• Title, Summary, Keyword: Eco-physiology

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Functional Metagenomics using Stable Isotope Probing: a Review

  • Vo, Nguyen Xuan Que;Kang, Ho-Jeong;Park, Joon-Hong
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.231-237
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    • 2007
  • The microbial eco-physiology has been the vital key of microbial ecological research. Unfortunately, available methods for direct identity of microorganisms and for the investigation of their activity in complicated community dynamics are limited. In this study, metagenomics was considered as a promising functional genomics tool for improving our understanding of microbial eco-physiology. Its potential applications and challenges were also reviewed. Because of tremendous diversity in microbial populations in environment, sequence analysis for whole metagenomic libraries from environmental samples seems to be unrealistic to most of environmental engineering researchers. When a target function is of interest, however, sequence analysis for whole metagenomic libraries would not be necessary. For this case, nucleic acids of active populations of interest can be selectively gained using another cutting-edge functional genomic tool, SIP (stable isotope probing) technique. If functional genomes isolated by SIP can be transferred into metagenomic library, sequence analysis for such selected functional genomes would be feasible because the reduced size of clone library may become adequate for sequencing analysis. Herein, integration of metagenomics with SIP was suggested as a novel functional genomics approach to study microbial eco-physiology in environment.

Basic Study on Creating Ecological Residence Space - A thermal environment study of the aged - (생태 공간 조성에 관한 기초 연구 -고령자를 대상으로 한 열환경 연구-)

  • Kim, Dong-Gyu;Ha, Byeong-Yong;Kum, Jong-Soo;Chung, Yong-Hyun
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.153-161
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    • 2011
  • Creating standards on thermal environment has been organized traditionally based on the youth and the manhood who are in mainly active layer of a society. However, traditional creating standards have differences from the physiology of the aged who have weak physical ability than younger person. As a result, it causes a health problem of the aged. Therefore, In this study, we had a basic study to create a comfortable thermal environment which had considered to a physical ability and a physiology of the aged, and build a ecological residence space to maintain health. We had several experiments with the aged; Experiment, Comfort Sensation Vote, Mean Skin Temperature and Analyzing HRV. The result have following by: 1)For the aged, the summer recommend temperature, $26^{\circ}C$, is appropriate within first 30 ~ 40 minutes, but it should be increasing the temperature after that time. 2) By considering PMV status and thermal feeling of the aged, they are prefer to higher temperature than normal setting of air-condition system. 3) In the condition of the summer recommend temperature, $26^{\circ}C$, they had answered in neutral or comfort with the comfort sensation vote. However, we had figure out that they had stress in a lower temperature by analyzing the result of HRV.

Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Thamnocalamus falconeri Hook f. ex. Munro

  • Tiwari, Chandrakant;Bakshi, Meena;Nautiyal, Subhash
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.214-224
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    • 2015
  • The economy of India and so also of many Asian countries depends on bamboos and their uses are not only in domestic items but also in rural housing and raw materials to several industries and germplasm characterization is an important link between the conservation and utilization of plant genetic resources. Classical taxonomic studies of the bamboos are based on floral morphology and growth habit, which can cause problems in identification due to erratic flowering coupled with different biotic agencies and environmental factors. Identification and genetic relationships among accessions of Thamnocalamus falconeri were investigated using morphology and random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPD) technique. Analysis started by using 51 vegetative characters and forty two 10-mer primers that allowed us to distinguish different genotypes hailing from different eco- zones of Garhwal Himalayas (India). The selected primers (12) were used for identification and for establishing a profiling system to estimate genetic diversity. A total of 79.33% polymorphism was estimated by using 12 selected primers. The genetic similar analysis was conducted based on binary digits i.e. presence (1) or absence (0) of bands, which revealed a wide range of variability among the species whereas genetic relatedness was quite high based on vegetative characters. Cluster analysis clearly showed two major clusters for both of the markers viz. morphology and RAPD belonging to 10 accessions of T. falconeri. Two major clusters were further divided into minor clusters. Cluster based on RAPD marker showed grouping of accessions of closed locality whereas analogy was reported for vegetative traits. The RAPD technique has the potential for use in species identification and genetic relationships studies of bamboo for breeding program.

Deposition for PET Fabric of Macban Stone with RF Sputtering (RF Sputtering을 이용한 맥반석의 PET 직물에의 증착)

  • Lee, Hye-Ryeon;Choi, Soon-Hwa
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.129-133
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    • 2006
  • To develope a high value-added fiber products which is useful in the human body physiology, the Macban stone was deposited on the PET fabric by sputtering and its effects were investigated. Then, a Macban stone target was prepared for sputtering treatment and treated on the PET fabric by RF sputtering process. After treatment, surface observation by SEM, far-infrared emissivity and emissive power, the fastness to washing and light, bacteriostatic rate, electrostatic, drape stiffness, and breaking strength of PET fabric were investigated. From these investigation, the following conclusions were obtained. 1) The Macban stone was able to deposit on the PET fabric, by the RF sputtering treatment which is eco-friendly dry textile finishing. 2) The far-infrared emissivity and emissive power of sputtered PET fabrics were increased. 3) When PET fabric was treated by sputtering with Macban stone, the amount of deposited Macban stone increased with increasing treatment time and it was deposited on the fabric surface firmly. 4) The bacteriostatic rate of sputtered PET fabrics was about 20%. 5) The electrostatic charge of fiber surface was reduced by sputtering. 6) The fastness washing to light of dyed fabric were improved by the deposition of Macban stone, but the breaking strength was not changed by sputtering. 7) The drape stiffness of sputtered PET fabrics increased with increasing treatment time.

Cloning and Prokaryotic Expression of the Mature Fragment of the Chinese Yellow Bovine Myostatin Gene

  • Lu, Wenfa;Zhao, Jing;Wei, Guojian;Shan, Wuesong
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.827-831
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    • 2007
  • Myostatin is a member of the transforming growth factor-${\beta}$(TGF-${\beta}$ super-family. It acts as a negative regulator for skeletal muscle growth. Myostatin mutations are characterized by a visible, generalized increase in muscle mass in double muscled cattle breeds. To understand the biochemistry and physiology of the Chinese Yellow bovine myostatin gene, we report here for the first time expression of the gene in Escherichia coli (E. coli). Primers of the myostatin gene of Chinese Yellow Cattle were designed on the basis of the reported bovine myostatin mRNA sequence (Gen-Bank Accession No. NM005259) and optimized for E. coli codon usage. XhoI and EcoRI restriction enzyme sites were incorporated in the primers, and then cloning vector and expression vector were constructed in a different host bacterium. The expressed protein had a molecule mass of about 16 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions. The expressed protein reacted specifically with myostatin monoclonal antibody on immunoblots. Our studies should lead to the investigation of the differences in myostatin genes of various cattle and could benefit human health and food animal agriculture.

Change of Weeds Occurrence, Growth and Yield of Foxtail Millet Cultivation by Polyvinyl Chloride Removing Time (조 재배 시 피복비닐 제거시기에 따른 잡초발생과 조의 생육 및 수량 변화)

  • Hwang, Jae-Bok;Park, Tae-Seon;Choi, Young-Dae
    • Weed & Turfgrass Science
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.236-240
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    • 2016
  • Weeding measures is an important issue for cereal crop because weed is superior to crops in early growth stage and there are not many herbicides applicable to cereal crop. Since the concern about well-being and eco-environmental products are increasing, cultivation with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is needed. Five treatments included as weed-free, control (not remove weed) and covering with polyvinyl chloride removed 20, 30, 40 DAS (day after seeding). At removing PVC, plant height did not differ depending on the growth stage. However, weed-free plot by weed competition were somewhat short. And, removing PVC accelerated the earlier by 2-3 day than weed-free plot. Soil moisture which removed from the control was higher than 20, 30, 40 DAS and weed-free, and it was kept low by evaporation. The chlorophyll meter of weed-free plot was 34.3, 30 DAS was 40.6 at heading time. Weed-free showed that increased in weed population $300.8g\;m^{-2}$. Weed control value of 20 DAS, 30 DAS, 40 DAS were 86.5%, 84.0% and 74.8%, respectively. In 30 DAS, yield of foxtail millet according to treatment of removing PVC were $355kg\;10a^{-1}$. At weed competition early in 30 DAS, the removing PVC was good for control. Thus, 30 DAS was judged to be suitable.

Association between PON1 Gene SNPs and Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle

  • Ji, A.G.;Huai, Y.H.;Zhou, Z.K.;Li, Y.J.;Zhang, L.P.;Xu, S.Z.;Gao, X.;Ren, H.Y.;Chen, J.B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.8
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    • pp.1097-1102
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    • 2008
  • Paraoxonase-1 (PON1), like lipoprotein lipase (LPL), plays a key role in the metabolism and physiology of mammalian growth. The objectives of this study were to estimate the allele and genotype frequencies at the PON1/EcoRV and PON1/AluI loci in three genetic groups of beef cattle and to determine associations between these polymorphisms and growth and carcass traits. Genotyping was performed on 30 Angus, 32 Hereford and 26 Simmental. The association analysis was carried out using the GLM procedure of SAS 9.1 and the least squares means of the genotypes were compared by the Tukey's test. Animals with AG genotype at the PON1/EcoRV locus had higher weight at the time of entry into the fattening corrals ($329.97{\pm}6.08kg$) and close to the time of slaughter ($577.56{\pm}8.32kg$) and net meat weight ($275.89{\pm}4.05kg$) and fitted tenderness ($3.10{\pm}0.19kg$) (p<0.05). Animals with AA genotype at the PON1/AluI locus had higher weight at the time of entry ($333.37{\pm}8.93kg$) and slaughter ($576.82{\pm}13.18kg$) and net meat weight ($275.49{\pm}6.43kg$) and average daily gain ($0.68{\pm}0.02kg/d$) (p<0.05). The meat color score was also significantly higher (p<0.05). Between genotypes and breeds, there were significant differences observed except for TBW, REMG, MBS, REA and MCS. As a metabolism gene, genotypes of the SNPs of PON1 gene might be reflecting BFT directly, such as $A_eA_eG_aG_a$ genotype in this experiment.

Case of the Anti-Type 2 Diabetes Effects on the Prescription of Red Onion (한약과 자색양파 제재로 호전된 제2형 당뇨병 42례 보고)

  • Lee, Jeong Won;Kim, Yi Soon;Kim, Chang Tae;Kwak, Yi Sub;Lee, Hai Woong;Han, Cho Ryang;Oh, Mi Jung;Kim, Gyeong Cheol
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.465-470
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study is to observe clinically the effects of red onion prescription on type 2 diabetes. The subject of this study were middle-aged people. We measured clinically physiological index, body composition, radial arterial pulse wave before taking medicine and after taking medicine for 4 month (the prescription of red onion). The study results were as follows. In physiological Index, diastolic blood pressure(mmHg)(p<0.001), Fasting blood glucose(mg/dL)(p=0.001), and HbA1c(%)(p<0.001) were decreased significantly after taking medicine. In body Composition, waist-hip ratio(p=0.031), body fat percentage(p=0.006), fat mass(kg)(p=0.005), and muscle mass(kg)(p=0.001) were decreased significantly after taking medicine. Blood Circulation Index, ECO(L/min)(p=0.038) and ECI($L/min/m^2$)(p=0.007) were increased significantly after taking medicine, ECR($dyne^*sec^*cm^{-5}$)(p=0.002), and ECRI($dyne^*sec/cm$)(p=0.001) were decreased significantly after taking medicine for 4 month. The prescription of red onion was showed significant change in physiological index, character of body composition, blood circulation index. Based on this result, it is considered that red onion prescription has the positive effects on type 2 diabetes and blood circulation clinically. In the future, diversified studies on the effects of red onion prescription are needed.

Abundance of Harmful Algae, Cochlodinium polykrikoides, Gyrodinium impudicum and Gymnodinium catenatum in the Coastal Area of South Sea of Korea and Their Effects of Temperature, Salinity, Irradiance and Nutrient on the Growth in Culture (남해안 연안에서 적조생물, Cochlodinium polykikoides, Gyrodinium impudicum, Gymnodinium catenatum의 출현상황과 온도, 염분, 조도 및 영양염류에 따른 성장특성)

  • LEE Chang Kyu;KIM Hyung Chul;LEE Sam-Geun;JUNG Chang Su;KIM Hak Gyoon;LIM Wol Ae
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.536-544
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    • 2001
  • Three harmful algal bloom species with similar morphology, Cochlodinium polykrikoides, Gyodinium impudicum and Gymodinium catenatum have damaged to aquatic animals or human health by either making massive blooms or intoxication of shellfishes in a food chain. Eco-physiological and hydrodynamic studies on the harmful algae offer useful informations in the understanding their bloom mechanism by giving promising data for the prediction and modelling of harmful algal blooms event. Thus, we studied the abundance of these species in the coastal area of South Sea of Korea and their effects of temperature, salinity, irradiance and nutrient on the growth for the isolates. The timing for initial appearance of the three species around the coastal area of Namhaedo, Narodo and Wando was between Bate July and late August in 1999 when water temperature ranged from $22.8^{\circ}C\;to\;26.5^{\circ}C$ Vegetative cells of C. polykrikoides and G. impudicum were abundant until late September when water temperature had been dropped to less than $23^{\circ}C$. By contrast, vegetative cell of G. catenatum disappeared before early September, showing shorter period of abundance than the other two species in the South Sea. Both G. impudicum and G. catenatum revealed comparatively low density with a maximal cell density of 3,460 cells/L and 440 cells/L, respectively without making any bloom, while C. polykrikoides made massive blooms with a maximal cell density more than $40\times10^6$cells/L, The three species showed a better growth at the relatively higher water temperature ranging from 22 to $28^{\circ}C$ with their maximal growth rate at $25^{\circ}C$ in culture, which almost corresponded with the water temperature during the outbreak of C. polykrikoides in the coastal area of South Sea. Also, they all showed a relatively higher growth at the salinity from 30 to $35\%$. Specially, G. impudicum showed the euryhalic characteristics among the species, On the other hand, growth rate of G. catenatum decreased sharply with the increase of water temperature at the experimental ranges more than $35\%$. The higher of light intensities showed the better growth rates for the three species, Moreover, C. polykrikoides and G. impudirum continued their exponential growth even at 7,500 lux, the highest level of light intensity in the experiment, Therefore, It is assumed that C. polykrikoides has a physiological capability to adapt and utilize higher irradiance resulting in the higher growth rate without any photo inhibition response at the sea surface where there is usually strong irradiance during its blooming season. Although C. poiykikoides and G. impudicum continued their linear growth with the increase of nitrate ($NO_3^-$) and ammonium ($NH_4^-$) concentrations at less than the $40{\mu}M$, they didn't show any significant differences in growth rates with the increase of nitrate and ammonium concentrations at more than $40{\mu}M$, signifying that the nitrogen critical point for the growth of the two species stands between 13.5 and $40{\mu}M$. Also, even though both of the two species continued their linear growth with the increase of phosphate ($PO_4^{2-}$) concentrations at less than the $4.05{\mu}M$, there were no any significant differences in growth rates with the increase of phosphate concentrations at more than $4.05{\mu}M$, signifying that the phosphate critical point for the growth of the two species stands between 1.35 and $4.05{\mu}M$. On the other hand, C. polykrikoides has made blooms at the oligotrophic environment near Narodo and Namhaedo where the concentration of DIN and DIP are less than 1.2 and $0.3{\mu}M$, respectively. We attributed this phenomenon to its own ecological characteristics of diel vertical migration through which C. polykrikoides could uptake enough nutrients from the deep sea water near bottom during the night time irrespective of the lower nutrient pools in the surface water.

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A Survey on Egg Laying Performance and Distribution Status of Animal Welfare Certified Farms for Laying Hens (산란계 동물복지 인증 농가의 사육 및 유통 현황 조사)

  • Hong, Eui-Chul;Kang, Hwan-Ku;Park, Ki-Tae;Jeon, Jin-Joo;Kim, Hyun-Soo;Kim, Chan-Ho;Kim, Sang-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.55-63
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    • 2019
  • This study was conducted to evaluate animal welfare approved farms in three housing systems (open, windowless, and free-range). The survey was conducted in 25 animal welfare approved farms, and 10 farms were surveyed for distribution status. The main breed in all animal welfare approved farms of laying hens was Hy-Line Brown variety. In the case of open house, laying hens were bred in traditional and panel houses simultaneously; however, the ratio of panel house was 58.3%, which was higher than that of the traditional house. All the windowless houses were made of panels and more than 15,000 laying hens were housed in a single windowless house. In the case of free-range house, it was maintained on a small scale of less than 12,000 birds. Fifty-six percent of the surveyed farms were breeding at $7{\sim}8birds/m^2$. In terms of male and female ratios, most farms maintained 1 male:15 females, but there was a farmhouse that switched 17 or 20 females to 1 male. The daily dietary allowance was 110~170 g, and 32% of the surveyed farms provided feed of more than 150 g/day, which showed that forage feed was important. The age of at the first egg was 123 days, 122 days, and 120 days, and the peak percent was 91.8%, 94.9%, and 86.5% in open, windowless and free-range houses, respectively. The average egg production rate was 74.0%, 84.6%, and 72.7% in open, windowless, and free-range houses respectively, thus, there was no correlation between feed intake and hen-housed eggs. Distribution of welfare certified eggs was mainly a direct deal with the consumer or through contract production. The ratio of direct transactions between large-scale marts and eco-friendly specialty stores of welfare approved eggs was higher than that of conventional eggs. The rate of contract sales of eggs in both the barn and free-range systems was high, and the percentage of courier sales farms was also high. Excluding courier services, price of eggs in the barn system rose to more than 30 won/egg in the second half of 2017 (after AI). Price of eggs in the free-range system rose to more than 50 won/egg in the second half of 2017 (after AI). In the case of courier sales, the same price of 500 won was maintained before and after AI. In conclusion, the results of this study can be used as basic data for improving the animal welfare certification system for laying hens in Korea.