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Radiation Exposure Dose Reduction on Upper Gastrointestinal Series (위장조영검사에서 피폭선량 저감)

  • Lim, Byung-Hak;Chon, Kwon Su
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.109-116
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    • 2017
  • Upper gastrointestinal series is non-invasive examination, and it is useful for patients or elderly patients who have difficulty in endoscopic examination because of absence of any side effects other than temporary constipation or abdominal pain. The entire image of the gastrointestinal tract can be seen and have been widely used in the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal diseases. However, there is a possibility that radiation dose increases due to improper movement and breath control, when examination is carried out by lack of understanding the overall inspection process for the upper gastrointestinal series. In upper gastrointestinal series to increase understanding of examination, to induce appropriate cooperation during examination, to reduce the number of retakes and shorten examination time, and to reduce dose of the subject, the procedure and precautions of the gastrointestinal test were made as a movie. We investigated the effectiveness of pre-education using the movie to reduce the inspection time, the number of re-shoots, and the reduction of exposure dose by watching the movie during the waiting time before examination. 120 patients that were selected each 20 patients aged from 30s to 80s were evaluated were evaluated for exposure dose, examination time, and the number of retakes before and after the movie training. The radiation dose, the examination time, and the number of retakes were respectively $3171.83{\mu}Gy{\cdot}m^2$ and $2931.73{\mu}Gy{\cdot}m^2$, 8.05 min, and 6.75 min, and 1.68 times and 1.22 times before and after movie training. It can be concluded that the movie training on the gastrointestinal examination influences the reduction of the examination time, the number of retakes and the reduction of the radiation dose.

Anti-oxidative and Cytoprotective Effect of Ursodeoxycholic Acid, an Active Compound from the Bear's Gall, in Mouse Microglia (생쥐 뇌소교세포주에서 웅담추출활성성분(우르소데옥시콜린산)의 항산화 및 세포보호효과)

  • Joo, Seong-Soo;Kim, Seong-Kun;Yoo, Yeong-Min;Ryu, In-Wang;Kim, Kyung-Hoon;Lee, Do-Ik
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.452-455
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    • 2006
  • The in vitro cytoprotective and anti-oxidative effects of ursodeoxycholic acid, a major active compound from bear's gall were investigated in mouse brain microglia. In the present study, we wished to scrutinize the potential role of UDCA as an anti-neurodegenerative agent in neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer's disease. This concept was supported by the multiple preliminary studies in which UDCA has an anti-inflammatory effect in microglial cells. In the study, we found that $7.5\;{\mu}g/mL$ UDCA was effective in the protection of cells from $H_2O_2$ damage, a reactive oxygen, and the resuIt was coincided with the anti-apoptotic effect in DAPI staining. Moreover, the metal-catalyzed oxidation study showed that UDCA has antioxidant effect as much as ascorbic acid at $50{\sim}100\;{\mu}g/mL$. In conclusion, these study results suggested that neuro-degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease probably caused by over-expressed beta amyloid peptide in elderly people can be controled by UDCA through an anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effect. The evidences showed in the study may be references for more in-depth in vivo and clinical studies for a candidate of anti-neurodegenerative therapy in the near future.

Effect of Fermented Cirsium japonicum Extract on Testosterone Deficiency Syndrome (엉겅퀴 발효 추출물을 통한 남성 갱년기 증상 개선 효과)

  • Jeong, Byung Seo;Kim, Seong Hoon;Kim, Hyun Pyo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.46 no.7
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    • pp.790-800
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    • 2017
  • As men get older, total testosterone levels decline gradually, and concentrations of free and bioavailable testosterone decline sharply with each decade beyond their 30s. Andropause or testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) is defined as a decrease in sexual satisfaction or decline in general well-being accompanied by low levels of testosterone in older men. This male climacteric is characterized by nervousness, reduced potency, decreased libido, irritability, fatigue, depression, memory problems, sleep disturbances, and hot flushes. Cirsium japonicum (CJ) is used as a traditional medicine for hemorrhage, blood congestion, and inflammation in Korea. However, there is no report on the efficacy of CJ treatment for TDS. In this study, we observed the mitigating effect of CJ extract (CE) and fermented CJ extract (FCE) on symptoms of TDS. In elderly male rats, total and testosterone levels, hind limbs muscles, forced swimming time, and total and motile sperm counts significantly increased after daily intake of CE and FCE for 6 weeks. In contrast, sex hormone binding globulin, retroperitoneal fat, total serum cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were significantly reduced in CE and FCE groups. However, there was no difference in prostate specific antigen, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase levels among all groups, which means CE and FCE did not have putative adverse effects. In a cell experiment, we also observed that CE and FCE enhanced expression of genes related to testosterone biosynthesis but reduced genes involved in testosterone conversion. On the whole, these positive effects on TDS were greater in FCE compared to CE. Thus, these results suggest the potential of FCE as a promising natural product for recovering testosterone levels and alleviating TDS.

Early histological change in hard tissue from orthodontic force placed on microscrews in ovariectomized rats (난소 적출 백서에 식립된 마이크로스크류에 교정력 부여 시 나타난 초기 경조직 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Dea-Seung;Chang, Moon-Jung;Lee, Jin-Woo
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.103-113
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    • 2006
  • Most elderly women experience a decrease in their bone density due to a deficiency of calcium intake, ovariectomy, or menopause. This study evaluated the usability of the microscrew as a skeletal anchorage system in these orthodontic treatment cases, using rats as a research group. The 4 month old sprague-dawley species rats were divided into two groups, the OS (Ovariectomy Screw), and the SS (Sham operation Screw) group. In both the OS and SS groups, microscrews were implanted into the palatal bone between the upper molar teeth and two upper incisors were retracted using NETE coil spring with 75 g of force. After 3days, the again after 7 days, 7 rats in each group were sacrificed. Three days before they were sacrificed, Alizarin red S was intraperitoneally injected, and their maxillary bone, tibia and blood from their hearts were taken. The components of the extracted blood were biochemically analyzed and non-decalcified grinding resin sections for maxillary bone and tibia were made. The sections were examined with a polarization microscope, and fluorescent microscope. Smaller concentrations of Ca and P, the inorganic substances closely related to bone density, were found in the extracted blood of the OS group. Both OS and SS groups showed a possibility of bone remodeling with a high concentration of ALP after 7 days. An increase in bone density on the tension and compression sides of the microscrew and the tension side of the tooth for both OS and SS groups was confirmed with a polarization microscope. However, the bone density of the pressure side of the tooth and apical side was decreased. More deposits of Alizarin red S in the bone after 7 days rather than 3 days seen with a fluorescent microscope suggested the existence of new bone formation.

Nutritional Adequacy of Target Pattern in Dietary Guidance System - Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans 2015 - (식사구성안 권장식사패턴의 영양 적정성 평가 - 2015 한국인 영양소 섭취기준 -)

  • Kim, Youngnam
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.77-88
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    • 2017
  • Nutritional adequacy of Target patterns in Dietary Guidance System were evaluated. Study subjects were 18 Target patterns designed for 2 children groups, 4 adolescent and 4 adult male and female groups in Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans 2015. Nutrients examined were 4 macro-nutrients(protein, fat, carbohydrate, and dietary fiber), 5 minerals(Ca, P, Fe, Na, and K), and 5 vitamins(vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin C). Energy and nutrients contents were calculated based upon assigned multiples of single serving in Target pattern and Representative Food Composition Table by Excel program. Among the 18 Target patterns, only 5 were mean adequacy ratio(MAR) of 1.0, fulfilled the expectations of Dietary Guidance System. Protein and Na contents were more than dietary reference intakes(DRI) in all 18 Target patterns. Dietary fiber, Ca, and K were deficient nutrient in 15, 10, and 9 Target patterns, respectively. The units of vitamin A were not same in Target pattern and DRI, retinol equivalent(RE) in Target pattern and retinol activity equivalent(RAE) in DRI. When calculate RE content of vitamin A in Target pattern to RAE content, 15 Target patterns did not reach to DRI of vitamin A. The Target pattern of elderly women showed the lowest mean adequacy ratio(MAR), 7 nutrients were less than DRI, need to be revised. Average energy contribution ratio of protein, fat, and carbohydrate were 16.04%, 24.35%, and 60.91%, respectively, fulfilled the adequate acceptable macro-nutrient distribution range(AMDR). To improve the nutritional inadequacy of dietary fiber, Ca, K, and vitamin A in Target pattern, effective mean may be the increasing vegetable group assignment. Also decreasing the meat fish egg legume group assignment in some Target pattern may be the way of preventing of protein overconsumption. The energy in adequate amount for condiment use also need to be considered.

Prediction of Sleep Disturbances in Korean Rural Elderly through Longitudinal Follow Up (추적 관찰을 통한 한국 농촌 노인의 수면 장애 예측)

  • Park, Kyung Mee;Kim, Woo Jung;Choi, Eun Chae;An, Suk Kyoon;Namkoong, Kee;Youm, Yoosik;Kim, Hyeon Chang;Lee, Eun
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.38-45
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    • 2017
  • Objectives: Sleep disturbance is a very rapidly growing disease with aging. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sleep disturbances and its predictive factors in a three-year cohort study of people aged 60 years and over in Korea. Methods: In 2012 and 2014, we obtained data from a survey of the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. We asked participants if they had been diagnosed with stroke, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, arthritis, pulmonary tuberculosis, asthma, cataract, glaucoma, hepatitis B, urinary incontinence, prostate hypertrophy, cancer, osteoporosis, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, or metabolic syndrome. Cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination for dementia screening in 2012, and depression was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale in 2012 and 2014. In 2015, a structured clinical interview for Axis I psychiatric disorders was administered to 235 people, and sleep disturbance was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The perceived stress scale and the State-trait Anger Expression Inventory were also administered. Logistic regression analysis was used to predict sleep disturbance by gender, age, education, depression score, number of coexisting diseases in 2012 and 2014, current anger score, and perceived stress score. Results: Twenty-seven percent of the participants had sleep disturbances. Logistic regression analysis showed that the number of medical diseases three years ago, the depression score one year ago, and the current perceived stress significantly predicted sleep disturbances. Conclusion: Comorbid medical disease three years previous and depressive symptoms evaluated one year previous were predictive of current sleep disturbances. Further studies are needed to determine whether treatment of medical disease and depressive symptoms can improve sleep disturbances.

An Analysis of Body Shapes in Aged Abdominal Obese Women for Apparel Pattern Design (복부비만 노년 여성의 의복패턴설계를 위한 체형연구)

  • Kim, Soo-A;Choi, Hei-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.30 no.12
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    • pp.1690-1696
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study is to provide the basic data useful in designing apparel patterns for aged abdominal obese women. The body measurements of 318 women were taken at random, whose ages were over 60 and fields of action were colleges, sports centers, or business sites in Seoul and the neighboring districts. A total of 33 features in the upper body and lower body were used fer the anthropometric measurement and analysis using anthropometry. The collected measurement data were processed statistically using the SPSS 12.0 program for technical statistical analysis, t-test, frequency analysis, correlation analysis. The results of the study are as follows. 1. Subjects were classified into two groups as a result of analysis for measurement data. It was revealed that 251(about 79 percent) women of total subjects(n=318) have a characteristic of abdominal obese body type and elderly women of these group usually had big abdomen rather than hip. The criteria of abdominal obesity based on waist-hip ratio, WHR(=0.85). 2. Aged abdominal obese women have shown much larger size in most body measurements except items of some vertical length, such as bust ponit-bust point, font interscye, back interscye with circumference and depth of armscye, bust, waist, abdomen and hip while showing no difference in height, biacrominal breadth, hip width, neck shoulder point to breast point, crotch length. 3. Vervaeck index(=100.1) and Rohrer index(=1.7) indicated that the abdominal obese women were fat in overall body. And aspect ratio of waist(=0.86), abdomen(=0.92) and hip(=0.75) also appeared high that the shape of cross sections in those regions was similar to a figure of circle 4. In view of the correlation coefficient between hip circumference and the rest measurement items, and between hip circumference inclusively of the abdomen protrusion and the rest measurement items, there were found some differences for each group. In case of Group (abdominal obese group), the former is smaller than the other. 5. In case of Abdominal obese women, hip circumference inclusively of the abdomen protrusion is more mutually related to the rest items related to make apparel pattern as waist circumference, depth of armscye and so on than what hip circumference is. This result indicated which must be considered hip circumference inclusively of the abdomen protrusion to make apparel patterns for abdominal obese women unlike women of common body types.

Study on Clinical Dental Hygiene in Korea Based on Analysis of Clinical Dental Hygiene Curriculum of Fones School in the United States (미국 폰즈스쿨의 임상치위생학 교육과정 분석을 통한 국내 임상치위생학 교육과정에 관한 고찰)

  • Choi, Yong-Keum;Lim, Keun-Ok;Han, Yang-Keum;Bae, Soo-Myoung;Shin, Bo-Mi;Ahn, Se-Youn;Jeon, Hyun-Sun;Kim, Jin;Jang, Sun-Ok;Kim, Hye-Jin;Park, Ji-Eun;Lim, Hee Jung;Jang, Yun-Jung;Jung, Jin-Ah;Lee, Hyo-Jin
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.123-133
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    • 2017
  • The aim of this study was to analyze in depth the standardized Clinical dental hygiene curriculum of the Fones School in the United States. We investigated the clinical dental hygiene curriculum in 2015~2016 including title, credit, hours, contents, goals, competencies, and evaluation. We obtained the course syllabus and data related to each subject, for each grade, from the professors and students at the university. The goals and competencies, of the clinical dental hygiene program, which were based on the goals of the Fones School and the mission of the University of Bridgeport, were developed in accordance with the dental hygienist practice standards proposed by the American Dental Hygienists Association. The curriculum consisted of theory to teach proper dental hygiene care procedures and incorporated practical exercises that modeled an actual clinical setting. The students had to document the procedures performed for each client/patient and improve their clinical competency through discussion with the professors. Dental hygiene care should be provided for children, adolescents, adults, elderly, and patients, which includes patients with moderate or severe periodontal status. Students were evaluated by a paper test or case study presentation and their clinical evaluation was based on their clinical competency. In particular, professors evaluated students on a rotational basis, so they could evaluate the level of achievement of clinical competency of all students and find ways to improve any weaknesses. Therefore, the current study suggested that clinical dental hygiene program in Korea could be improved if based on the curriculum of Fones School in the United States.

Changes in Psoas Major and Quadriceps Cross Sectional Area in Elderly People after 12 Weeks of Exercise (고령자를 대상으로 12주간 운동이 대요근 및 대퇴부 근황단면적에 미치는 영향)

  • Tachi, Toshiki;Oguri, Kazuo;Torii, Suguru;Kobayashi, Kando;Fujii, Katsunori;Kim, Jun-Dong;Nho, Ho-Sung
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate whether 12-weeks of movement training would increase the psoas major cross-sectional area (CSA) in senior men and women. Fifty eight men and women aged 65 to 80 years old ($69.6{\pm}3.7$, 30 male, 28 female) were divided into a control (n=19) and exercise group (n=39). Subjects were assessed before and after the training program for stature, body mass, and magnetic resonance imaging of the psoas major and the quadriceps muscle. The experimental group performed exercises using machines designed to improve the movement of the hip at a frequency of twice every week, with a total of 23 trainings in 12-weeks. Magnetic resonance images of both thighs and the abdomen and psoas major were obtained, aimed at 50% of the length of the greater trochanter and the lower edge of the femur and between the fourth (L4) and fifth (L5) lumbars. A 9.4% increase in the psoas major CSA in the training group was observed. In the male and female breakdown, a 11.5% and 8.4% change was observed in males and females, respectively. In the quadriceps, there was no significant statistical improvement in either males or females. Furthermore, in the control group, there was no significant change seen in either the psoas major or the quadriceps. As a result of conducting training that enables upkeep of posture and smooth linkage of the lumbar spine, the pelvis and thighbone, the psoas major CSA of older adults were improved in a short period of time. For this reason, the possibility of improving the psoas CSA, which decreases remarkably with increased age, by improving the linkage of the body trunk is also suggested.

Current status of dental geriatric education in Korea (한국의 노인치과학 교육 현황)

  • Kim, Ha-Young;Lee, Jeong-Yol;Huh, Jung-Bo;Shin, Sang-Wan
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.229-235
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the current status of dental geriatric education in Korea. Materials and methods: One of the faculty members related in geriatric education was selected in each Korean dental school and the questionnaire on geriatric dental education was sent to them by e-mail. The questionnaire consists of the topics about undergraduate geriatric education and administration of the geriatric education. The information obtained from the questionnaire was compared with that of other countries in the aspects of curriculum, teaching methods, subjects, and existence of specific clinics, etc. Results: Seven schools have geriatric dentistry in undergraduate education curriculum. Among those, only two schools had it taught by theoretical lecture as well as clinical lecture. Two dental schools had specific geriatric clinic among seven dental schools. Compared with the USA and western European countries, the geriatric dental education in Korea is at a developing stage and was perfunctory without diverse clinical experience. Conclusion: In Korean dental schools, geriatric education was mostly conducted by lectures, and clinical teaching programs were not well organized compared with developed countries. It seems that the status of geriatric dental education in Korea has not been well established academically or administratively yet.