1}}^*...{\upsilon_{j1}}^*)={\eta_1}^{i1}...{\eta_k}^{ik}{\eta_k}^{jk}...{\eta_1}^{j1}$. We find infinitely many state extensions of $\rho\eta$ to Cuntz algebra $O_n$ using representations and unitary operators. Also, we present theirconcrete expressions.

The Reaction of the Tripledecker Complexes, 4(CpCo)_2(C_4R_4)$ and Alkynes (Tripledecker 착물, $(CpCo)_2(C_4R_4)$과 Alkyne과의 반응)

  • Uhm, Jae-Kook;Lee, Won-Sik;Kim, Seog-Bong;Cha, Jin-Soon;Lee, Hyung-Soo;Lee, Dong-Ho;Kim, Hong-Seok;Sim, Sang-Chul
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.37 no.9
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    • pp.832-836
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    • 1993
  • The tripledecker complexes, bis-(${\eta}^5-cyclopentadienyl)-{\mu}-({\eta}^4-1,2,3,4-tetraalkylcyclobutadiene$)dicobalt were produced by the reaction of Jonas reagent with 2-hexyne and 3-hexyne in the maximum yield (above 50%) when they were reacted in eq-molar amounts at room temperature. A tripledecker complex, bis-${\eta}^5-cyclopentadienyl)-{\mu}-({\eta}^4-1,2,3,4-tetraethyl cyclobutadiene$)dicobalt(13) was isomerized to (${\eta}^5-cyclopentadienyl)cobaltacyclopentadiene-{\mu}-({\eta}^4-2,4-cobaltacyclopentadiene$)(${\eta}^5-cyclopentadienyl$)cobalt(15) on reacting with 3-hexyne at room temperature. Another tripledecker complex, bis-(${\eta}^5-cyclopentadienyl)-{\mu}-({\eta}^4-1,3-dimethyl-2,4-dipropyl cyclobutadiene$)dicobalt(14) was decomposed to give 1,3,5-trimethyl-2,4,6-tripropylbenzene through an intermediate complex by the reaction of 2-hexyne.

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