• Title, Summary, Keyword: ETCS

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Safety analysis to derive safety requirement in the railway system

  • Joung, Eui-Jin;Shin, Kyung-Ho;Kim, Yong-Gyu
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Navigation and Port Research Conference
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    • v.1
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    • pp.383-386
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    • 2006
  • The safety of the railway system is important because the system is a mass transit system and the results of the accident are inconceivable. The railway system is operated by train operation system such as train control system. So the train control system requires safety critical characteristics. In the European railway, ETCS (European Train Control System) project has been finished to accomplish the interoperability of each national railway signaling system. According to the interoperability degree, ETCS levels are suggested. As the highest level, ETCS level 3 suggests a radio communication. Also recently urban railway system is operated by driverless and automatic train control system. In this circumstance, more safety is required than before in the railway system. In order to accomplish the safety of a system, the requirements considering safety have to be suggested. The requirement is a set of several functions such as general function, environment, safety etc. For the safety critical system, safety function is more important than any other functions. The safety functions are deduced by safety analysis. In order to perform the safety analysis, the system hazards have to be identified and then risk analysis for each hazard should be performed. The risk is related to the frequency and the severity of each hazard. And then countermeasures for each risk have to be prepared. The summary of the countermeasures is about a kind of safety functions in a system. In this paper, the safety functions for a train control system are presented according to the above procedure.

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Evaluation on the Fuel Efficiency of Hi-Pass System (고속도로 하이패스 시스템의 연료감소효과 평가)

  • Lee, Seong-Kwan Mark;Lee, Ki-Young;Choi, Yoon-Hwan;Kwak, Jin-Ho;Sung, Ji-Na
    • The Journal of The Korea Institute of Intelligent Transport Systems
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.59-66
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    • 2010
  • Around a toll plaza, vehicles do such maneuvers as slow down, stop, and speed up to pay their tolls when they use ordinary toll gates. They can be expected more fuel consumptions compared to the vehicles which use the Hi-pass, a Korean type of Electronic Toll Collection System(ETCS). To measure the exact amount of difference between the two gas consumptions, we equipped a test vehicle with a measurement system and constructed a model toll gate on our test field. Through the field tests on fuel consumptions, we could confirm a 36.7 % of energy saving when the test car used the Hi-pass. Then we projected the result on the total traffic volumes which had used national expressway network for five months from January 2009. Projected to the whole traffic, potential cost savings reached 5.34 billion won. We expect this result be frequently mentioned of to prove the fuel efficiency of the Hi-pass system.

Standard Configuration for Interface of the Traffic Information Service using DSRC (DSRC를 이용한 교통정보서비스 인터페이스 표준 구성)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Hwan;Cho, Yung-Sung;Bae, Myoung-Hwan;Kim, Sang-Heon;Lee, Kyeong-Im
    • The Journal of The Korea Institute of Intelligent Transport Systems
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2011
  • Recently, a number of OBU(On Board Unit) have being spreaded since ETCS(Electronic Toll Collection System)using DSRC(Dedicated Short Range Communication) was installed in the tollgate of the whole country. Many R&D and commercialization related to ITS service using DSRC and OBU mentioned above are ongoing such as traffic information collection and provision and a signal control, and public traffic information and management and so on. Especially, there are many researches conducted(conducting) on traffic information collection and provision using communication between OBU and RSE. However, Standards for both DSRC application and traffic collection and provision are not established clearly yet. So we would like to suggest a method of traffic information collection and provision without changing of standard related to DSRC. This method is to put the traffic messages into the existing Action primitive for ETC, which is described on "Technical criterion IV of basic traffic information exchange" which was notified by Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs. Proposed standard application method is applied both to RSE and OBE. It is the same system which ETCS used in highway, currently. We confirmed the efficiency and performance of the system through conducting a variety of driving test using 4 vehicles in real road condition. Result of the real road test shows the effectiveness and validity of this method with about 97% communication success rate and based on studying the cases of 3% communication failure, we can analyse the expected problems in traffic information collection and provision using this method.

Performance Analysis for Electronic Toll Collection System, Hi-Pass (자동요금징수 시스템(ETCS)의 시범사업 효과분석 (하이패스 시스템을 중심으로))

  • 이상건;조용성;오세창
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.59-69
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    • 2001
  • 본 연구는 지속적인 교통량의 증가로 인해 발생되고 있는 고속도로의 혼잡을 해결하기 위해 한국도로공사에서 도입, 시범사업을 실시하고 있는 자동요금징수시스템의 효과를 분석하고자 한다. 이를 위해 하이패스라고 하는 자동요금징수시스템의 시범운영이 실시되고 있는 서울외곽순환고속도로의 판교, 청계, 성남 톨게이트를 대상으로 정량적 측면과 정성적 측면에 대해 시범사업 시행 전.후의 상황에 대해 비교.분석하였다. 시행 전.후를 비교해 본 결과, 정량적 측면에서 각 톨게이트 별 시간대별로 다른 결과를 보이긴 하지만 이용율이 비교적 높은 오전 첨두시에는 3개 톨게이트 모두 효과가 있는 것으로 나타나, 일정수준 이상의 이용율이 있는 경우는 효과가 있는 것으로 분석되었다. 정성적 측면의 이용자 만족도 조사에서는 하이패스 이용자의 84%가 만족하는 것으로 나타났으며 비이용자 선호도 조사에서는 응답자의 91%가 하이패스 이용의사가 있는 것으로 조사되어 효과가 있는 것으로 분석되었다. 결론적으로 7,000대의 단말기 과소 보급으로 아직까지는 평균 3.9%의 저조한 이용율을 보여 시범사업의 전반적인 사업효과가 제대로 나타나지 알고 있지만, 비교적 하이패스의 이용율이 높은 오전첨두에는 효과가 있는 것으로 나타난 점을 보아 2000년 12월부터 시행되고 있는 단말기의 추가 보급이 완료되는 시점에는 그 효과가 분명하게 나타날 것으로 예상된다. 따라서. 이용자의 만족도와 비 이용자의 선호도가 매우 높은 상황에서 현재의 시범운영상에서 발생된 문제점을 개선하여 하이패스를 확대.보급한다면 고속도로의 혼잡을 해결할 수 있는 좋은 방안이 될 것으로 판단된다.

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Design and Fabrication of Circularly Polarization Antenna for Electronic Toll Collection System (ETCS용 원형편파 안테나의 설계 및 제작)

  • Lee, Sang-Mok;Yoon, Joong-Han;Kim, Heung-Soo
    • Journal of IKEEE
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.40-46
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    • 2002
  • In this paper, a microstrip array antenna is designed, fabricated and measured for ETCS(Electronic Toll Collection System). To reduce effect of external propagation environment, we use edge-cuffed element and to obtain wider axial ratio and increased bandwidth, we use the sequential rotation array method. Also to fulfill ETCS, roadside equipment are designed to be provide a radiation pattern which can accurately pinpoint the designated communication area without interference of another lanes. And we make and apply an absorber to the array antenna to reduce SLL(Side Lobe Level). From the measurement, we get that return-loss at center frequency is -20.675dB, axial ratio is 0.35dB and the gain is 20.26dBi. And we found that SLL is reduced.

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A Study on the Pharmacetical Characteristics and Analysis of Green-tea Extract (녹차 추출물의 약리적 특성 및 분석)

  • Sung, Ki-Chun
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.115-124
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    • 2006
  • From the result of pharmacetical characteristics and analysis of Green-tea extract, it could obtain some conclusions as follows. The extract experiment of Green-tea appeared about 10%-extraction ratio as semi-solid state, and after dried in freezing from Green-tea extract of semi-solid state, it obtained about 65% Green-tea extract as solid state. In the results on antimicrobial experiment of Green-tea extract, number of S-typhimurium and fungus in microbe decreased more and more according to the time passage. This phenomenon could show that Green-tea extract keeps antimicrobial effect. In the results on antioxidation experiment of Green-tea extract, DPPH scavenging activity of free radical showed that Green-tea extract appears more remarkable reduction ability than reference samples. This phenomenon means that antioxidation of Green-tea extract appears higher than Vitamin-C and BHA sample. In the results on intrument analysis, the fatty and aromatic components of aniline, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, trichloroethylene, caffeine etcs from Green-tea extract was detected with GC/MS analysis and inorganic components of Ca, Mg, Cu, Mo, Sb, Ti etcs from Green-tea extract was detected with ICP/OES analysis.

A Study on the Pharmacetical Characteristics & Analysis of Glycyrrhizin Extract (감초 추출물의 약리적 특성 및 분석)

  • Sung, Ki-Chun
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.215-222
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    • 2006
  • From experiment results on pharmacetical characteristics and analysis of Glycyrrhizin extract, some conclusions are obtained as follows. From results on extract experiment of Glycyrrhizin, it appeared about 8%-extraction ratio as semi-solid state, and after dried in freezing from Glycyrrhizin extract of semi-solid state, it obtained about 70%-Glycyrrhizin extract as solid state of yellow gold color. From results on antimicrobial experiment of Glycyrrhizin extract, number of S-typhimurium and Fungus in microbe decreased more and more according to time passage. This phenomenon shows that Glycyrrhizin extract keeps antimicrobial effect. From results on antioxidation experiment of Glycyrrhizin extract, DPPH scavenging activity of free radical shows that Glycyrrhizin extract appears more remarkable reduction ability than reference samples. This phenomenon means that antioxidation of Glycyrrhizin extract appears higher than Vitamin-C and BHA. From results on instrument analysis, the fatty and aromatic components of 2-pentanone, cyclohexasiloxane, tetrasiloxane, benzoquinoline-2-carboxylic acid etcs from Glycyrrhizin extract was detected with GC/MS and inorganic components of Ca, Mg, Ti, Zn, Fe etcs from Glycyrrhizin extract was detected with ICP/OES.

A Study on the Pharmaceutical & Chemical Characteristics and Analysis of Natural Curcumin Extract (천연 강황 추출물의 약리, 화학적 특성 및 분석)

  • Sung, Ki-Chun
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.393-401
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    • 2011
  • Natural Curcumin belongs to Zingiber Officinale Roscoe was known to possess natural odor, natural taste, natural color, and other pharmaceutical & chemical characteristics. Natural Curcumin extract was made to use ethanol as a solvent was to show a yellow color having state of solid powder and an active component. Natural Curcumin extract tested pharmaceutical & chemical experiment to dilute in curcumin 1%-water solution. Curcumin extract tested antimicrobial experiment using microbe, and tested dye experiment using fiber. Some conclusions in the result of characteristics experiment was obtained as follow. The result of antimicrobial experiment showed that the growth of staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-001) and aspergillus niger (ATCC-002) as microbes decreased according to passage of time. This phenomenon could know that Curcumin compoment showed influence to antimicrobial effect. Also, the result of dye experiment showed that cotton and sick with fiber dyeing dyed in direction of dark yellow color. This phenomenon could know that Curcumin extract showed influence to dyeing effect in observation of optical electron microscope(OEM.) The result of instrument analysis ascertained inorganic components of K(53.300ppm), Na(1.150ppm), Ca(0.711ppm), Ti(0.351ppm), Li(0.256ppm), Cu(0.233ppm) etcs from Curcumin component with ICP/OES, and ascertained organic components of propanoic acid(1.859), benzene(10.814), phenol(14.194) etcs from Curcumin component with GC/MSD.