• Title, Summary, Keyword: Earthquakes

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Investigation of Ionospheric Earthquake Precursors Using US-TEC Data during the Solar Maximum of 2013-2015

  • Park, Jeongchan;Park, Sun Mie
    • Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.61-68
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    • 2020
  • Recent studies have suggested that detectable ionospheric disturbances precede earthquakes. In the present study, variations in the vertical total electron content (TEC) for eight earthquakes with magnitudes of M ≥ 5.5 in the western United States were investigated during the solar maximum of 2013-2015 using United States total electron content (US-TEC) data provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Analyses of 12 earthquakes with magnitudes of 5.0 ≤ M < 5.5 in the same region were also performed. The TEC variations were examined for 40 days, including the times when the earthquakes occurred. The results indicated a correlation between earthquakes with magnitudes of M ≥ 5.0 and ionospheric TEC anomalies. TEC anomalies occurred before 60% of the earthquakes. Additionally, they were more frequently observed for large earthquakes (75%, M ≥ 5.5) than for small earthquakes (50%, 5.5 > M ≥ 5.0). Anomalous increases in the TEC occurred 2-18 days before the earthquakes as an ionospheric precursor, whereas solar and geomagnetic activities were low or moderate.

Necessity of management for minor earthquake to improve public acceptance of nuclear energy in South Korea

  • Choi, Hyun-Tae;Kim, Tae-Ryong
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.494-503
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    • 2018
  • As public acceptance of nuclear energy in Korea worsens due to the Fukushima accident and the earthquakes that occurred in the Gyeongju area near the Wolsong nuclear power plant (NPP), estimating the effects of earthquakes has become more essential for the nuclear industry. Currently, most countermeasures against earthquakes are limited to large-scale disasters. Minor-scale earthquakes used to be ignored. Even though people do not feel the shaking due to minor earthquakes and minor earthquakes incur little damage to NPPs, they can change the environmental conditions, for instance, underground water level and the conductivity of the groundwater. This study conducted a questionnaire survey of residents living in the vicinity of an NPP to determine their perception and acceptance of plant safety against minor earthquakes. The results show that the residents feel earthquakes at levels that can be felt by people, but incur little damage to NPPs, as minor earthquakes (magnitude of 2.0-3.9) and set this level as a standard for countermeasures. Even if a minor earthquake has little impact on the safety of an NPP, there is still a possibility that public opinion will get worse. This study provides analysis results about problems of earthquake measures of Korean NPPs and specific things that can bring about an effect of deterioration of public acceptance. Based on these data, this article suggests that active management of minor earthquakes is necessary for the sustainability of nuclear energy.

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF 1819,1844 AND 2001 EARTHQUAKES IN GUJARAT

  • Rathore, Narpat Singh;Verma, Narender
    • Proceedings of the KSRS Conference
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    • pp.366-368
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    • 2003
  • The Rann of Kachchh in Gujarat in the Western part of India is seismically the most active area outside Himalayan Belt. Several severe earthquakes of which the 1819 Rann of Kachchh and 2001 Bhuj Earthquakes are the severest recorded have rocked the region. This paper is an attempt to make a comparative study of the 1819,1844 and 2001 earthquakes. The study of 1819 and 1944 earthquakes is based on secondary accounts while 2001 Bhuj earthquake is based on remote Sensing. From a comparative study of the three earthquakes many interesting conclusions can be drawn. These earthquakes have been the result of accumulation of stress caused due to the collision of Indian Plate with the Eurasian Plate, which is continuously moving northwards. The earthquakes have been felt over large part of the Indian Sub-continent. These have resulted in creation of several faults that have activated periodically. Prominent of them are the Allah Bund Fault, Manfara Fault and Budharmora Fault. These are strike slip faults that get periodically activated. In future too these faults are going to be the most vulnerable to any seismic activity with the probability of high intensity earthquakes occurring along them in future too.

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Gyeongju Earthquakes Recorded in Daily Groundwater Data at National Groundwater Monitoring Stations in Gyeongju (경주 국가지하수관측소 일자료로 본 경주지진 영향)

  • Lee, Jin-Yong
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.80-86
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    • 2016
  • Earthquakes of M5.1, M5.8 and M4.5 occurred in September 12 and 19 respectively in Gyeongju, Gyeongbuk Province. Theses earthquakes inflated fears of people and highlighted necessity of detailed countermeasures because we have considered our country is safe to earthquakes. In the meanwhile, earthquake also impacts groundwater and thus it was recently reported that the Gyeongju Earthquakes affected groundwater there. This study evaluates daily groundwater data collected from five national groundwater monitoring stations (Geoncheon, Sannae, Oedong, Yangbuksin, Cheonbuk) in Gyeongju. The analysis revealed that only groundwater level of bedrock monitoring well hosted in andesite exhibited earthquake impact while no wells in the other four stations hosted in sedimentary rocks showed substantial responses to the earthquakes. This may be derived from the difference of seismic velocity of hosting rocks as well as epicenter distance. Special interest on groundwater monitoring is required to predict earthquakes as precursory phenomena.

Investigation of the relationship between earthquakes and indoor radon concentrations at a building in Gyeongju, Korea

  • Kim, Jae Wook;Joo, Han Young;Kim, Rinah;Moon, Joo Hyun
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.512-518
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    • 2018
  • This article measured and analyzed the indoor radon concentrations at one university building in Gyeongju, Republic of Korea, to investigate if there is any relationship between earthquakes and indoor radon concentration. Since 12 September 2016, when two 5.1 and 5.8 magnitude earthquakes occurred, hundreds of aftershocks affected Gyeongju until January 2017. The measurements were made at the ground floor of the Energy Engineering Hall of Dongguk University in Gyeongju over a period between February 2016 and January 2017. The measurements were made with an RAD7 detector on the basis of the US Environmental Protection Agency measurement protocol. Each measurement was continuously made every 30 minutes over the measurement period every month. Among earthquakes with 2.0 or greater magnitude, the earthquakes whose occurrence timings fell into the measurement periods were screened for further analysis. We observed similar spike-like patterns between the indoor radon concentration distributions and earthquakes: a sudden increase in the peak indoor radon concentration 1-4 days before an earthquake, gradual decrease before the earthquake, and sudden drop on the day of the earthquake if the interval between successive earthquakes was moderately longer, for example, 3 days in this article.

Estimation of Inelastic Response for Building Structure by Analysis Method (해석방법에 따른 빌딩구조물의 비탄성 응답 평가)

  • Chang, Dong-Hui;Song, Jong-Keol;Chung, Yeong-Hwa
    • Journal of Industrial Technology
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    • v.25 no.A
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 2005
  • Recent earthquakes have shown that near-field earthquakes can produce spectral demands significantly larger than those considered in current design code. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has recently initiated a coordinated research program on safety significance of near-field earthquakes. The purpose of this program is to focus on the assessment of vulnerability of nuclear facility structures by using and adapting the best available engineering practices appropriate to evaluate the effects of near-field earthquakes. The objective of this paper is to evaluate of seismic responses of a shear building test specimen subjected to near-filed earthquakes. To achieve the objective, the seismic responses of the test specimen, evaluated by the Displacement Coefficient Method (DCM) and Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis (NDA), are compared with those by the experimental tests.

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Rocking response of unanchored rectangular rigid bodies to simulated earthquakes

  • Aydin, Kamil
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.343-362
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    • 2004
  • Rocking response of rigid bodies with rectangular footprint, freely standing on horizontal rigid plane is studied analytically. Bodies are subjected to simulated single component of horizontal earthquakes. The effect of baseline correction, applied to simulated excitations, on the rocking response is first examined. The sensitiveness of rocking motion to the details of earthquakes and geometric properties of rigid bodies is investigated. Due to the demonstrated sensitivity of rocking response to these factors, prediction of rocking stability must be made in the framework of probability theory. Therefore, using a large number of simulated earthquakes, the effects of duration and shape of intensity function of simulated earthquakes on overturning probability of rigid bodies are studied. In the case when a rigid body is placed on any floor of a building, the corresponding probability is compared to that of a body placed on the ground. For this purpose, several shear frames are employed. Finally, the viability of the energy balance equation, which was introduced by Housner in 1963 and widely used by nuclear power industry to estimate the rocking stability of bodies, is evaluated. It is found that the equation is robust. Examples are also given to show how this equation can be used.

Strong earthquakes and measurement performance of masonry and adobe structures

  • Liu, Yanling;Han, Qinkia
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.99-118
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    • 2013
  • Earthquakes, which are unavoidable natural phenomena in Turkey, have often produced economic and social disaster. The latest destructive earthquakes happened in Van city. Van, Turkey, earthquakes with M = 7.2 occurred on 23 October 2011 at 13:41 (local time), whose epicenter was about 16 km north of Van (Tabanlivillage) and M = 5.6 on 9 November 2011 epicentered near the town of Edremit south of Van in eastern Turkey and caused the loss of life and heavy damages. Both earthquakes killed 644 people and 2608 people were injured. Approximately 4000 buildings collapsed or were seriously damaged. The majority of the damaged structures were seismically insufficient, unreinforced masonry and adobe buildings in rural areas. In this paper, site surveys of the damaged masonry and adobe buildings are presented and the reasons for the caused damages are discussed in detail.

Cumulative deformation of high-speed railway bridge pier under repeated earthquakes

  • Gou, Hongye;Leng, Dan;Bao, Yi;Pu, Qianhui
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.391-399
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    • 2019
  • Residual deformation of high-speed railway bridge piers is cumulative under repeated earthquakes, and influences the safety and ride comfort of high-speed trains. This paper investigates the effects of the peak ground acceleration, longitudinal reinforcement ratio, and axial compression ratio on the cumulative deformation through finite element analysis. A simply-supported beam bridge pier model is established using nonlinear beam-column elements in OpenSees, and validated against a shaking table test. Repeated earthquakes were input in the model. The results show that the cumulative deformation of the bridge piers under repeated earthquakes increases with the peak ground acceleration and the axial compression ratio, and decreases with the longitudinal reinforcement ratio.

Masonry building behaviors during the February 6-12, 2017 Ayvacik-Çanakkale Earthquakes

  • Ural, Ali
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.355-363
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    • 2019
  • Masonry structures in the rural areas of Turkey often damaged due to moderate and big earthquakes. After every earthquake many scientists made field investigations on the earthquake performance of these structures and gave many useful information on construction techniques. However, the newly constructed masonry buildings are still not suitable for the suggested techniques, and they are still in danger against future earthquakes. Five moderate earthquakes of moment magnitude Mw 5.3, 5.3, 5.2, 5.0, and 5.3 struck the Ayvacik-Çanakkale District of Turkey between 6 and 12 February, 2017. More than a thousand of aftershocks were occurred and most of the masonry buildings in the villages nearby main shock epicenter were affected. The author went to the earthquake field and investigated the earthquake performances of masonry structures. This paper presents the recorded acceleration data, acceleration response spectra, and the seismological aspects of these earthquakes. Besides, case studies of damaged stone masonry buildings, and failure mechanisms are discussed with illustrated photos which were taken during the field investigations. It is concluded that the damaged masonry buildings were not designed and constructed properly in accordance with the Turkish building codes or similar specifications.