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A Study on Correlations Among Cognitive Functions, Neurobehavioral Symptoms and Daily Living Functions in Patients with Non-Traumatic Subcortical Cerebrovascular Disease (비외상성 피질하 뇌혈관 질환 환자에서 인지기능, 정신행동 증상 및 일상 생활 기능간의 상관에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Young-Ho;Park, Young-Soo;Choi, Hong;Choi, Young-Hee;Ko, Dae-Kwan;Chung, Young-Cho;Park, Byoung-Kwan;Kim, Soo-Ji;Chung, Suk-Hai;Ko, Byoung-Hee;Song, Il-Byoung;Park, Kun-Woo;Lee, Dae-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.170-181
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    • 1996
  • Objective : This study was tried to investigate the specific relationships among cognitve function, neurbehavioral symptoms, and daily living functions, as well as provide the guidline of more proper clinical approches for patients with subcortical cerebrovascular disease. Objects and Methods Subjects were 85 patients whose diagnosis was confirmed by brain CT or MRI and controls were 195 normal persons matched by educational level with the subjects. The cognitive functions were evaluated by BNA(Benton neuropsychiatric assessment), subjective neurobehavioral symptoms by SCL-90-R(Sympton Check List-90-Revised), objective neurobehavioral symptoms by NRS(Neurobehavioral Rating Scale), and daily living function symptoms by NRS(Neurobehavioral Rating Scale), and daily living function by GERRI(Geriatric Evaluation by Relative's Rating Instrument) and IADL(Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale). Results: 1) Subjects showed significantly lower cognitive functions than controls in all tests of BNA except Lt-Rt Orientation Test(p=0.09) and facial Recognition Test(p=0.186). 2) In subjective neurobehavioral symptoms, subjects showed significantly lower scores in all symptoms except anxiety(p=0.059), hostility(p=0.159), and phobic anxiety(p=0.849). But in objects neurobehavioral symptoms, subjects showed significantly higher in scores in psychoticism (p=0.000) and neuroticism(p=0.025) of NRS. 3) The score of social functioning of GERRI(p=0.000) and that of IADL(p=0.000) were significantly higher in subjects than in controls. 4) for correlation between cognitive and daily living functions, there were significant correlations between the scores of all items on BNA and the score of cognitive or social function of GERRI and the socre of MDL in corntrols, whereas in subjects, there were significant correlations only between the scores of BNA and the score of IADL. 5) for correlation between neuroehavioral symptoms and daily living functions, there were significant correlatons between the socre of subjective neurobehavioral symptoms and the scores of all subscales of GERRI and the score of MDL in controls. On the contrary, in subjects, there were significant correlations between the score of social function of GERRI and the score of objective neurobehavioral symptoms such as psychoticism, agitiation-hostility, and decrease d motivation-emotional withdrawl. Conclusion : Above results suggest that disturbances in specific function of brain may play a role as a predictor of impairments with specific daily living functions and also suggest that specific correlations among various functions may be useful as clinical parameters for setting of the treatment goal and for assessing the ongoing process in the treatment and rehavilitation of the patients with subcortical cerebrovascular disease.

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Effect of Music activitics using audition on Music Aptitude development for Kindergarten Children (오디에이션 음악활동이 유치원 아동의 음악소질 향상에 미치는 영향)

  • Rho, Joohee
    • Journal of Music and Human Behavior
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.11-32
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    • 2004
  • According to Edwin Gordon(1987, 1997, 2003), music aptitude is a product of interaction of innate potential and early environmental experiences. He referred to music aptitude of children up to nine years of age as developmental music aptitude which fluctuates due to musical environment. Music aptitude stabilizes at age nine, and the music aptitude after age nine is called "stabilized music aptitude". This research is to examine Gorden's hypothesis that the younger a child receives music education, the higher music aptitude. Also, this research is to experiment the effect of Audiation activities developed in Audie Music Curriculum on music aptitude. The researcher and another Audie teacher as a co-teacher guided children together for 30 minutes once a week. The pedagogy guidelines for informal guidance in music learning theory were kept throughout the classes. Also, Audie's teaching method which had been developed for Korean Kindergarten educational environment was also applied. Five-year-old subjects in Experimental group 1 experienced the Audie Music Curriculum of one year; five-year-old subjects in Experimental group 2 experienced it for two years. Primary Measures of Music Audiation was administered three times during their last year of Kindergarten. Subjects in the Control groups, one examined at the beginning and the other at the end of their last year in Kindergarten, received no Audie instruction. There was no significant difference in tonal aptitude, but there was significant difference in rhythmic aptitude(p< .05) among the experiemental groups. Because both Experimental groups showed statistical significance (p< .001) in the music aptitude increase during their academic years, the significant differences of the year-end music aptitude between control group and experimental groups were the expected result.

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Effect of Therapeutic and Educational strategies using music on improvement of auditory information processing and short-term memory skills for children with underachievement (학습부진아의 청각정보처리와 단기기억력 향상을 위한 음악의 치료적·교육적 접근)

  • Chong, Hyun Ju
    • Journal of Music and Human Behavior
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2004
  • Being engaged in the musical tasks needs cognitive skills to perceive musical sound, organize them into meaningful unit, store them in the memory and retrieve them when needed. These skills are also required for academic tasks indicating that there is positive correlation between skills for musical and academic tasks. Based on these findings, the study purported to examine whether the developed sessions can enhance cognitive skills which is composed of auditory information skills, which is composed of perceiving sounds, organizing them into groups based on the existing information or organization pattern, and short-term memory skills. Eighteen elementary students in 4, 5, and 6th grades have participated in the study. The study has administered Music Cognitive Skills Test(MCST) before and after implementing music therapy sessions. The MCST consisted of five parts, first one measuring the rhythm imitating skills, second, measuring the melodic imitation skills, third, measuring discriminative skills in identifying higher pitch, fourth, measuring discriminative skills in identifying identical chords, and lastly, measuring the tone retention skills. The results indicated that there was statistical difference between the pre and post test in rhythm and melody imitation skills. Because reproduction of perceived rhythm patterns requires memory skills, imitating patterns are considered cognitive skills. Also melody is defined adding spatial dimension to the rhythm which is temporal concept. Being able to understand melodic pattern and to reproduce the pattern also requires cognitive skills. The subjects have shown significant improvement in these two areas. In other areas, there were definite increase of scores, however, no significant differences. The study also explores interpretation of these results and also observed consistencies among the participants in completing the musical tasks.

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The Associated Factors of Health Examinations Behaviors among Some Elderly Persons in Urban and Rural Areas (일부 도시·농촌지역 고령자의 건강검진 수진행동에 관련된 요인)

  • Kim, Yong-Ik;Cho, Young-Chae
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.1-14
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    • 2004
  • Objectives: We investigated the factors related to health examination behaviors, sociodemographic aspects and lifestyles of elderly persons with different social backgrounds, and compared sexual and regional differences in urban and rural elderlies. Methods: The total study subjects(464 individuals) from urban(236) and rural areas(228), recruited by a stratified cluster random sampling were interviewed and examined about their sociodemographic profiles, daily lifestyles, subjective health status, conditions concerning use of medical resources, hearing acuity, visual acuity and ADL(activity of daily living), and whether they receive health examination or not. For statistical analysis, Chi-square test was used for sexual and regional comparisons among the groups who have been given a health examination and the one who have not. Results: In urban areas, the rate of having underwent health examination was 54.5% in men and 46.9% in women, and in rural areas, it was 59.8% in men and 42.7% in women, showing its higher rate in men than in women in both areas. For regional differences between the group who have taken a health examination and the one who have not, there was a significant difference in terms of age, family pattern, current job, monthly household income, owning a house, drinking status, eating habit, subjective health status, whether they have taken outpatient medical service for the recent 3 months or not, anxiety for the health, and IADL conditions according to whether the community is rural or urban. In multiple regressions, the influential factors on the health examination behaviors were selected such as having their own house, their family doctor, amnesia, urinary incontinence and chronic disease in urban districts. But in rural districts, the variables were selected such as having or not of their family doctor, urinary incontinence, anxiety for the health, educational level, their own house and chronic disease. Conclusions: It is suggested that the approach to the health examination of an older patient requires substantial consideration of highly variable individual sociodemographic characteristics involving regional attributes as well as their daily life styles, subjective health status, status of performing health examination, physical health status and ADL conditions.

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Relationship between Knowledge, Attitude, Behavior, and Self-Efficacy on the Radiation Safety Management of Radiation Workers in Medical Institutions (의료기관 방사선종사자의 방사선안전관리에 대한 지식, 태도 및 행위와 자기효능감 간의 관련성)

  • Han, Eun-Ok
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.89-96
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    • 2007
  • Radiation safety managements in medical institutions are needed to protect certain radiation damages as a part of National Coalition. This study investigates the characteristics of self-efficacy that become the major factor on the knowledge, attitude, and behavior on the radiation safety management of radiation workers as an approach of educational aspects and analyzes the relationship between such factors to provide basic materials for improving the activity level of radiation safety managements. In order to implement the goal or this study, a survey was performed for 1,200 workers who were engaged in radiation treatments in medical centers, such as general hospital, university hospital, private hospital, and public health center for 42 days from July 23,2006. Then, the results of the analysis can be summarized as follows: 1. Average scores on knowledge, attitude, and behavior in the radiation safety management were presented as $75.76{\pm}11.20$, $90.55{\pm}8.59$, $80.58{\pm}11.70$, respectively. Also, the average score of self-efficacy was recorded as $73.55{\pm}9.82$. 2. Knowledge levels in the radiation safety management showed significant differences according to the sex, age, marriage, education, and experience. Also, males of married, older, highly educated, and largely experienced represented high knowledge levels. Attitude levels in the radiation safety management showed certain significant differences according to the type of medical centers in which private hospitals showed a relatively low level compared to that of high levels in university hospitals. Behavior levels in the radiation safety management also represented significant differences according to the age, marriage, education, experience, and types of medical centers. Factors in married, general hospital, older, highly educated, and largely experienced showed high behavior levels. In addition, the self-efficacy showed certain differences according to the marriage and types of medical centers. Factors in married and general hospital demonstrated high self-efficacy levels. 3. Relationship between knowledge, attitude, behavior, and self-efficacy on the radiation safety management showed statistical differences according to the relationship between the knowledge and the attitude, the knowledge and the behavior, the attitude and the behavior, the attitude and the self-efficacy, and the behavior and the self-efficacy. The relationship between the behavior and the self-efficacy was represented as r = 0.482, which was the strongest relationship in such factors. Also, the knowledge and self-efficacy didn't show certain relationships.

Science Teachers' Recognition of the Changing School Environment and Challenges for Teaching Practices (학교의 변화를 마주한 과학 교사들의 인식과 수업 실천에서 나타난 도전과 변화)

  • Ji, Youngrae;Shim, Hyeon-Pyo;Baek, Jongho;Park, Hyoung-Yong
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.937-949
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    • 2017
  • In this study, we investigated how science teachers perceive the changes in school systems, including infrastructure and curriculum, in the context of preparing for future education. And the changes in their perception of the educational environment, the challenges, and changes of science teachers' classroom practices were also explored. In-depth interviews and analysis were conducted with two science teachers in a middle school that is trying to innovative on changes compared with general schools. The results of the study are as follows: First, teachers perceived that their schools had factors that could change the science class in terms of school size and infrastructure, peer teacher culture, and students' abilities. Second, the enthusiasm of teachers who are trying various ways of teaching and the students' ability to adapt in a smart learning environment formed a synergistic circle that lowered entry barriers to trying changes. Third, science classes changed to activity-centered classes, and teachers realized that these changes promoted students' self-directed learning. Fourth, teachers perceived themselves as playing an independent role in curriculum management, and this perception promoted more varied attempts in improving their classes. Through the changes of the learning environment and systems of the school and the formation of a culture that shares their challenges and innovations with the voluntary learning community, teachers constantly try to change their classes and schools. The changes of school need to be understood in the context of the interaction of teachers, students, and infrastructure.

Change of Functional Health Status according to Healthy Life-style of the Elderly Living in Rural Community (일부 농촌지역 노인의 건강생활습관에 따른 기능적 건강상태의 변화)

  • Hwang, Byung-Deog;Lee, Sang-Won;Moon, Hyo-Jung;Lee, Sung-Kook
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.151-165
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    • 2005
  • Objectives: This study was to examine those life style factors which could affect the changes of health status indices such as ADL and IADL of the Elderly living in rural community. Methods: The subjects of the study were 1,295 elderly people of age over 65 years living in Gyungbook Sung-Ju area selected by random sampling for one month at October 1996. After 4 years, the follow-up study in those subjects were performed, ADL, IADL and general characteristics were measured. Those subjects who had shown high functional health status in first investigation were measured as how their health were changed in relation with their general characteristics and life styles in second investigation. Results: The factor analysis were performed in life style questions, and 6 factors composed of 15 questions of all were selected as the indices of life style. For ADL level, logistic regression analysis, age and educational level in men, and age and economic status in women had significant relation with health status change. Among life style factors, diet factor in men and diet factor, social activity factor in women were found to be significantly related. For IADL level, simple analysis showed that age in men and age, education level in women among general characteristics had related with health status change. Among life style factors, diet factor, stress relieving factor were related in women when general characteristics were also controlled diet factor, stress relieving factor were related in women. Conclusions: In order to prevent functional health status altering in the elderly, it is recommended that the intervention which could promote healthy life styles such as good diet habit, active social participation, and pertinent stress relieving should be considered.

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A Study on Development of Achievement Standards and Assessment Standards of Vocational Inquiry Section for 2005 College Scholastic Ability Test - Focus on Food and Nutrition Subject in the Field of Home Economics Order - (2005 수능 직업탐구영역의 과목별 성취기준과 평가기준 개발 - 식품과 영양 과목을 중심으로 -)

  • Na Hyeon-Ju;Min Kyung-Hee;Lee Hwa-young;Pyo Jum-sun;Ha Mi-ok;Jang Myung-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.197-219
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    • 2005
  • This study attempted, in accordance with the National Educational Curriculum, to develop achievement assessment standards for a course within the field of home economics which has been widely adopted by Korean vocational high schools, namely, the food and nutrition subject. Focus was also placed on strengthening the management of the curriculum for this food and nutrition course, as well as on establishing proper assessment standards by developing model assessment tools which can be used to assess the subject. The results of this study can be summarized as follows : First, based on an analysis of the related literature and materials. the desired notion of the achievement and assessment standards was established, and their significance ascertained the achievement and assessment standards for the food and nutrition course were set and the type of model assessment tool which should be developed, as well as the method in which it should be applied. was established Second. by analyzing the curriculums and the contents of the textbooks used in the food and nutrition subject, the researcher was able to compile the 70 factors which could to be used to develop the achievement and assessments standards, and then classify these into 6 main categories and 32 sub-categories. Based on the characteristics of these factors and learners' academic performance levels the number of factors was expanded to 89 in order to establish the achievement standards. In turn, these achievement standards were used, in accordance with the learners' achievement and teaming activity levels, to develop three different levels of assessment standards. namely, upper, middle, and lower ones. Third. a model assessment tool was developed which could be used by individual school units as a reference in terms of achievement and assessment standards, and that could be modified to meet each school's circumstances. In order to create the model assessment tool a 100-question questionnaire was formulated that contained various types of questions, such as essay, report, theoretical and practical, portfolio, as well as multiple choice-type questions. Lastly, the researcher introduced measures to effectively use the achievement and assessment standards developed for the food and nutrition course, as well as the model assessment tool in school units.

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Rates and Factors of Path Widening in Seongpanak Hiking Trail of Mount Halla, Jeju Island (한라산 성판악 등산로 노폭의 확대 속도와 요인)

  • Kim, Tae-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.296-311
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    • 2008
  • In order to examine the rates and factors of path widening in Mount Halla, the retreat of path sidewalls was monitored at 32 sites of Seongpanak Hiking Trail located between 875 m and 1,400 m in elevation. The mean rate of sidewall retreat for the period 2002-2008 is 50.6 mm, equivalent to 10.0 mm/yr. The retreat rate of frozen period is 19.3 mm/yr, while the rate of unfrozen period is 4.3 mm/yr. The latter is divided into the rainy and dry periods that exhibit the retreat rates of 5.9 mm/yr and 2.9 mm/yr, respectively. The retreat rate of sidewalls is also varied with seasons; winter shows the maximum rate of 42.2 mm/yr, while summer exhibits the minimum rate of 1.3 mm/yr. Spring and fall show the intermediate rates of 13.9 mm/yr and 6.4 mm/yr, respectively. Soil hardness and elevation are not closely related to the retreat rate of sidewalls, even though the retreat rate is larger at the north-faced sidewalls than the south-faced sidewalls during the frozen period. Pipkrake is likely to be the most important factor contributing to the path widening in that the retreat of winter months accounts for 76.7% of the total retreat. The hiking trail is placed under the climatic conditions which develop pipkrake in 85 days annually. In addition, it is usual to observe the path sidewall covered with pipkrake in the freezing month of December and the thawing months of March and April. On the other hand, deflation and rainsplash erosion are not important due to the weak wind speed and the forested trail. Rainwash is also insignificant in that the path has been almost paved to mitigate trampling effects. Although biological activity is not dominant, hikers cause a large retreat of sidewalls in the thawing months since they would walk on the sidewalls to avoid snow-melting pools on the path.

A Study on Life Styles, Dietary Attitudes and Dietary Behaviors According to Extracurricular Activities of Elementary Students in Sejong (세종시 일부 초등학생의 과외수강에 따른 생활습관, 식태도 및 식행동에 대한 연구)

  • Oh, Keun-Jeong;Kim, Mi-Hyun;Kim, Myung-Hee;Choi, Mi-Kyeong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.8
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    • pp.1335-1343
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    • 2013
  • Parents in South Korea are known for their high level of educational zeal for their children. As a result, their children usually take extra classes in institutions as well as participate in other extracurricular activities such as sports and music. The purpose of this study was to examine the lifestyle and dietary behaviors of Korean elementary students involved in such activities. The total number of subjects was 550 fourth to sixth graders in elementary schools in Sejong, Korea. Of the total subjects, 88.0% were involved in extracurricular classes or other activities for an average of 7.34 hours/week. The subjects were assigned to one of four groups based on the degree of extracurricular activities: No extra-class (n=66), Low extra-class (1${\leq}$taking time<5 hours/week, n=118), Medium extra-class (5${\leq}$taking time<10 hours/week, n=184), and High extra-class (taking time${\geq}$10 hours/week, n=182). More subjects in the High extra-class group went to bed late (P<0.01), were under stress (P<0.01), and skipped breakfast, compared with those in the other groups. The ratio of students who answered 'I go to an institute without a meal' (P<0.01), 'I prepare a meal for myself' (P=0.053), or 'I eat out before going to an institute' (P<0.01) was higher in the High extra-class group than in the Low extra-class group. The frequency of eating fast food was higher in the High extra-class group, compared with the other groups. These results indicate that a high amount of extracurricular studies may have a negative effect on the children's lifestyles and dietary behaviors. Therefore, this study alerts parents to the potential harm of excessive extracurricular activities to their children's health.