• Title, Summary, Keyword: Ear-discomfort

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Experimental Study on the Characteristics of the Inside and Outside Pressure Variation for KTX (KTX차량 객실내외의 압력변동특성에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Nam Seong-Won;Hong Hyeon-Ju
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • pp.281-286
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    • 2003
  • Experimental study is conducted to clarify the inside and outside pressure variation of passenger cabin for KTX. These pressure variation may give rise to the ear-discomfort. Generally ear-discomfort has been considered as a problem related to high speed train. In this study, the pressure variation of interior, gangway and exterior of KTX passenger car is measured by using the atmospheric pressure sensors and portable data acquisition system. The tunnel from 4000m to 200m in length are chosen for the investigation of length effects. From the results of experiment, the pressure variation of interior per second is under the ear-discomfort limitation in all of tunnel. And, We found that there is a similar pattern of exterior pressure variation. These results generally agree with RTRI's experimental result for Shinkansen.

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A Study on the Characteristics of Internal and External Pressure Variation for KTX (KTX차량 내외부의 압력변동 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 남성원
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Railway
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.26-31
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    • 2004
  • A study is conducted to clarify internal and external pressure variation of passenger cabin for KTX. These pressure variation may give rise to the ear-discomfort for passenger and fatigue for carbody. In this study, the pressure variation of interior, gangway and exterior of KTX passenger car is measured by using the atmospheric pressure sensors and portable data acquisition system. The tunnel from 4000m to 200m in length are chosen far the investigation of tunnel length effects. From the results of experiment, the pressure variation of interior per second is under the ear-discomfort limitation in all of tunnel. And, We found that there are similar patterns of exterior pressure variation for each critical tunnel length. These results generally agree to RTRI's experimental result fur Shinkansen.

Hook Type Wearable Device Based on User Discomfort (불편도를 고려한 귀걸이 형 웨어러블 디바이스 가이드라인 개발)

  • Kim, Jinyoung;Ban, Kimin;Im, Youngjae;Jung, Eui S.
    • Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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    • v.36 no.6
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    • pp.765-776
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    • 2017
  • Objective: This study aims to discover Priority of Hook type Wearable Device's PUI variabels and derive Hook related variables' specification by conducting objective measure. Background: With rapid increasing interest of Health-care Services and ICT technology, the research of Wearable Devices for Sport are becoming main concern. However, Most research of wearable devices are conducted in Economic aspects. And, Hook Type Wearable devices are stay in close to ears but there is not enough studies which are concerning ear characteristic. We need research of discover priority between Hook type wearable device's PUI variables and PUI Guideline which lower discomfort. Method: First, in 1st research, Research of market's Hook type Wearable Devices' PUI Specification. Next, Derive PUI variables and Prototypes with Orthogonal Design. And conduct a discomfort test with dynamic task. Second, in 2nd research, Derive Hook related PUI variables and Prototypes with Full Factorial Design. Conduct a discomfort test with dynamic task. Results: The PUI variables' priority is revealed as Padwidth, Outerwidth, Innerwidth, Upperlength, Lowerwidth, Lowerlength, Paddepth. And PUI variable's which are revealed lowest discomfort are 28mm width, 34mm Upperlength and 3 R value. Conclusion: This study evaluates the discomfort in Dynamic Task that affects the feel of Dynamic environment. Based on study results, a guideline for Hook type Wearable Devices is 28mm Width, 34mm Upperlength and 3 R value. Application: This study is expected to be used as basic data for designing Wearable Devices, as well as Hardware in the industries which are related to ear.

Aerodynamic analysis for train operation without the effect of the passenger ear-discomfort in tunnel of new Seoul-Chunchon line (경춘선 1급 신설터널에서 열차승객의 이명감 없이 주행 가능한 열차속도에 대한 연구)

  • 김동현
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • pp.495-502
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    • 2000
  • For the tunnel design of the first class on new Seoul-Chunchon railway, we investigated for train speeds to run through tunnels without ear-discomfort of passenger in cabin by application of numerical analysis. Also we analyzed the effect of the wind speed induced by train in tunnel that is very harmful to the workers on railroad and the effect of the air-pressure fluctuations which get the fatigue to the tunnel lining and the car body.

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A Study on Estimation of Air Tightness for Train (철도차량의 공기압 기밀도 평가에 관한 연구)

  • Nam, Seong-won
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Railway
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.576-584
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    • 2016
  • In this study, we measured the air tightness of a train using pressure variation in tunnels. To estimate the air tightness of a train is essential to comprehend the pressure variation of the cabin because air tightness is strongly related with ear discomfort. If we can determine the air tightness, we can predict the pressure variation of the cabin. Also, ear discomfort is a problem that can be caused in a high speed train, as well as in Korea's Great Train Express. In this study, we compared the various international standards for ear discomfort and estimated the air tightness of each vehicle based on experimental data obtained using the ITX, KTX and KTX-sancheon(honam) vehicles. The internal pressure variation of the trains is numerically calculated using the air tightness value. The results are good compared to the experimental results. Instead of flap type ventilation, in the future, continuous ventilation equipment will be needed for speed-up.

A study on the optimum cross-section design that satisfies the criteria of aural discomfort in Honam high speed railway tunnel (이명감 특성을 고려한 호남고속철도 터널단면 설정에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Seon-Hong;Mun, Yeon-O;Seok, Jin-Ho;Kim, Gi-Rim;Kim, Chan-Dong;Yu, Ho-Sik
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Rock Mechanics Conference
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    • pp.19-36
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    • 2007
  • When the trains runs at a high speed in the tunnel, passengers feel a pain in the ear that fast pressure fluctuation inside the tunnel being delivered with pressure fluctuation inside the passenger car. These phenomena are called "aural discomfort". Aural discomfort increase the passengers' uncomfort so that it is decreased a service level and serious case, it is able to damage the ear of the passenger. therefore aural discomfort must be considered the high-speed railroad tunnel cross-section design. To solve the problem of aural discomfort in a railway tunnel, some countries have standards on aural discomfort. It has been studied that different countries have different standards on aural discomfort. For that reason, the criteria of aural discomfort was reviewed through the standards of Kyungbu HSR line and different countries in this paper. And then Numerical Analysis of the Characteristics with tunnel cross-section change has been used for the selection of the optimum cross-section of Honam. The numerical analysis results were compared to field test results in order to verifying the reliability of the numerical analysis.

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Correction of Congenital Auricular Deformities Using the Ear-Molding Technique

  • Woo, Taeyong;Kim, Young Seok;Roh, Tai Suk;Lew, Dae Hyun;Yun, In Sik
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.512-517
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    • 2016
  • Background Studies of the ear-molding technique have emphasized the importance of initiating molding early to achieve the best results. In the present study, we describe the immediate effects and long-term outcomes of this technique, focusing on children who were older than the ideal age of treatment initiation. Methods Patients who visited our institution from July 2014 to November 2015 were included. Medical charts were reviewed to collect data on demographics, the duration of treatment, the types of deformities, and the manner of recognition of the deformity and referral to our institution. Parents were surveyed to assess the degree of improvement, the level of procedural discomfort at the end of treatment, any changes in the shape of the molded auricle, and overall satisfaction 12 months after their last follow-up visits. Results A review of 28 ears in 18 patients was conducted, including the following types of deformities: constricted ear (64.2%), Stahl ear (21.4%), prominent ear (7.1%), and cryptotia (7.1%). The average score for the degree of improvement, rated on a 5-point scale (1, very poor; 5, excellent), was 3.5 at the end of treatment, with a score of 2.6 for procedural discomfort (1, very mild; 5, very severe). After 12 months, the shapes of all ears were well maintained. The average overall satisfaction score was 3.6 (1, very dissatisfied; 5, very satisfied). Conclusions We had reasonable outcomes in older patients. After 1 year of follow-up, these outcomes were well maintained. Patients past the ideal age at presentation can still be candidates for the molding technique.

A Study on Pressure Variation of the Passenger Cabin of Conventional Train for Speed-up (기존선 속도향상을 위한 객실내 압력변동에 관한 연구)

  • 남성원;한기흥
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • pp.521-526
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    • 2000
  • Experimental study is conducted to clarify pressure variation of the passenger cabin of conventional train. These pressure variation may give rise to the ear-discomfort. Generally ear-discomfort has been considered as a problem related to high speed train. Because there is also a good progress to speed-up for conventional line, this isn't only a phenomena related to high speed train any longer. In this study, tile pressure variation of interior, gangway and exterior of saemaeul passenger car is measured using the atmospheric pressure sensors in Honam line. From the results of experiment, the pressure variation per second almost close in upon the limitation in the case of Noryong tunnel. Therefore, to accomplish speed-up for conventional train, it may be necessary to study a serial ventilating and the airtightness of carbody.

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Experimental Study on the Characteristics of Pressure Variation of KTX Passing Through Tunnel

  • Nam, Seong-Won
    • International Journal of Railway
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    • v.1 no.4
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    • pp.169-174
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    • 2008
  • Experimental study has been conducted to clarify the internal and external pressure variation characteristics for KTX(Korea Train eXpress) passing through tunnel. Abrupt pressure variation gives rise to the ear-discomfort for passenger and fatigue for car body. In this study, the internal and external pressure variation are measured by using KTX real train experiment and on-board portable data acquisition system in Gyeongbu high speed commercial line. The tunnels from 200 m to 4000 m in length are chosen for the investigation of tunnel length effects. From the results of experiment, the internal pressure variation rate for all the test tunnels is lower than the standard criteria of 200 Pa/s. And, the critical tunnel lengths for pressure wave pattern are classified into 7 groups by using the theoretical L-t diagram analysis.

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Theoretical Study on the Characteristics of Pressure Change of High Speed Train in Tunnels (터널통과시 고속 철도 압력 변동 특성에 관한 이론적 연구)

  • Nam, Seong-Won;Kwon, Hyeok-Bin
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.28 no.9
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    • pp.1042-1050
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    • 2004
  • Theoretical study has been conducted to clarify pressure characteristics of KTX(Korea Train eXpress) in tunnel. The severe pressure change in tunnel may give rise to the ear-discomfort for passenger and fatigue for car body. The external and internal pressure of rolling stock have been measured by using the running test with atmospheric pressure sensors and portable data acquisition system in high speed train. In this study, the tunnels from 200m to 4000m in length have been chosen for the investigation of tunnel length effects. We found that there are similar patterns of external pressure change for each critical tunnel length. The critical tunnel lengths are governed by train speed, train length and sonic velocity. And, the patterns of pressure wave in tunnel are classified into eight groups.