• Title, Summary, Keyword: Effects of acid rain

Search Result 101, Processing Time 0.041 seconds

Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on Histology, Water Status and Growth of Pinus densiflora (인공산성빗물이 소나무의 조직, 수분수지 및 생장에 미치는 영향)

  • 이창석;길지현;유영한
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
    • /
    • v.21 no.2
    • /
    • pp.117-124
    • /
    • 1998
  • To clarify the effects of acid precipitates on histological damage, water status, and growth of Pinus densiflora green house experiment applyin simulated acid rain was carried out. Contact angle of water droplet on needles of P. densiflora seedlings treated with simulated acid rain of different pHs simulated acid rain was, the more rapid transpiration was. Leaf water potential after water withdrawal was also reduced rapidly in proportion to acidity of simulated acid rain. Height growth of P. densiflora seedlings treated with simulated acid rain of pH 2 decreased, while growth of seedlings treated with that of pH 3 and 4 increased comparing with that treated with normal rain of pH 5.6. pH of cultivated soil in pH 2 plot was acidified with the amount of simulated acid rain applied but that in pH 3 and 4 plots did not show any directional change. From those results, it could be interpreted that decrease of height growth in pH 2 plot was originated from multiple effects of water deficit from rapid transpiration and soil acidification. On the other hand, increased of height growth in pH 3 and 4 plots would be originated from the supply of N and S included in simulated acid rain.

  • PDF

Effects of Simulated Sulfuric and Nitric Acid Rain on Growth and Seed Germination of Arabidopsis thaliana (인공 황산비 및 질산비가 애기장대의 생장과 종자발아에 미치는 영향)

  • 이석찬;박정안;박종범
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
    • /
    • v.12 no.6
    • /
    • pp.659-664
    • /
    • 2003
  • The experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of sulfuric acid and nitric acid among the main components of simulated acid rain (SAR) on the growth of vegetative organs and seed germination of Arabidopsis thaliana. The Arabidopsis treated with SAR supplemented with sulfuric and nitric acids, respectively, showed 28% and 30% decrease of shoot and root growth compared to the control plants, and also many necrotic spots on leaf surfaces after SAR treatment were observed. The shoot and root length for plants grown with nitric acid rain was 14% and 17% lower, respectively, compared to the control, whereas those grown with sulfuric acid rain was 24% and 25% lower than control plants. When Arabidopsis seeds were sown in distilled water, germination rate was 100% after 7 days. However, 80% in SAR medium supplemented with sulfuric and nitric acids, 88% in sulfuric acid rain medium and 93% in nitric acid rain medium. The germination abilities of seeds harvested from SAR supplemented with sulfuric and nitric acids, sulfuric acid rain, and nitric acid rain were 73%, 73% and 94%, respectively. Consequently, sulfuric acids showed more inhibitory effects than nitric acids on the growth of vegetative organs as well as germination rates in Arabidopsis.

Effects of Acid Rain Treatment on Height Growth of Several Landscape Tree Species, pH Value and $Al^{3+}$ Concentration in Soil: Comparison after 5 Years [I] (人工酸性雨 處理가 5年後 몇 가지 造景樹種의 樹高生長, 土壤 酸度와 可溶性 알루미늄의 濃度에 미치는 影響 [I])

  • 정용문;우수영;김판기
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
    • /
    • v.13 no.4
    • /
    • pp.249-256
    • /
    • 1997
  • To identify the long-term influence of acid rain treatment on tree growth, acid rain of various composition (pH 2.0, pH 4.0 and pH 5.6 as control) was applied to several landscape trees for five months (April through August, 1991). Tree height, pH values and $Al^{3+}$ concentration in soil were investigated. Acid rain treatments seemed to promote height growth in the first year (1991), but have become an inhibiting factor over five years. All of coniferous species and most broad-leaved species, except Acer ginnala, showed opposite trends in height responses to acid rain treatments between the first (1991) and last (1996) year. In contrast, Acer ginnala showed similar trends to acid rain treatments in the height growth between 1991 and 1996. This result suggested that Acer ginnala has a characteristic adapability to acid rain stress. pH values of surface soil were lower than those of 30 cm soil depth. This fact suggested that acid rain treatments made surface soil acidic condition. In addition, physiological characteristics (photosynthesis, stomatal condition and biomass) have to be investigated to identify the relationship between long-term effects of $AL^{3+}$ concentration and growth.

  • PDF

The Conceptions of Pre-service Elementary Teachers about Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion and Acid Rain (온실효과, 오존층 파괴, 산성비에 대한 예비 초등교사들의 개념)

  • 백남권
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
    • /
    • v.12 no.4
    • /
    • pp.367-373
    • /
    • 2003
  • The focus of this study was to identify and describe environmental preconceptions held by pre-service elementary teachers about three issues : greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion and acid rain. Two hundred and twenty nine pre-service elementary teachers participated in this study. A 36 question survey was created by one of the authors. The questions focused on the cause, effects, and interactions of three environmental issues greenhouse effect of one layer depletion and acid rain. Pre-service elementary teachers answered the questions on a Likert scale. An analysis of the survey data indicated that the majority of pre-service elementary teachers possess an array of incorrect conceptions about the causes and effects of the greenhouse effect ozone layer depletion, and acid rain. and also many pre-service elementary teachers thought that there were causal relationships among the increase in greenhouse effect, the destruction of ozone layer, and the increase of acid rain.

Effects of Artificial Acin Rain on Seed Germination, Growth and Needle of Several Conifers(2) (인공산성우가 몇 침엽수종의 종자발아, 생장 및 침엽에 미치는 영향(2))

  • 김갑태;추갑철
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
    • /
    • v.7 no.1
    • /
    • pp.10-21
    • /
    • 1993
  • Artificial acid rain (pH 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0) and ground was treated on the seeded pots of 4 species to examine its effects on germination and survival rate, seedling growth and contact angles on needle surface. Artificial acid rain was prepared by diluting sulfuric acid with ground water and ground water (pH 6.5) was used as control. Artificial acid rain was sprayed to seeded pots two or three times per week for growing season, one times per week for winter seasons. About 5mm of artificial acid rain was treated each time from early April, 1991 to early October, 1993. Germination and survival rate, soil acidity, seedling growth and contact angles on the needle surface were measured and compared among the treatments. The results were summarized as follows ; Artificial acid rain might have positive effects on growth-related characteristics of the seedlings in the first and second year of acid rain treatment, and the effects were differed among four species. All growth-related characteristics of the seedlings in third year, however, decreased with decrease of pH values of artificial acid rain. This was considered to the results of acidic accumulation over soil buffer capacity. Needle injury and biomass (defoliation) was correlated with the pH values of artificial acid rain, and this character might be a good criteria for early diagnosis of acid rain injury. The differences of soil acidity were significant among the treatments for all species. Contact angles between needle surface and water droplet decreased with decrease of pH values of artificial acid rain. Measuring and comparing contact angles might be very good criteria for early diagnosis of acid rain injury.

  • PDF

A Comparative Analysis of Descriptions about the Acid Rain in the 10 year Science Textbooks according to the 7th Science Curriculum (7차 교육과정에 따른 10학년 과학교과서에 제시된 산성비 관련 내용 진술의 비교 분석)

  • Kong, Young-Tae;Kim, Sung-Kyu
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
    • /
    • v.22 no.7
    • /
    • pp.811-821
    • /
    • 2013
  • A purpose of this study was to provide the helpful information about operation of revised science curriculum by analyzing many contents about acid rain with various aspects, which was written in science textbook of 10 year according to the 7th national curriculum. The results show that there was the lack of educational systemicity among elementary school, middle school, and high school science curriculum and the lack of explanation for occurrence and standard level of acid rain, pH 5.6. And It could be categorized the effect of acid rain into four groups and experiment or experiment activities into three groups.

Effect of Simulated Acid Rain on Water Status and Growth of Glycine soja S. et. Z. (인공산성비가 돌콩의 생육과 잎의 수분 상태에 미치는 영향)

  • 윤의수
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
    • /
    • v.13 no.2
    • /
    • pp.131-139
    • /
    • 2000
  • The effects of the simulated acid rain on the growth response and water status of Glycine soja was observed in 2 months-old seedlings. The seedlings were treated with acid rain(pH 3.5), three times per week. Glycine soja showed significant reduction in the total length, total weight, dry weight, water contents and top/root ratio after treatment of simulated acid rain(pH 3.5) for 56 days. The growth of shoot was more susceptible to acid rain than that of roots. On the contray, Number of lateral roots, water saturation deficit and epidermis transpiration was higher than that of control(pH 5.6) after 56 days treatment of simulated acid rain.

  • PDF

Effects of Simulated Acid Rain and Soil Fertilizers on Photosynthetic Rate, wax Content, and Contact Angle of Japanese Red Pine(Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) Leaves (인공산성우와 토양시비가 소나무잎의 광합성속도, 왁스 함량 및 접촉각에 미치는 영향)

  • 최기영;이용범;채의석;이경재
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
    • /
    • v.12 no.3
    • /
    • pp.263-268
    • /
    • 1996
  • This study was conducted for the assessment of the effects of acid rain and soil fertilizers on photosynthetic rate, was content, and contact angle on 5-year seedlings of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) leaves. The seedlings were exposed to pH 3.0 (simulated acid rain), pH 6.5 (groung water) and rain (pH around 4.6). The seedlings were also treated with $Ca(OH)_2, Mg(OH)_2, and Ca(OH)_2 + Mg(OH)_2 + C.F.(compound fertilizer)$. Photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, was content, contact angle value, and mineral nutrient content of the leaves were measured and the results were as follows: 1. Photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance of the leaves increased with the increase of pH. Photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance increased with application of soil fertilizer in the pH 3.0 treatment, but showed no changes in the rain and the pH 6.5. 2. Contact angle value and was content of the leaves did not change with the pH treatment, but increased with the fertilizer treatments. 3. Mineral nutrient contents of the leaves were lowest in the rain treatment and highest in the pH 6.5 treatment. The increase of mineral nutrient contents was observed with the soil fertilizer treatments.

  • PDF

Effects of Artificial Acid Rain on Seed Germination, Growth and Needle of Several Conifers(1) (인공산성우가 몇 침엽수종의 종자발아, 생장 및 침엽에 미치는 영향(1))

  • 김갑태
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
    • /
    • v.6 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-8
    • /
    • 1992
  • Artificial acid rain (pH 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0) was treated on the seeded pots of 4 species to examine its effects on germination, leaf injury and seedling growth. Artificial acid rain was prepared by diluting sulfuric acid with ground water and ground water (pH 6.5) was used as control. Artificial acid rain was sprayed to seeded pots three times per week. About 5mm of artificial acid rain was treated each time from early April to early October, 1991. Germination, seedling establishment, leaf injury, soil acidity and seedling growth were measured and compared among the treatments. The results were summarized as follows; 1. Germination and seedling establishment rate of Pinus thunbergiana was highest on the pH 4.0 pot whereas that of Picea abies was highest on the pH 3.0 pot. Those of Pinus densiflora and Abies holophylla were not significantly differed among the treatments. 2. The differences in seedling height of all species were not significantly differed among the treatments. 3. Seedling dry weight of Pinus densiflora differed significantly among the treatments. but that of Pinus thunbergiana did not differ. 4. With decrease of pH value of artificial acid rain. the number of injured needle and injured individual tended to be increased. 5. The differences of soil acidity were significant among the treatments for all species.

  • PDF

Effect of Simulated Acid Rain on the Growth and Nitrogen fixation of melilotus suaveolens (산성비가 전동싸리의 생장과 질소 고정 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • 송승달;서봉보;박재홍;박태규;정화숙;송종석;노광수;김인선
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
    • /
    • v.21 no.1
    • /
    • pp.65-72
    • /
    • 1998
  • Various effects of simulated acid rain by $HNO_3$ and $H_2SO_4$ with pH 3.2, 4.2 and 5.6 were investigated in Melilotus suaveolens Ledeb, a biennial legume dominating the disturbed and poor soil vegetations. The nitric acid treatment of pH 3.2 resulted in 121% increase of the plant height compared to that of pH 5.6 during early growth, although 17% decrease was detected with the sulfuric acids. During 14 days of treatment, leaf biomass and chlorophyll content increased 168% and 133% with pH 3.2 nitric acid rain but decreased 20% and 38%, respectively, with sulfuric acid rain. Nitrogen content in various organs was also determined after 42 days of nitric acid treatment. It increased 480% and 387% by pH 3.2 and 4.2 in leaves, 212% and 214% in stems and 247% and 249% in roots. However, the same treatment with the sulfuric acid showed a considerable reduction in this content, indicating that the nitric acid was a nitrogen source. Nodule formation assayed revealed 15% decrease with pH 3.2 in contrast to 157% increase in pH 4.2, further suggesting an enhancement effect by the additional nitrogen source. Contrary to this, the nodule formation was reduced up to 43-71% by sulfuric acid rains. Specific nitrogen fixation activities of nodules estimated at pH 3.2, 4.2 and 5.6 nitric acid rain were 36.7, 42.8 and 47.3 ${\mu}mol\;C_2H_4{\cdot}g^{-1}\;fw\;nodule{\cdot}h^{-1}$, while those of sulfuric acid rain exhibited 1 nmol $C_2H_4{\cdot}plant^{-1}{\cdot}h^{-1}$ with pH 3.2, 177 with pH 4.2 and 179 with pH 5.6, yet it increased 2, 115 and 286 respectively corresponding to the three sulfuric acid concentrations. Further implications of the simulated acied rain were also discussed in the study.

  • PDF