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A Study on the North Korean's Modern Adaptation of the Classic Folktale (설화 <해와 달이 된 오누이>에 대한 북한의 현대적 수용 방식 고찰)

  • Park, Jai-in;Han, Sang-hyo
    • Journal of Korean Classical Literature and Education
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    • no.32
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    • pp.193-224
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    • 2016
  • The North Korean animation is a puppet movie that is adapted The Brother and Sister Who Became the Sun and the Moon, a traditional Korean lore. The quality of this animation is acknowledged because of not only North Korea's considerably advanced animation technology but also the animation's retention of the folklore's traditional essence rather than intention to disseminate ideological propaganda. Nevertheless, the animation reveals the trasformation of its original purpose from general educative intentions for children to the educative concept of salvation by heaven is replaced by salvation by people and cultural education insteadof salvation by heaven. The appearance of the hero Jangsoe is the key adaptation of this animation, and it suggests the main principal of salvation lies in man rather than in heaven. Such adaptation complies with the requirements of children's literature suggested by the North Korea's literary history office. Furthemore the hero Jangsoe as the examplary figure of revolutionary self-reliance ideology and as a leader. Theory of self-reliance literature stipulates that children's literature is used for ideological education that develops people to be successors of revolutionary feats and become active workers for the construction of socialism and communism, therefore it is possible to understand the purpose of the adaptation to reflect the educational aims. This study investigates the change in meaning form the original folktale through such adaptation, and highlights problems related to limiting the meaning implied in "heaven's salvation" in the original story only to the vague meaning of religious hope. This vague implied meaning is considered as "an awareness activity to examine their own existence in the universe". With regard to this, the concept of heaven's salvation that is prevalent in the classic stories can be interpreted as a positive self-belief that enables the use of rationality in any helpless situation that cannot be understood with existing empirical knowledge. It considers that heaven expresses the power that exists in the human mind through self-viability and self-belief. This creates the power of reason in the character to fight against the evil disguised as the mother, in the absence of the real mother.

"Critical Application of Witness Commentaries: The Case of Guerrilla Warfare in the Korean War" ("증언자료의 비판적 활용 - 6.25전쟁 시기 유격대의 경우")

  • Cho, Sung Hun
    • The Korean Journal of Archival Studies
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    • no.12
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    • pp.137-178
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    • 2005
  • The anticommunist guerrillas' activities that aretheconcern of this article took place largely in North Korea or behind the enemy-held lines. Verifying their history is accordingly difficult and requires careful attention, but despite their active operations the military as well as the scholarly community have been lax in studying them. The Korean War came to be perceived as a traditional, limited war with regular battles, so that the studies addressed mostly the regular operations, and guerrilla warfare is remembered as an almost 'exclusive property' of the communist invaders; a small wonder that the anticommunist guerrillas have not been studied much and the collection of materials neglected. Therefore, in contrast with the witness accounts concerning regular battles, witness resources were of a small volume about these "patriots without the service numbers." For the above reasons the guerrilla participants and their later-organized fellowships took to the task of leaving records and compiling the histories of their units. They became active preservers of history in order to inform later generations of their works and also to secure deserved benefits from the government, in a world where none recognized their achievements. For instance, 4th Donkey Unit published witness accounts in addition to a unit history, and left video-recordings of guerrilla witnesses before any institute systematized the oral history of the guerrillas. In the case of Kyulsa ("Resolved to Die") Guerrilla Unit, the unit history was 10 times revised and expanded upon for publication, contributing substantially to the recovery of anticommunist guerrilla history which had almost totally lacked documented resources. Now because the guerrilla-related witness accounts were produced through fellowship societies and not individually, it often took the form of 'collective memory.' As a result, though thousands of former guerrillas remain surviving, the scarcity of numerous versions of, or perspectives upon, an event renders difficult an objective approach to the historical truth. Even requests to verify the service of a guerrilla member or to apply for decoration or government benefits for those killed in action, the process is taken care of not at the hands of the first party but the veteran society, so that a variety of opinions are not available for consideration. Moreover, some accounts were taken by American military personnel, and since some historians, unaware of official documents or evaluation of achievements, tended to center the records around their own units and especially to exaggerate the units' performances, they often featured factual errors. Thefollowing is the means to utilize positively the aforementioned type of witness accounts in military history research. It involves the active use of military historical detachments (MHD). As in the examples of those dispatched by the American forces during the Korean War, experts should be dispatched during, and not just after, wartimes. By considering and investigating the differences among various perspectives on the same historical event, even without extra documented resources it is possibleto arrive at theerrors or questionable points of the oral accounts, supplementing the additional accounts. Therefore any time lapses between witness accounts must be kept in consideration. Moreover when the oral accounts come from a group such as participants in the same guerrilla unit or operation, a standardized list of items ought to be put to use. Education in oral history is necessary not just for the training of experts. In America wherethefield sees much activity, it is used not only in college or graduate programs but also in elementary and lifetime educational processes. In comparison in our nation, and especially in historical disciplines, methodological insistence upon documented evidences prevails in the main, and in the fields of nationalist movement or modern history, oral accounts do not receive adequate attention. Like ancient documents and monuments, oral history also needs to be made a regular part of diverse resource materials at our academic institutes for history. Courses in memory and history, such as those in American colleges, are available possibilities.

The Effect of a Construal Level of Reading on Elementary School Students' Volume of Reading and Pleasure of Reading (독서에 대한 해석수준이 초등학생의 독서량과 독서의 재미에 미치는 효과)

  • Kim, Yi-young;Au, Yun-kyung
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.219-238
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    • 2019
  • The objective of the current study is to explore psychological factors that can encourage elementary school students to read. Specifically, the current study verified the effect of manipulating the construal level, which is known to influence goal achievement, on the reading volume of the students. Two hundred elementary school students were separated into groups with high and low preferences for reading, as well as those with high and low reading volumes in general. Then, the study proceeded to categorize the students into the abstract construal-level group who were directed to think about why they have to read and the concrete construal-level group who were directed to think about how they should read. The participants were asked to read for two weeks, and their reading volume and reported pleasure of reading were measured. As a result, the study confirmed the main effect of the construal level, in that the group of students who were directed to have a concrete perspective about their reading objective by thinking about how to read had a higher reading volume than the group directed to have an abstract perspective about their reading objective. In addition, the group that generally had a lower-level preference for reading both read more and enjoyed reading more after it was directed to construe the reading activity concretely. However, the group that generally had a higher level of preference for reading maintained high reading volumes and high pleasure of reading regardless of the construal level. Furthermore, the group that generally read less both read more and enjoyed reading more after it was directed to construe reading concretely. However the group that generally read more also enjoyed reading more after it was directed to construe reading abstractly. The current study is significant in that it expands the discussion about the effect of construal level, which had been mainly a subject of behavioral economic research, into the field of educational instruction. The study also provides a practical implication for the types of perspective that are effective in motivating people with a higher or lower preference for certain tasks, as well as those with higher or lower levels of achievement for certain tasks.

Influence of Motivational, Social, and Environmental Factors on the Learning of Hackers (동기적, 사회적, 그리고 환경적 요인이 해커의 기술 습득에 미치는 영향)

  • Jang, Jaeyoung;Kim, Beomsoo
    • Information Systems Review
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.57-78
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    • 2016
  • Hacking has raised many critical issues in the modern world, particularly because the size and cost of the damages caused by this disruptive activity have steadily increased. Accordingly, many significant studies have been conducted by behavioral scientists to understand hackers and their practices. Nonetheless, only qualitative methods, such as interviews, meta-studies, and media studies, have been employed in such studies because of hacker sampling limitations. Existing studies have determined that intrinsic motivation was the dominant factor influencing hackers, and that their techniques were mainly acquired from online hacking communities. However, such results have yet to be causally proven. This study attempted to identify the causal factors influencing the motivational and environmental factors encouraging hackers to learn hacking skills. To this end, hacker community members using the theory of planned behavior were observed to identify the causal factors of their learning of hacking skills. We selected a group of students who were developing their hacking skills. The survey was conducted over a two-week period in May 2015 with a total of 227 students as respondents. After list-wise deletion, 215 of the responses were deemed usable (94.7 percent). In summary, the hackers were aware that hacking skills are considered socially unethical, and their attitudes toward the learning of hacking skills were affected by both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. In addition, the characteristics of the online hacking community affected their perceived behavioral control. This study introduced new concepts in the process of conducting a causal relationship analysis on a hacker sample. Moreover, this research expanded the discussion on the causal direction of subjective norms in unethical research, and empirically confirmed that both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations affect the learning of hacking skills. This study also made a practical contribution by raising the educational and policy response issues for ethical hackers and demonstrating the necessity to intensify the punishment for hacking.

Performance State and Improvement Countermeasure of Primary Health Care Posts (보건진료소(保健診療所)와 업무실태(業務實態)와 개선방안(改善方案))

  • Park, Young-Hee;Kam, Sin;Han, Chang-Hyun;Cha, Byung-Jun;Kim, Tae-Woong;Gie, Jung-Aie;Kim, Byong-Guk
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.353-377
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    • 2000
  • This study was performed to investigate the performance state and improvement countermeasure of Primary Health care Posts(PHPs). The operation reports of PHPs(1996 330 PHPs, 1999 313 PHPs) located in Kyongsangbuk-Do and data collected by self-administered questionnaire survey of 280 community health practitioners(CHPs) were analyzed. The major results were as follows: Population per PHP in 1999 decreased in number compared with 1996. But population of the aged increased in number. The performance status of PHP in 1999 increased compared with 1996. A hundred forty one community health practitioners(50.4%) replied that the fiscal standing of PHP was good. Only 1.4% replied that the fiscal standing of PHP was difficult. For the degree of satisfaction in affairs, overall of community health practitioners felt proud. The degree of cooperation between PHP and public health institutions was high and the degree of cooperation of between PHP and private medical institutions was high. The degree of cooperation between PHP and Health Center was significantly different by age of CHP, the service period of CHP, and CHP's service period at present PHP. Over seventy percent of CHPs replied that they had cooperative relationship with operation council, village health workers, community organization. CHPs who drew up the paper on PHP's health activity plan were 96.4 % and only 11.4% of CHPs participated drawing up the report on the second community health plan. CHPs who grasped the blood pressure and smoking status of residents over 70% were 88.2%, 63.9% respectively and the grasp rate of blood pressure fur residents were significantly different according to age and educational level of CHP. CHPs received job education in addition continuous job education arid participated on research program in last 3 years were 27.5%, respectively. CHPs performed the return health program for residents in last 3years were 65.4%. Over 95% of CHPs replied that PHPs might be necessary and 53.9% of CHPs replied that the role of PHPs should be increased. CHPS indicated that major reasons of FHPs lockout were lack of understanding for PHP and administrative convenience, CHPs were officials in special government service governors intention of self-governing body. CHPs suggested number of population in health need such as the aged and patients with chronic disease, opinion of residents, population size, traffic situation and network in order as evaluation criteria for PHP and suggested results of health performance, degree of relationship with residents, results of medical examination anti treatment, ability for administration and affairs in order as evaluation criteria for CHP. CHPs replied that the important countermeasures for PHPs under standard were affairs improvement of PHPs and shifting of location to health weakness area in city. Over 50% of CHPs indicated that the most important thing for improvement of PHPs was affairs adjustment of CLIP. And CHPs suggested that health programs carried out in priority at PHP were management of diabetes mellitus and hypertention. home visiting health care, health care for the aged. The Affairs of BLIP should be adjusted to satisfy community health need and health programs such as management of diabetes mellitus and hypertention, home visiting health care, health care for the aged should be activated in order that PHPs become organization reflecting value system of primary health care.

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