• Title/Summary/Keyword: Effects of acid rain

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Effect of Acid Rain in Soil Microorganism (산성비가 토양미생물에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Gab-Jung;Lim, Jin-A;Park, SeongJoo;Mun, Hyeong-Tae;Park, Kyeong-Ryang;Lee, In-Soo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.299-304
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    • 1998
  • In order to clarify the effects of acid rain on soil microorganisms, the inpact of acid to soil microorganisms was survyed for 14 weeks using soil microcosms from industrial site A and B, Gaejok mountain, and Daechong lake in Taejeon area. The acid tolerant-microorganisms in natural soil, using culturing method were counted to be 5.8 - $8.0{\times}10^6$CFU/g soil. The number of microorganisms using ATP-biomass analysis for natural soil samples were also analyzed and 2.2 - $2.6{\times}10^9$ cell/g soil in industrial site A and B, Gaejok mountain, and Daechong lake were determined. In soil samples, which were treated with artificial acid rain, the number of acid tolerant microorganisms were counted 2.9 - $5.8{\times}10^5$ and 2.8 - $7.5{\times}10^8$, respectively. Therefore, we conformed that the numver of soil microorganisms were influenced by acid rain. Also, long term acid tolerant microorganisms were identified as Rhodotorula sp. and Pseudomonas sp.

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Corrosion Characterestic of Rolling Stock Structural Steel by Environmental Degradation (환경열화에 의한 철도차량 구조용강의 부식 특성)

  • Kim Yong-Ki;Chang Se-Ky;Oh Chang-Rok;Goo Byeong-Chun
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • pp.680-685
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    • 2004
  • The effects of acid rain and salt content on corrosion behavior were investigated with rolling stock structural steels be caused by environmental. Since these materials are exposed to the corrosive environments like polluted air, acid rain and sea water, it is important to investigate corrosion behaviour in various corrosive environments. The aqueous corrosion of the characteristic materials in aerated acid rain and neutral solution were studied by using immersion tests, electrochemical measurements and analytical techniques. In order to examine corrosion characteristic, structural steels were electrochemically evaluated with respect to the dissolved oxygen content, pH, chloride ion concentration.

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A Comparative Analysis of Descriptions about the Acid Rain in the 10 year Science Textbooks according to the 7th Science Curriculum (7차 교육과정에 따른 10학년 과학교과서에 제시된 산성비 관련 내용 진술의 비교 분석)

  • Kong, Young-Tae;Kim, Sung-Kyu
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.22 no.7
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    • pp.811-821
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    • 2013
  • A purpose of this study was to provide the helpful information about operation of revised science curriculum by analyzing many contents about acid rain with various aspects, which was written in science textbook of 10 year according to the 7th national curriculum. The results show that there was the lack of educational systemicity among elementary school, middle school, and high school science curriculum and the lack of explanation for occurrence and standard level of acid rain, pH 5.6. And It could be categorized the effect of acid rain into four groups and experiment or experiment activities into three groups.

Effects of Acid Rain Treatment on Height Growth of Several Landscape Tree Species, pH Value and $Al^{3+}$ Concentration in Soil: Comparison after 5 Years [I] (人工酸性雨 處理가 5年後 몇 가지 造景樹種의 樹高生長, 土壤 酸度와 可溶性 알루미늄의 濃度에 미치는 影響 [I])

  • 정용문;우수영;김판기
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.249-256
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    • 1997
  • To identify the long-term influence of acid rain treatment on tree growth, acid rain of various composition (pH 2.0, pH 4.0 and pH 5.6 as control) was applied to several landscape trees for five months (April through August, 1991). Tree height, pH values and $Al^{3+}$ concentration in soil were investigated. Acid rain treatments seemed to promote height growth in the first year (1991), but have become an inhibiting factor over five years. All of coniferous species and most broad-leaved species, except Acer ginnala, showed opposite trends in height responses to acid rain treatments between the first (1991) and last (1996) year. In contrast, Acer ginnala showed similar trends to acid rain treatments in the height growth between 1991 and 1996. This result suggested that Acer ginnala has a characteristic adapability to acid rain stress. pH values of surface soil were lower than those of 30 cm soil depth. This fact suggested that acid rain treatments made surface soil acidic condition. In addition, physiological characteristics (photosynthesis, stomatal condition and biomass) have to be investigated to identify the relationship between long-term effects of $AL^{3+}$ concentration and growth.

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Effects of Simulated Acid Rain and Soil Fertilizers on Photosynthetic Rate, wax Content, and Contact Angle of Japanese Red Pine(Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) Leaves (인공산성우와 토양시비가 소나무잎의 광합성속도, 왁스 함량 및 접촉각에 미치는 영향)

  • 최기영;이용범;채의석;이경재
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.263-268
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    • 1996
  • This study was conducted for the assessment of the effects of acid rain and soil fertilizers on photosynthetic rate, was content, and contact angle on 5-year seedlings of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) leaves. The seedlings were exposed to pH 3.0 (simulated acid rain), pH 6.5 (groung water) and rain (pH around 4.6). The seedlings were also treated with $Ca(OH)_2, Mg(OH)_2, and Ca(OH)_2 + Mg(OH)_2 + C.F.(compound fertilizer)$. Photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, was content, contact angle value, and mineral nutrient content of the leaves were measured and the results were as follows: 1. Photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance of the leaves increased with the increase of pH. Photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance increased with application of soil fertilizer in the pH 3.0 treatment, but showed no changes in the rain and the pH 6.5. 2. Contact angle value and was content of the leaves did not change with the pH treatment, but increased with the fertilizer treatments. 3. Mineral nutrient contents of the leaves were lowest in the rain treatment and highest in the pH 6.5 treatment. The increase of mineral nutrient contents was observed with the soil fertilizer treatments.

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Effects of simulated acid rain on garlic in spraying copper hydroxide solution (쿠퍼 수화제 살포시 마늘에 미치는 인공산성비의 영향)

  • Chung, Bong-Jin;Lee, Seong-Dal;Myung, Eul-Jae;Kim, Yong-Tae;Kim, Seung-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.175-182
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    • 2002
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of acid rain in spraying copper hydroxide 77% wettable power(WP) on leaf surface morphology and crop injury of the garlic(Allium sativum L.). Leaf chlorosis, hooked leaves, wrinkled epidermal cells and increased stomata open of garlic were induced by foliar application of simulated acid rain(SAR). It was become to be severe in application of copper hydroxide solution after application of SAR, but those yield of garlic was not significantly different from the untreated control. Leaf chlorosis was sharply increased above 100 ppm of copper ions. Amount of solved copper ions in copper hydroxide solution was remarkably increased below pH 5.5 and the residue in garlic leaves was significantly increased by application of copper hydroxide solution after spraying SAR compared with application of copper hydroxide solution only. When calcium carbonate was applied together with copper hydroxide leaf chlorosis was less than copper hydroxide only.

The Relations between Growth and Physiological Characteristics of Potted Ginkgo Biloba L. Seedlings Treated with Simulated Acid Rain (人工酸性雨가 處理된 盆植한 은행나무幼苗의 生長과 生理的 特性과의 相關)

  • Kim, Gab-Tae
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.13-26
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    • 1987
  • One-year-old seedlings of Ginkgo biloba, potted in three different soils (nursery soil, mixed and sandy soil), were treated with simulated acid rain (pH 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0) and tap water (control, pH 6.4) during the growing seasons (1985. 4. 28 - 1985. 10. 19) to examine the effects of acid rain on growth and physiological characteristics, and the relations between seedling growth and physiological characteristics. The results obtained in this study were as follows: 1. The effects of soil types on the total, top and root dry weight per seedling were significant at 5% level, and those of the pH of the rain treated at 1% level. The total dry weight of the pH 3.0 sub-plots was the highest for nursery soil, while for mixed and sandy soils, those of the control and the pH 5.0 sub-plots were the highest, respectively. 2. The leaf surface areas of pH 2.0 sub-plots severely decreased after July, but those of other sub-plots were not affected. The correlations between growth and leaf surface area differed among soil-types, however, the highest positive correlation was found in September. 3. The injured leaf rate increased with decreasing pH levels of acid rain. Highly negative correlations between growth and injured leaf rate were found. 4. The lower the pH level of acid rain treated was, the more the chlorophyll content was measured at the beginning of treatment, and the more severely it decreased at late growing season. A negative correlations were found in August, September and Octobfer. 5. The photosynthetic ability decreased rapidly after July with decreasing pH levels. A highly positive correlation between growth and photosynthetic ability was found in August.

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Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on Growth and Physiological Characteristics of Ginkgo biloba L. Seedlings and on Chemical Properties of the Tested Soil -I. Seed Germination and Growth (인공산성우(人工酸性雨)가 은행(銀杏)나무(Ginkgo biloba L.) 유묘(幼苗)의 생장(生長), 생리적(生理的) 특성(特性) 및 토양(土壤)의 화학적(化學的) 성질(性質)에 미치는 영향(影響) -I. 종자발아율(種子發芽率)과 생장(生長))

  • Kim, Gab Tae
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.76 no.2
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    • pp.99-108
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    • 1987
  • Half-sib seeds and one-year-old seedlings of Ginkgo biloba were treated with various simulated acid rains (pH 2.0, pH 3.0, pH 4.0 and pH 5.0) to examine the effects of acid rain on seed germination and seedling growth. The seeds were sown in a pot ($4500cm^3$) containing one of three different soils (nursery soil, mixed soil and sandy soil) and the seedlings were grown in the same pots as the seeds. Simulated acid rain was made by diluting sulfuric and nitric acid solution ($H_2SO_4$: $HNO_3$ = 3:1, V/V) with tap water and tap water (pH6.4), and treated by 5mm each time for three minutes during the growing seasons (April to October 1985 and April to August 1986). Acid rain treatments were done three times per week to potted seeds and seedlings by spraying the solutions. The seed germination, seedling growth and physiological characteristics of potted seedlings were compared among three soil types as well as among the various pH levels. The results obtained in this study were as follows: 1. Seed germination of Ginkgo biloba decreased significantly at pH 2.0 level in the field test, and also at the levels of both pH 2.0 and pH 3.0 in the laboratory test, compared to that at control. 2. For two-year-old seedlings, total, top and root dry weights per seedling were significantly different among the three soil types and among the levels of pH, and shoot growth was different only among the levels of pH. 3. For one-year-old seedlings, height and total and stem-branch dry weights per seedling were significantly different among the levels of pH.

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Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on the Growth of Pinus rigida × taeda Seedlings Inoculated with Ectomycorrhizal Fungi, Pisolithus tinctorius and Suillus luteus (인공산성우(人工酸性雨)가 모래밭버섯과 비단그물버섯 균근균(菌根菌)으로 접종(接種)한 리기테다소나무 묘목(苗木)의 생장(生長)에 미치는 효과(效果))

  • Ko, Min Gyoo;Lee, Kyung Joon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.77 no.4
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    • pp.453-459
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    • 1988
  • The purposes of this study were to evaluate the effects of acid rain on tree growth and on the mycorrhizal formation and the effects of mycorrhizae on the host tolerance to acid rain. Simulated acid rain was applied for five months to Pinus $rigida{\times}taeda$ seedlings in pots inoculated with Pisolithus tinctorius (Pt) and Suillus luteus (Sl). Mycelial inocula of Pt and Sl were either mixed with entire pot soil (Mix) or casted as a band (Band) after soil sterilization. Three pH levels of acid rain (pH 3.0, 4.5 and 6.4 adjusted by 3 : 1 mixture of sulfuric and nitric acids) were tested. Pt-Mix was most effective in growth stimulation and resulted in 45-90% increase in tree height in sandy loam. Pt-Band was less effective than Pt-Mix in growth stimulation and mycorrhizal formation. Simulated acid rain at pH 4.5 stimulated height growth by 10-55%, while acid rain at pH 3.0 did not significantly affect the height growth. The top/root ratio was increased by pH 4.5 treatment, while pH 3.0 treatment reduced it. Mycorrhizal infection rate was not affected by acid rain. Pt inoculation reduced acid-induced leaf injury by 28-58% in both pH 3.0 and 4.5 compared with un-inoculated plants. Sl was also effective in growth enhancement, but was less effective than Pt in both mycorrhizal infection and reducing leaf injury.

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Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on Nutrient Contents of Pinus densiflora S. et Z. and Forsythia koreana Nak. Seedlings (인공산성우(人工酸性雨)가 소나무 및 개나리묘(苗)의 식물체내(植物體內) 함유성분(含有成分)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Cheong, Yong Moon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.77 no.3
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    • pp.259-268
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    • 1988
  • For the purpose of examining the effects of simulated acid rain on nutrient contents of plant tissues in Pintos densiflora seedlings and Forsythia koreana rooted cuttings, the experimental design of randomized block arrangement with three replications was implemented in the experimental field of Yesan National Agricultural Junior College. One-year-old Pinus densiflora seedlings and Forsythia koreana cuttings were planted in the pots filled the mixed soils(nursery soil : forest soil of siliceous sandy loam=1 : 1 v/v) in the early spring of 1986. The regime of artificial acid rain, in terms of spray frequency per month and spray amount at single treatment per plot, was simulated on the basis of climatological data averaged from 30 years records. Simulated acid rain(pH 2.0, pH 4.0, and pH 5.5 as control) containing sulfuric and nutric acid in the ratio of 3 : 2(chemical equivalant basis) diluted with ground water were treated on the experimental plants under condition of cutting off the natural precipitation with vinyl tunnel, during the growing season(May 1 to August 31) in 1986. The results obtained in this study were as follow : (1) As for the nitrogen contents in plant tissues, P. densiflora increased significantly in one-year-old stembranch and root tissues, and F. koreana increased significantly in leaf and root tissues, as the pH levels of acid rain decreased. (2) The available phosphate contents in root tissues of P. densiflora, and in leaf and root tissues of F. koreana were significantly decreased, as the pH levels of acid rain decreased. (3) $K_2O$, CaO and MgO contents in plant tissues were significantly decreased in the both species as the pH levels decreased. And the effects of acid rain on F. koreana were higher than those of P. densiflora. (4) Sulfur contents of plant tissues in the both species were increased at pH 2.0 treatment. There were significant differences among three acid rain treatments in leaf and root tissues of P. densiflora, and in all parts of F. koreana. (5) In the effects of simulated acid rain on the both species and the tested soils, in general, F. koreana revealed higher sensitiveness than P. densiflora, and the lower pH levels of simulated acid rain were treated, the more sharp reaction was showed.

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