• Title, Summary, Keyword: ETCS

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Methacholine and adenosine 5'-monophosphate challenge tests in children with atopic asthma and with nonatopic asthma, and their relationships to blood eosinophil markers. (아토피성 천식 환아와 비아토피성 천식 환아에서 메타콜린과 아데노신 기관지 유발 검사의 비교 및 혈중 호산구 염증 지표와의 관련성)

  • Lee, Sun Hee;Kim, Do Kyun;Choi, Sun Hee;Koh, Young Yull
    • Korean Journal of Pediatrics
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    • v.49 no.11
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    • pp.1216-1222
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    • 2006
  • Purpose : Though atopic and nonatopic asthma have different clinical manifestations, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and airway inflammations are common characteristics of them. We investigated BHR to both methacholine and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), and their relationships with blood eosinophil markers in nonatopic asthma as well as atopic asthma. Methods : We studied 116 children (82 atopics; 34 nonatopics) with mild to moderate asthma. Methacholine and AMP challenge tests were performed and bronchial responsiveness was expressed as $PC_{20}$ (provocative concentration causing a 20 percent fall in $FEV_1$); blood eosinopil counts (ETCs) and serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) levels were gauged. Results : In atopics, 95.1 percent and 90.2 percent showed hyperreactivity to methacholine ($PC_{20}$<16 mg/mL) and AMP ($PC_{20}$<200 mg/mL), respectively. Meanwhile, in nonatopics, 94.1 percent and 52.9 percent displayed hyperreactivity to methacholine and AMP, respectively. The geometric mean of AMP $PC_{20}$ was lower in atopics (31.6 mg/mL) than in nonatopics (125.9 mg/mL); that of methacholine $PC_{20}$ was similar in the two groups. AMP $PC_{20}$ correlated with blood ETCs in both atopics(r=-0.30, P<0.01) and nonatopics (r=-0.57, P<0.01), and correlated with serum ECP levels (r=-0.23, P<0.01) in atopics, but not in nonatopics. Apart from AMP, methacholine $PC_{20}$ was not associated with blood eosinophil markers in either group. Conclusion : Atopics more frequently displayed BHR to AMP than nonatopics. Furthermore, BHR to AMP was associated with not only blood ETCs, but serum ECP levels in atopics but was correlated with only blood ETCs in nonatopics. Those results suggest that BHR to AMP reflects airway inflammation in asthma and is more related to atopy.

A Study of the "Ikkando Medicine" in Japanese Oriental Medicine (일본(日本) 한방의학(韓方醫學)의 체질의학(體質醫學)인 《일관당의학(一貫堂醫學)》에 관(關)한 고찰(考察))

  • Joh, Kiho;Park, Seong Sik;Terasawa, Katsutoshi;Shimada, Yutaka;Lee, Won Chul
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.339-352
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    • 1997
  • The oriental medicine based on the traditional chinese medicine has developed according to the historical and racial character respectively in China, Korea and Japan etcs. Particularly, the distinctive feature of Korea & Japan is characterized by the development of constitutional medicine compared with chinese medicine; Sasang Medicine of Korea and Ikkando Medicine of Japan. The constitutional medicines were so far developed by many clinical doctors, and in recent years much interest has centered on the application of these medicines in regarding originality, easiness and effectiveness etcs in treatment. Thus far only few attempts have been made at Ikkando medicine in Korea, what seems to be lacking, however, is practical application in clinic. Thus authors intend to help the clinical application by introducing Ikkando medicine to Korea oriental medicine through this paper. The Ikkando medicine was established by Dohaku Mori(1869~1931) and was known through the "Kampo Ikkando Medincine" which was published by his disciple, Kaku Yakazu(1893~1966), classified human beings into three types; type of blood stasis, type of stroke and type of allergy. The type of blood stasis may be responsible for factors which have occurred by a state of insufficient bleed circulation and blood stasis causing lesione of endothelial cells, and Tongdosan is mainly administrated. The predisposing factor of stroke's type is known as the excessive diet, and the prevalence of cerebrovascular accident is probably higher. In this type, it is likely that patients are prevented and cured with Bangpungtongsunsan. Allergy's type have three distinct types of childhood, adolescence and adult as to the age. Allergy's type of childhood predisposes patients such as these to upper respiratory infection and tuberculosis etcs, and Sihocheonggansan is frequently administrated. Allergy's type of adolescence has a tendency to rhinitis and infection of face legion etcs, and Heunggyeyeoungyotang is mainly administrated. Allergy's type of adult is subject to urogenital infection, and is more commonly treated with Yongdamsagantang. Judging from the above, we can say with fair certainty that Ikkando Medicine has considerable validity to clinical practice, though it should not be pushed too far.

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Color Enhancement in Images with Single CCD camera in Night Vision Environment

  • Hwang, Wonjun;Ko, Hanseok
    • Proceedings of the IEEK Conference
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    • pp.58-61
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    • 2000
  • In this paper, we describe an effective method to enhance the color night images with spatio-temporal multi-scale retinex focused to the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) applications such as in the single CCD based Electronic Toll Collection System (ETCS). The basic spatial retinex is known to provide color constancy while effectively removing local shades. However, it is relatively ineffective in night vision enhancement. Our proposed method, STMSR, exploits the iterative time averaging of image sequences to suppress the noise in consideration of the moving vehicles in image frame. In the STMSR method, the spatial term makes the dark images distinguishable and preserves the color information day and night while the temporal term reduces the noise effect for sharper and clearer reconstruction of the contents in each image frame. We show through representative simulations that incorporating both terms in the modeling produces the output sequential images visually more pleasing than the original dim images.

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The Efficient Vehicle Recognition Algorithm using Support Vector Machines (Support Vector Machines를 이용한 효율적인 차량 인식 알고리즘)

  • 황원준;송명철;고한석
    • Proceedings of the IEEK Conference
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    • pp.327-330
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    • 2000
  • In this paper, we describe an intelligent method to detect types of vehicles using Support Vector Machines focused to the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) applications such as in the CCD based Electronic Toll Collection System (ETCS). This algorithm can be used the various fields of ITS applications. Support Vector Machines employed in this paper has been recently proposed as a very effective method for 3D image recognition. And our proposed feature extraction method using the singluar values that directly come from pixels at input images. Consequently, The low calculation load and the high recognition rate in spite of image rotation and various noises are one of merits of proposed method.

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A Study on the Antimicrobial Effect of Garlic Extract using Super-Critical Carbon Dioxide (초임계 이산화탄소를 이용한 마늘 추출물의 항균효과에 관한 연구)

  • Sung, Ki-Chun
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.51-56
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    • 2003
  • Garlic extract using super-critical carbon dioxide is influenced by temperature and pressure, and the optimum condition can make under super-critical state. We can know the defects in process of super-critical extration, It can indicate the drop of product rate, energy loss and equipment expense etcs. The minimum inhibition concentration of microbe which garlic extract contains has apperared the concentration more than 800ppm in this experiment. According to the result of this experiment, we can know that the antibiosis effect in the microbe of staphylococcus and fungus has disappeared in the incubation time more than 12 hours.

Design of ETC Authentication and Toll Charging System using WAP Service (WAP 서비스를 이용한 ETC 인증 및 과금 결제 시스템 설계)

  • Cho, Jae-Man;Shin, Song-Ah;Yu, Sun-Yung;Yim, Jae-Hong
    • Proceedings of the Korea Information Processing Society Conference
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    • pp.767-770
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    • 2003
  • 현재 사용되고 있는 ETCS(Electronic Toll Collection Services)는 충전식의 스마트 카드와 카드리더를 이용하여 필요한 정보를 읽음으로 인증 및 과금 결제를 처리하는 방식이다. 혀 방식은 스마트 카드 규격이 다양하여 사용자는 각 규격에 맞는 카드리더를 사용해야 한다. 게다가 충전식이기 때문에 매번 충전해야하는 불편함이 있다. 본 논문에서는 현 ETC(Electronic Toll Collection)시스템의 단점을 극복하고자 스마트 카드 대신 휴대폰과 WAP(Wireless Application Protocol) 서버를 사용하여 통행료 자동징수 시스템을 설계한다. 또한 휴대폰을 사용함으로써 ITS(Intelligent Transfer Service) 시스템과 별도로 지역적인 인증이 가능하여 인중절차를 간소화시킬 수 있으며, ITS 시스템의 부하를 줄일 수 있기 때문에 ETC시스템 처리속도 또한 증가시킬 수 있다.

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A Study on the Machining Charcterisitics of Milling of cylinderical Rod Materials for Passenger Car (승용차용 CYLINDER ROD 소재의 밀링 적삭 특성 연구)

  • 채왕석
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Machine Tool Engineers Conference
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    • pp.143-148
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    • 1996
  • In this paper, we have studied internal quality including chemical compositions, microscopic structure and nonmetalic inclusion of test materials. We have analyzed dynamic characteristics of cutting force of milling including tensile strength value hardness etcs. Test materials are used the tempered carbon steel and the non-tempered carbon steel. The obtained results are as follows: 1.In analyzing internal quality, the tempered carbon steel have typical martensite structure and the non-tempered carbon steel have ferrite+pearlite structure. 2.Yield strength, tensile strength and hardness value are in the non-tempered carbon steel but elongation is maximum value in the tempered carbon steel. 3.Cutting force is smaller non-tempered carbon steel than tempered carbon steel when feed speed and depth of cut is constant. 4.Cutting force is smaller to the tempered carbon steel and smaller non-tempered carbon steel than tempered carbon steel when cutting conditions

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A Study on the Machining Characteristics by the Internal Quality of Conecting Rod's Meterials for Trucks (트럭용 커낵팅 로드 소재의 내부 품질에 따른 절삭 특성 연구)

  • 김동현
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Precision Engineering Conference
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    • pp.97-101
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    • 1996
  • In this paper, We have studied internal quality incluiding chemical compositions, microscopic structrue and nonmetalic inclusion of test materials. We have analyzed dynamic characteristics of cutting resistence including tensile strength value, hardeness value, impact value etcs. We have compared chip treatments of test materials. In analyzing internal quality, all of test materials have typical ferrite+pearlite structure. But, nonmetallic inclusion have oxide and sulfide inclusion in medium carbon steels, mainly sulfide inclusion is existed in S-free cutting steels. In Ca+S-free cutting steels, calcium aluminate and sulfide complex inclusion, had low-melting points, as deformation of sulfide and oxide inclusion is existed. machining characteristics, cutting resistence is maximum in Ca+S-free cutting steels, minimum in medium carbon steels. Chip treatements are excellent in S-free cutting steels, similar to the Ca+S free cutting steels and medium carbon steels.

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A Study on the Internal Quality and the Machining Characteristics of Martensitic Heat Resisting Steel (마르텐사이트계 내열강의 금속 및 기계적 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 채왕석;권용기;김동현
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Precision Engineering Conference
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    • pp.1073-1077
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    • 1997
  • In this paper, we have studied internal quality including chemical compositions, microscopic structure and nonmetalic inclusion of test materials. We have analyzed machining characteristics including tensile strength value, impact value, hardness value etcs. Test materials are usd martensitic heat resisting steel, STR11 and STS420J2. The obtined results are as follows : 1. In analyzing internal quality, STR11 and STR420J2 have typical martensite structure and a minute needle-shaped structure. 2. Tensile strength and reduction of area and hardness value are large STR11 than STS420J2. But elongation impact are smaller STR11 than STS420J2. 3. Fracture surface of tensile speciman is ductile in STR11 and STS420J2.

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A Study on the Mesio-Distal Crown Diameters and Crown Length of the Permanent Anterior Teeth (영구치 전치의 근원심경과 치관 길이에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Tae-Jung
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Dental Technology
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.21-26
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    • 1991
  • The mesiodistal crown diameters and crown length of the permanent anterior teeth have been studied and analyzed about the mean size, S.D, S.E etcs from stone models of 100 Korean male and 74 female. From the study, the following conclusions were made : 1. Statistical differences of left and right teeth were not found in the mesio distal crown diameters and crown length of the permanent anterior teeth. 2. The mean values of mesiodistal crown diameters of permanent anterior teeth were slightly larger in male than in females and statistical differences of males and females were found in maxillary right central incisor, mandibular left canine, mandibular right lateral incisor and mandibular right canine. 3. The mean values of crown length of permanent anterior teeth were slightly larger in male than in female and statistical differences of males and females were found in mandibular left canine, mandibular right canine. 4. Mesiodistal crown diameters and crown length of maxillary left lateral incisors and right lateral incisors of female are larger than that of male.

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