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The Effect of Characteristics of the Extended Science Investigations Tasks on Middle School Students' Motivation for Investigation (확장적 과학 탐구 과제의 특징이 중학생의 탐구 동기에 미치는 영향)

  • Yoon, Hye-Gyoung;Pak, Sung-Jae
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2001
  • The extended science investigations, comprehensive investigations contrasted with exercises of process skill components and cookbook style experiments, should be pursued for giving opportunity of more authentic science activity. The characteristics of the extended investigation tasks were emerged from critical argument on school practical work. And one of important educational objectives in students' investigations is to achieve motivation for investigation. The purpose of this study is to explore how the characteristics of the extended investigation tasks, that is practical context, openness and continuity, affect middle school students' motivation for investigation. On the basis of questionnaire results and students' school science achievement, ten students were interviewed to see the change of motivation for investigation and its causes while they perform two textbook investigations and four extended investigation tasks. Among the interviewees, the students who showed positive motivation for the extended investigations were critical about textbook experiments as they are just confirmations of theories and perceived practical context and openness as the main causes of their positive motivation. The students who showed negative motivation for extended investigations preferred textbook experiments as there was enough guidance from teacher and textbook-centered learning. They recognized the openness of the tasks as a main reason of their negative motivation for investigation. Some students showed negative responses about continuity of the extended investigation tasks but continuity was not recognized as a main cause for their motivation for investigation.

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Development of Community Health Nursing Service Model: - Based on the Visiting Nurses Project in Seoul, Kyonggi, and Kang-won Area- (지역사회 간호 서비스 전달 체계 모형 개발 -가정방문서비스를 중심으로-)

  • Kim, Sung-Sil
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.361-374
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    • 2001
  • This study was done to identify a status of home visiting project as a community health nursing system, that was the organization. personal who have age, educational background, marital status, position, experience of the home visiting in the public sectors in part of Seoul. Kyonggi, Kang-won area, It was done to provide basis data for the development of effective visiting nurses project in the health sectors, where was Health Centers in urban and rural. Branch of Health Center in rural and Health posts. The question airs were distributed 352 public health workers who working place was 118 health workers in 12 health centers in Seoul. 56 public health workers among 39 health center and other public health sectors in Kyonggi and 178 public health workers among health center and health care sectors. Data collected from October to December. 2000. The analysis by SAS system with F test, percentage and frequency. The major result were as follows. The general characteristics of the respondent show that most of them were graduates from community college and RN-BS with broadcast that they had not completed CPHN course but only two health workers have trained for the visiting nurses project. As for their grade in the position, the most of health workers have seventh level and the other CHP were above sixth level in the health care post that in the government structure. This indicates that workers do not have great authority in decision making, the most period of works in the position was one and two years indicating that they change jobs frequently. On an average their clinical experience was 4.11 years which is ideal for the total service. As for preparation of staff for home visiting workers education on visiting nurses program have to receive short term or longer term training course for strong emphasis. The analysis showed that public health visiting workers responds about active job performance that based on an area, approach of acting by districts, education and position are shown statistically significant difference between acceptance of the visiting nursing job show the same as well as visiting nurses project. Special concerns for visiting Nursing care spread came to burden, many of activity carry out main solution is covered the health problem connective support system needs of quality and quantity which out health problem. As 71.1% of visiting health service held on the poor population was under the guardianship of the law, but people who health insurance wide application under law shown a tendency to increase gradually. The general characteristics of the patients showed 56.2% of female on average of age was 66.1 years old, they have health problem was the most of 47.6% of high blood pressure and stroke, the other and as a problem that economics, which is complex welfare with out health problem. Community health care service should be combined health and social work program. The form of delivery of visiting health care given the most guide and education with counselling and support. (33.6%) Among the six category of visiting care service shown statistically significant difference and next is fundamental care, remedy care with priority.

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Group Brainstorming Activity according to Sasang Constitutional Medicine (사상체질 분류에 의한 브레인스토밍 집단 구성 연구)

  • Jeon, Kyung-won
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.48-62
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    • 2000
  • Creativity is the most important characteristic and ability in the 21st century. Recently leading people in Korean society are aware of the significance of the enhancement of the creativity. However, Korean students are less likely to take initiative or depart from standard ways of thinking or doing things, because Korean Confucius culture puts an emphasis on collectivism. An individual has an obligation to conform in order to avoid conflict and maintain social harmony. The rule of respecting parents and teachers leads to a lack of self-expression and entails silence. Brainstorming technique developed by American Osbron, who originated the group brainstorming in 1953, is the most popular creative thinking method for the students. Brainstorming technique has two principles : ideation can be more productive if criticism is concurrently excluded; The more ideas the better. In doing BS, each panel should consist of chairperson, an assistant chairperson, recorder, and 10 others including 2-3 females. However there are several problems in doing group BS, such as production blocking, uniformity thinking, evaluation apprehension, and social loafing. This study was undertaken to investigate the proper way of forming Brainstorming groups with Korean students according to the Sasang Constitutional Medicine originated by Korean Lee Je-ma in 1894. Human beings are classified in four group in Sasang Constitutional Medicine : Taeyang-In, Teaum-In, Soyang-In and Soum-In. Two Yang-Ins are more self-expressive : Taeyang-In has very unique ides and thoughts; Soyang-In is very humorous and like to present his/her ideas. On the other hand, two Um-Ins are passive and are not likely to speak out their ideas in group. Therefore, in this investigation firstly, the brainstorming group was formed with two Yang-Ins (Taeyang-In and Soyang-In) and two Um-Ins(Taeum-In and Soum-In) separately and secondly, Yang-Ins and Um-Ins were mixed. And the first method was compared with the second method in terms of the degree of participation of the group members and finally the better grouping method to produce more and better ideas was discussed and suggested for the educational system.

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Assessment of Depression and Relates in Rural Elderly (농촌지역 노인의 우울수준과 관련요인)

  • Sohn, Seok-Joon;Shin, Jun-Ho;Shin, Hee-Young;Chung, Eun-Kyung;Bum, Min-Sun;Kweon, Sun-Seog
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.85-98
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    • 2000
  • The questionnaire survey using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale(CES-D) was conducted to determine the prevalence of depression and related factors in the rural elderly. The subjects were 922 individuals of 60 years of age and over, living in Chonnam province. The results of this study were as follows. The prevalence rates of depression were 14.6% in male and 24.4%, in female. As the age increased, the prevalence rate increased and the rate was higher in non-educational and widowhood group. The prevalence rate was lower in the group of having good health habits and having a good health status. In the regression analysis, significant predictors of the depression were sex, education, physical activity, perceived health status and body image. In conclusion, main, characteristics which had close relationship to depression in the rural elderly were physical function and self-rated health status.

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Why Do Most Science Educators Encourage to Teach School Science through Lab-Based Instruction?: A Neurological Explanation (과학 교수.학습 과정에서 실험활동 중심 수업의 효율성에 대한 신경학적 설명)

  • Kwon, Yong-Ju;Lawson, Anton E.
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.29-40
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of the present study was to test hypothesis that, because it uses tri-dimensional sensory pathway which have been showed a higher rate of neural activities than uni- or bi-dimensional's, lab-activity-based instruction is more effective teaching strategy in learning science than verbal-based instruction. In the present study, manipulative teaching strategy that uses visual, somatosensory and auditory information pathway was regarded as a mode of tri-dimensional sensory inputs. In addition, verbal teaching strategy that uses mainly auditory and a little visual information pathway was used as a mode of bi-dimensional sensory inputs. Fifty-six students who failed to successfully solve two proportional reasoning tasks (i.e., pouring water tasks) were sampled for this research from a junior high school. The subjects were randomly divided into a manipulative or a verbal teaching group, and given manipulative or verbal tutoring on the use of proportional reasoning strategies and a test of proportional reasoning during instruction. The results showed that manipulative group's performance on the test of proportional reasoning during instruction showed significantly higher performance than verbal group's (t=2.45, p<0.02). The present study also discussed some educational implications of the results.

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A Study on the Relations Between a Health Promoting Daily Life Style and Self-Efficiency in University Students (대학생의 건강증진행위와 자기효능감과의 관계연구)

  • Huh, Eun Hee;Chung, Yeon Kang;Yeoum, Soon Gyo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of School Health
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.203-215
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this study is to inquire into the degree of health promotion activity in university students, and to find out the relationship between self-efficiency and health promotion behavior, Thus, we can offer basic data for developing an educational method or program for health promotion. For this research, data was collected from university men and women through a questionnaire from February 18 to March 20, 1998. A measuring instrument was based on lating reviews of health promotion behavior in chronic disease protection, perceived self efficiency, demographic factors, biological factors, and circumstatial factors. The content validity of the instrument was authenticated by two professors of nursing, and reliability was confirmed by 'cronbach' (${\alpha}^{\prime}$ after mortifying content through a pre-test on 30 students. 475 persons were analyzed in terms of average, percentage, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson's Correlation Coefficient, and Multiple Stepwise Regression by 'SPSS-PC'. The analyzed data is as follows: 1. Higher self-efficiency, as a cognitive-perceptual factor, has a beneficial effect on health promotion behavior (r=.479, p=.000). The result of analyzing the differences among a low group, a middle group, a high group in terms of self-efficiency reveals that the relationship between self-efficiency and health promoting behavior is meaningful. 2. The degree of health promoting behavior is 3.26 out of 6. Other figuresrelating to health promoting behavior, are as follows. self-actualization area (4.62), interpersonal area (4.60), stress management area (4.01), nutrition area (3.68), responsibility of health area (3.11), liquid and cigaret area (2.85), and exercise area (2.33). 3. The degree of self-efficiency was 6.81 out of 10. Other figures relating to self-efficiency are as follows. interpersonal area (7.89), self-actualization area (7.84), liquid and cigarette area (7.72), exercise area (6.88), stress management area (6.84), responsibility of health area (6.35), and nutrition area (6.34). 4. The different lerels of health promoting behavior according to a subject's general factos are following: age (p=0.003), sex (p=0.000), health concern of parents (p= 0.000), taking health programs (p=0.007), case history of familes (p=0.048). Health promoting behavier is also positirely affeted by the following: higher age, social sciences focus, religion, living the relatives', and the higher health concerns of parents. 5. The difference of self-efficiency according to a subject's general factors is positirely affected by sex (p=.008), the health concerns of parents (p=.004), body indexes (p=.001), and the higher health concerns of parents. 6. As the result of analyzing major factors, the most powerful factor appears to be self-efficiency, 26.6% of health promoting behavior. Suggestions: 1. Results of this study point to self-efficiency as a major factor in the health promoting behavior of university students. It is crucial, therefore, to develop a health program to promote self-efficiency and to study how to promote prerention of certain diseases. 2. That health promoting behavior appears low in this study shows that health education should be taken into the university class, with a focus on the daily life of students as its goal.

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A Study of the Leader's Traits on the heirarchy of Nurse managers (간호관리자의 계층에 따른 지도자 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Hwang, Sung-Woo
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.5-17
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    • 1998
  • The Purpose of this study is to find out differences among the leader's traits on the hierarchy of Nurse managers in Nurse system of the hospital. In this study 152 managers over head nurse working in 6 University hospitals and 5 general hospitals were selected and the questionary paper answered by them was collected from 1st to 30th in September in 1997. The measuring instrument used in this study is the one integrated and classified by Stogdill (1981), which nurse professor and 2 students of the master's course translated and modified with myself. And its validity was verified through making a test on 130 nurses. The measuring instrument used in this study is made up of 4 items about physical characteristics, 3 items about social background, 4 items about intelligence and ability, 17 items about personaity, 6 items about task-related characteristics, 9 items about social characteristics and 8 items about general background in the triats of leader. And this instrument is made to be marked using five point Likert type. It's reliability is Cronbach's Alpha =.93. The data for study were analyzed through SPSS/PC+ The result of this study are as follows: 1. The order in importantly perceptible degree of the leader's traits showed like these: the intelligence and ability (M=4.683), the task-related characteristics (M=4.605), the personality (M=4.39), the social characteristics (M=4.327), the social back-ground (M=4.056), the physical characteristics (M=3.601). 2. The order in degree to percept the importance of 44 detailed items of the leader's traits showed like these: the judgement and decisiveness (M=4.967), the sense of responsibility (M=4.904), the activity and energy (M=4.796), the self-confidence (M=4.776), the creativity (M=4.748), the intelligence (M=4.743), the responsibility in the pursuit of objectives (M=4.743), the enthusiasm (M=4.717), the objectivity (M=4.704), the moral sense and ethical conduct (M=4.704), the ability to enlist cooperation (M=4.694), the strength of conviction (M =4.678), the enterprise (M=4.691), the administrative ability (M=4.678) and the cooperativeness (M=4.638) 3. As the result of analyzing the leader's trait differences on the hierarchy of nurse managers in six factors of the leader's traits, the social background showed the meaningful differences(F=4.983, P=0.008). 4. As the result of analyzing the leader's traits defferences made from the upper first to 15th rank among the detailed items of the leader's trait factors on the heirarchy of nurse managers, the meaningful defferences appeared in the following items: the objectivity(F=3.413, P=0.033), the creativity (F=3.550, P=0.031), the sense of responsibility(F=3.345, P=0.049), and the administrative ability (F=3.363, P=0.037). 5. As the result of analyzing the leader's trait factors in general background, only the social background of 6 leader's trait factors showed the meaningful differences according to the working place (F=4.057, P=0.008). The study shows that we should consider the above leader's trait factors in selecting nurse managers and that we should develop the educational program for hierarchy of nurse managers urgently.

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A Model Curriculum Development for Clinical Nurse Specialist Training Program in Organ Transplant (장기이식 전문간호사를 위한 교육과정 연구)

  • Kim, Jung-Soon
    • The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.171-185
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    • 2000
  • The twenty-first century may be said to be entering into a specialized qualification age to meet the needs of new technical innovations such as environmental changes, demographical changes, changes in the constitution of diseases, changes in the needs of the national health, reforms of information and knowledge, etc., which requires the provision of competitive services that can fulfill the high level needs of consumers. In consequence, it is needed to apply a practical nursing model that can serve as a guide for healthy society and to secure the sphere that can affect nursing policy-making by keeping pace with the changing environment. Furthermore, it is also urgent to expand more the activity sphere of nurse specialists with authority and autonomy, establish their legal foundation, establish a qualification accreditation system for nurse specialists, and develop educational programs. In Korea, the law relative to organ transplant past the national assembly on February 9, 2000, legally acknowledged brain death, which indicated to us the emergence of an age of organ transplant. Therefore, it necessitates to find out those of brain death from whom organ transplant is feasible in clinical practices, with their families' consent link to those terminal organ failure patients who are in need of an organ, and mediate both parties so that smooth transplant can be accomplished. A series of these complicated procedures require systematically trained specialists with high level techniques of organic management. With this in mind, this study was conducted on 69 clinical nurse specialists for organ transplant, accredited by the hospital, who are in active service in clinical practices. The resultant findings were revealed, as follows: 1. The qualifications of clinical nurse specialists for organ transplant should be accredited by Ministry of Health and Welfare or Korea Nurses Association. 2. The validity of qualifications should be for three years, and their renewal should be based on marks of a supplemental training or an education course for more than 12 hours a year. 3. The qualification of the clinical nurse specialist necessitates theoretical lectures and practices on those nurses who have had clinical experience in the pertinent field. 4. The course of training is required to be one year in the length of training and take more than 20 credits (320 hours) and 5 credits (240 hours).

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A Study On The Welfare Policies For Nurse Officers (간호장교의 복지정책을 위한 조사연구 - 여성복지와 군복지 일반을 중심으로 -)

  • Choi Cheung Suk
    • Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.15-36
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    • 1996
  • It is clear that the women's participation in social activity is dramatically increased in civilian field as well as military profession. Because of the characteristics of military nursing service, there are many difficulties. Frequent move, medical insurance, baby care. and the education are typical forms of difficulties for nurse officers in the military. The purpose of this research is to contribute to the perfect execution of nursing service. guarantee the active attitude for research and improve the combat strength by solving those private and economic problems. The method of research was analysis of question survey and the review of related literatures. The subject of research was 300 active nurse officers who work at the Army Hospitals. The survey was conducted 14 days from Oct 15 to Oct 28. The collected data was processed by computer using SPSS(Statistical Package of Social Science). Frequencies and percentages were used to examine the demographic characteristics of subject, and T-test was also used in the case of necessity. The result showed as follows; As the general characteristics of subject group; 28.7 years of average age, 73.6 months of service period, 63.4% of married. In regard of specialty; General 57.7%. Intensive Care 12.7% and Psychiatries 8.8%. The dissatisfactory factors about military welfare system were the difficulties in children education (36.9%). disadvantages on the civil medical insurance system (27.3%), and little chance of self education and development (21.5%). The problems in performing their duties were shown as dwelling instability due to frequent move (67.7%), and bring up children (14.2%). The reasons for resigning their job were shown as the instability of living status (64.2%), bring up children (18.8%) and dissatisfaction to the service (11.2%). The residential status was shown that military offered houses (45.2%), rental houses (29.3%) and own houses(14.64). The average numbers of moving residencies were; 3-4 time(34.6%), less than 2 times(33.1%), and 5-7 times(21.5%). Higher than 94.7% of the subject group spent more than 50.000 Won. In regard of education, they wanted to attend graduate school with their own expense(26.2%), computer science(20%) and Office Job Training(20%). The ways of taking care of children were mother-in-low(49.6%), mother(14.6%), and others(25%). The average expenditure per month for children were 20-30 hundred Won(44.2%), 10-20 hundred Won(25%) and 30-40 hundred Won(22.3%). The places of children care selected were public or occupational care center(56.2%), religious organization(20.8%), and other center managed by social organizations(10.4%). The result of survey for general welfare of nurse officers are as follows; By and large they seem to be satisfied with their job. however. there are some dissatisfactory factors. They are children care facilties, promotion. income. welfare facilities. disadvantage in medical insurance and civil hospitals. house purchase. unfair chances in specialty training. influence on promotion by educational status. and insufficient role for their children and husbands. As conclusion. the recommendations for improving nursing service are as follows; 1. Children care center managed by occupation 2. Dormitory system for children by military personnel 3. Equal opportunities in education according to ability 4. Reasonable moving price according to the distance and scope of family and extra allowance

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A Study on Prevalence of Obesity and Its Related Factors in Housewives Residing in Apartments in Taegu (대구시내 아파트 거주 주부들의 비만 실태와 비만 요인에 관한 연구)

  • 박갑선
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.170-178
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    • 1990
  • The aim of the study was to investigate prevalence of obesity among housewives residing in apartments in Taegu city and any relationship of obesity with various factors. Hundred three housewives aged 30-49 years living in apartments (over 30 pyung) were interviewed for socio-economic status, food habit, food intake by a convenient questionnaire, and daily activity by the 24-hour recall. Their weight, height and triceps skinfold thickness were measured. The results were summarized as follows: 1) The percentages of subjects and their spouses with college and higher education were as much as 53.6% and 83.5%, respectively. The commonest family size was four members with two children. 2) The percentages of subjects classified as underweight, normal, overweight, and obesity according to relative body weight(RBW) were 4.9, 44.7, 24.3 and 26.2, respectively. Twenty four percent belonged to obese group according to body mass index(BMI$\geq$25). 3) Food habit score was 12.4 points in average and judged 'good'. The average of daily energy intake was 2247㎉ which corresponded to 112% of RDA and intakes of nutrients except iron exceeded RDA. The means of food habit score and energy intake were not significantly different among 4 groups. 4) Multiple regression analysis was tested to explain a relationship between fatness and various factors. The equation, BMI=25.216+(0.836$\times$family size)-(0.309$\times$education, years)-(0.00503$\times$household work time, minutes), indicates that fatness of housewives was related with family size(+), educational level(-) and household work time(-). These relationships were statistically significant(p<0.001) and R2 (coefficient of determination) was 0.237.

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