• Title, Summary, Keyword: EZH2

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USP44 Promotes the Tumorigenesis of Prostate Cancer Cells through EZH2 Protein Stabilization

  • Park, Jae Min;Lee, Jae Eun;Park, Chan Mi;Kim, Jung Hwa
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.17-27
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    • 2019
  • Ubiquitin-specific protease 44 (USP44) has been implicated in tumor progression and metastasis across various tumors. However, the function of USP44 in prostate cancers and regulatory mechanism of histone-modifying enzymes by USP44 in tumors is not well-understood. Here, we found that enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a histone H3 lysine 27 methyltransferase, is regulated by USP44. We showed that EZH2 is a novel target of USP44 and that the protein stability of EZH2 is upregulated by USP44-mediated deubiquitination. In USP44 knockdown prostate cancer cells, the EZH2 protein level and its gene silencing activity were decreased. Furthermore, USP44 knockdown inhibited the tumorigenic characteristics and cancer stem cell-like behaviors of prostate cancer cells. Inhibition of tumorigenesis caused by USP44 knockdown was recovered by ectopic introduction of EZH2. Additionally, USP44 regulates the protein stability of oncogenic EZH2 mutants. Taken together, our results suggest that USP44 promotes the tumorigenesis of prostate cancer cells partly by stabilizing EZH2 and that USP44 is a viable therapeutic target for treating EZH2-dependent cancers.

Down-regulation of EZH2 by RNA Interference Inhibits Proliferation and Invasion of ACHN Cells via the Wnt/β-catenin Pathway

  • Yuan, Jun-Bin;Yang, Luo-Yan;Tang, Zheng-Yan;Zu, Xiong-Bing;Qi, Lin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.6197-6201
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    • 2012
  • Although enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) has been reported as an independent prognostic factor in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), little is known about the exact mechanism of EZH2 in promoting the genesis of RCC. However, several studies have shown that dysregulation of the Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin signaling pathway plays a crucial role. Therefore, we determined whether EZH2 could affect ACHN human RCC cell proliferation and invasion via the Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin pathway. In the present study, we investigated the effects of short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated EZH2 gene silencing on Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin signaling in ACHN cells. EZH2-siRNA markedly inhibited the proliferation and invasion capabilities of ACHN, while also reducing the expression of EZH2, Wnt3a and ${\beta}$-catenin. In contrast, cellular expression of GSK-$3{\beta}$ (glycogen synthase kinase-$3{\beta}$), an inhibitor of the Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin pathway, was conspicuously higher after transfection of EZH2 siRNA. These preliminary findings suggest EZH2 may promote proliferation and invasion of ACHN cells via action on the Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin signaling pathway.

EZH2-Mediated microRNA-139-5p Regulates Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Lymph Node Metastasis of Pancreatic Cancer

  • Ma, Jin;Zhang, Jun;Weng, Yuan-Chi;Wang, Jian-Cheng
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.41 no.9
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    • pp.868-880
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    • 2018
  • Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most aggressive cancers presenting with high rates of invasion and metastasis, and unfavorable prognoses. The current study aims to investigate whether EZH2/miR-139-5p axis affects epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and lymph node metastasis (LNM) in PC, and the mechanism how EZH2 regulates miR-139-5p. Human PC and adjacent normal tissues were collected to determine expression of EZH2 and miR-139-5p, and their relationship with clinicopathological features of PC. Human PC cell line was selected, and treated with miR-139-5p mimics/inhibitors, EZH2 vector or shEZH2 in order to validate the regulation of EZH2-mediated miR-139-5p in PC cells. Dual-luciferase report gene assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay were employed to identify the relationship between miR-139-5p and EZH2. RT-qPCR and Western blot analysis were conducted to determine the expression of miR-139-5p, EZH2 and EMT-related markers and ZEB1/2. Tumor formation ability and in vitro cell activity were also analyzed. Highly-expressed EZH2 and poorly-expressed miR-139-5p were detected in PC tissues, and miR-139-5p and EZH2 expressions were associated with patients at Stage III/IV, with LNM and highly-differentiated tumors. EZH2 suppressed the expression of miR-139-5p through up-regulating Histone 3 Lysine 27 Trimethylation (H3K27me3). EMT, cell proliferation, migration and invasion were impeded, and tumor formation and LNM were reduced in PC cells transfected with miR-139-5p mimics and shEZH2. MiR-139-5p transcription is inhibited by EZH2 through up-regulating H3K27me3, thereby down-regulation of EZH2 and up-regulation of miR-139-5p impede EMT and LNM in PC. In addition, the EZH2/miR-139-5p axis presents as a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of PC.

Triptolide Inhibits Histone Methyltransferase EZH2 and Modulates the Expression of Its Target Genes in Prostate Cancer Cells

  • Tamgue, Ousman;Chai, Cheng-Sen;Hao, Lin;Zambe, John-Clotaire Daguia;Huang, Wei-Wei;Zhang, Bin;Lei, Ming;Wei, Yan-Ming
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.5663-5669
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    • 2013
  • The histone methyltransferase EZH2 (enhancer of zeste homolog 2) plays critical roles in prostate cancer (PCa) development and is a potential target for PCa treatment. Triptolide possesses anti-tumor activity, but it is unknown whether its therapeutic effect relates with EZH2 in PCa. Here we described EZH2 as a target for Triptolide in PCa cells. Our data showed that Triptolide suppressed PCa cell growth and reduced the expression of EZH2. Overexpression of EZH2 attenuated the Triptolide induced cell growth inhibition. Moreover, Triptolide treatment of PC-3 cells resulted in elevated mRNA levels of target genes (ADRB2, CDH1, CDKN2A and DAB2IP) negatively regulated by EZH2 as well as reduced mRNA levelsan of EZH2 positively regulated gene (cyclin D1). Our findings suggest the PCa cell growth inhibition mediated by Triptolide might be associated with downregulation of EZH2 expression and the subsequent modulation of target genes.

Prognostic Significance of Overexpression of EZH2 and H3k27me3 Proteins in Gastric Cancer

  • He, Long-Jun;Cai, Mu-Yan;Xu, Guo-Liang;Li, Jian-Jun;Weng, Zi-Jin;Xu, Da-Zhi;Luo, Guang-Yu;Zhu, Sen-Lin;Xie, Dan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.3173-3178
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    • 2012
  • The enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) methyl transferase and histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) protein can repress gene transcription, and their aberrant expression has been observed in various human cancers. This study determined their expression levels in gastric cancer tissues with reference to clinicopathological features and patient survival. We collected 117 gastric cancer and corresponding normal tissues for immunohistochemistry analysis. In gastric cancers, 82/117 (70.1%) were positive for EZH2 and 66/117 (56.4%) for H3K27me3 proteins in contrast to only 5.41% and 7.25% of normal gastric mucosa specimens, respectively. Kaplan-Meier survival data showed the average overall and disease-free survival of EZH2 high expression patients was 25.2 and 20.2 months, respectively, shorter than that with EZH2 low expression (40.5 and 35.9 months). The average overall survival and disease-free survival of high H3K27me3 expression patients was 23.4 and 17.4 months, shorter than without H3K27me3 expression (37.6 and 34.5 months). The average overall survival and disease-free survival of patients with both EZH2 and H3K27me3 expression was 18.8 and 12.9 months, respectively, shorter than that with either alone (34.7 and 31.2 months) or with low levels of both (43.9 and 39.9 months). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that H3K27me3 and EZH2 expression, tumor size differentiation and clinical stage were all independent prognostic factors for predicting patient survival. This study demonstrated that detection of both EZH2 and H3K27me3 proteins can predict poor survival of gastric cancer patients, superior to single protein detection. In addition, H3K27me3 and EZH2 protein expression could predict lymph node metastasis.

Histone H3 Lysine Methylation in Adipogenesis (Adipogenesis에서 히스톤 H3 lysine methylation)

  • Jang, Younghoon
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.30 no.8
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    • pp.713-721
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    • 2020
  • Adipogenesis as a model system is needed to understand the molecular mechanisms of human adipocyte biology and the pathogenesis of obesity, diabetes, and other metabolic syndromes. Many relevant studies have been conducted with a focus on gene expression regulation and intracellular signaling relating to Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), which are master adipogenic transcription factors. However, epigenome regulation of adipogenesis by epigenomic modifiers or histone mutations is not fully understood. Histone methylation is one of the major epigenetic modifications on gene expression in mammals, and histone H3 lysine methylation (H3Kme) in particular implicates cell differentiation during various tissue and organ development. During adipogenesis, cell type-specific enhancers are marked by histone H3K4me1 with the active enhancer mark H3K27ac. Mixed-lineage leukemia 4 (MLL4) is a major H3K4 mono-methyltransferase on the adipogenic enhancers of PPARγ and C/EBPα loci. Thus, MLL4 is an important epigenomic modifier for adipogenesis. The repressive mark H3K27me3 is mediated by the enzymatic subunit Enhancer zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) of the polycomb repressive complex 2. EZH2-mediated H3K27 tri-methylation on the Wnt gene increases adipogenesis because WNT signaling is a negative regulator of adipogenesis. This review summarizes current knowledge about the epigenomic regulation of adipogenesis by histone H3 lysine methylation which fundamentally regulates gene expression.

Gastrokine 1 Expression in the Human Gastric Mucosa Is Closely Associated with the Degree of Gastritis and DNA Methylation

  • Choi, Won Suk;Seo, Ho Suk;Song, Kyo Young;Yoon, Jung Hwan;Kim, Olga;Nam, Suk Woo;Lee, Jung Yong;Park, Won Sang
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.232-241
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: Gastrokine 1 plays an important role in gastric mucosal defense. Additionally, the Gastrokine 1-miR-185-DNMT1 axis has been shown to suppress gastric carcinogenesis through regulation of epigenetic alteration. Here, we investigated the effects of Gastrokine 1 on DNA methylation and gastritis. Materials and Methods: Expression of Gastrokine 1, DNMT1, EZH2, and c-Myc proteins, and the presence of Helicobacter pylori CagA protein were determined in 55 non-neoplastic gastric mucosal tissue samples by western blot analysis. The CpG island methylation phenotype was also examined using six markers (p16, hMLH1, CDH1, MINT1, MINT2 and MINT31) by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Histological gastritis was assessed according to the updated Sydney classification system. Results: Reduced Gastrokine 1 expression was found in 20 of the 55 (36.4%) gastric mucosal tissue samples and was closely associated with miR-185 expression. The Gastrokine 1 expression level was inversely correlated with that of DNMT1, EZH2, and c-Myc, and closely associated with the degree of gastritis. The H. pylori CagA protein was detected in 26 of the 55 (47.3%) gastric mucosal tissues and was positively associated with the expression of DNMT1, EZH2, and c-Myc. In addition, 30 (54.5%) and 23 (41.9%) of the gastric mucosal tissues could be classified as CpG island methylation phenotype-low and CpG island methylation phenotype-high, respectively. Reduced expression of Gastrokine 1 and miR-185, and increased expression of DNMT1, EZH2, and c-Myc were detected in the CpG island methylation phenotype-high gastric mucosa. Conclusions: Gastrokine 1 has a crucial role in gastric inflammation and DNA methylation in gastric mucosa.

Epigenetic role of nuclear S6K1 in early adipogenesis

  • Yi, Sang Ah;Han, Jihoon;Han, Jeung-Whan
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.49 no.8
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    • pp.401-402
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    • 2016
  • S6K1 is a key regulator of cell growth, cell size, and metabolism. Although the role of cytosolic S6K1 in cellular processes is well established, the function of S6K1 in the nucleus remains poorly understood. Our recent study has revealed that S6K1 is translocated into the nucleus upon adipogenic stimulus where it directly binds to and phosphorylates H2B at serine 36. Such phosphorylation promotes EZH2 recruitment and subsequent histone H3K27 trimethylation on the promoter of its target genes including Wnt6, Wnt10a, and Wnt10b, leading to repression of their expression. S6K1-mediated suppression of Wnt genes facilitates adipogenic differentiation through the expression of adipogenic transcription factors PPARγ and Cebpa. White adipose tissues from S6K1-deficient mice consistently exhibit marked reduction in H2BS36 phosphorylation (H2BS36p) and H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), leading to enhanced expression of Wnt genes. In addition, expression levels of H2BS36p and H3K27me3 are highly elevated in white adipose tissues from mice fed on high-fat diet or from obese humans. These findings describe a novel role of S6K1 as a transcriptional regulator controlling an epigenetic network initiated by phosphorylation of H2B and trimethylation of H3, thus shutting off Wnt gene expression in early adipogenesis.

Epigenetic Regulation by Modification of Histone Methylation in Embryonic Stem Cells (히스톤 메틸화 변형을 통한 배아줄기세포의 후성 유전학적 조절)

  • Ha, Yang-Hwa;Kim, Young-Eun;Park, Jeong-A;Park, Sang-Kyu;Lee, Young-Hee
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.273-279
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    • 2011
  • Epigenetic regulation is a phenomenon that changes the gene function without changing the underlying DNA sequences. Epigenetic status of chromosome is regulated by mechanisms such as histone modification, DNA modification, and RNAi silencing. In this review, we focused on histone methylation for epigenetic regulation in ES cells. Two antagonizing multiprotein complexes regulate methylation of histones to guide expression of genes in ES cells. The Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), including EED, EZH2, and SUZ12 as core factors, contributes to gene repression by increasing trimethylation of H3K27 (H3K27me3). In contrast, the Trithorax group (TrxG) complex including MLL is related to gene activation by making H3K4me3. PRC2 and TrxG accompany a variety of accessory proteins. Most prominent feature of epigenetic regulation in ES cells is a bivalent state in which H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 appear simultaneously. Concerted regulation of PRC2, TrxG complex, and H3K4- or H3K27-specific demethylases activate expression of pluripotency-related genes and suppress development-related genes in ES cells. Modified balance of the regulators also enables ES cells to efficiently differentiate to a variety of cells upon differentiating signals. More detailed insights on the epigenetic regulators and their action will lead us to better understanding and use of ES cells for future application.