• Title, Summary, Keyword: Electrolyte Balance

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EFFECTS OF LYSINE LEVEL AND NA+K-CI RATIO ON LUSINE-ARGININE ANTAGONISM, BLOOD pH, BLOOD ACID-BASE PARAMETERS AND GROWTH PERFORMANCE IN BROILER CHICKS

  • Kim, H.W.;Han, I.K.;Choi, Y.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.7-16
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    • 1989
  • To determine the effect of sodium plus potassium to chloride ratio and lysine level on blood pH, blood acid-base parameters, lysine-arginine antagonism and growth performance, four hundred and thirty two chicks of 3 days age were used in a completely randomized $3{\times}3$ factorial experiment. Variables contained three levels of lysine (0.8, 1.2 and 1.6%) and dietary electrolyte (100, 200 and 300 mEq/kg). Birds fed 200 mEq/kg and electrolyte had the best growth rate and feed efficiency, followed by those fed 300 mEq/kg and 100 mEq/kg electrolyte. It is proposed that high levels of dietary electrolyte may improve the growth of chicks fed diets containing excess lysine by increasing lysine catabolism. High or low levels of lysine and dietary electrolyte resulted in higher mortality than those of optimum level (1.2%) of lysine and 200 mEq/kg of electrolyte balance. When the electrolyte level was increased, the pH, $pCO_2$, base excess, $HCO_3{^-}$ and total $CO_2$ of blood plasma were increased. The utilization of nutrients was changed when the electrolyte and lysine were manipulated. Plasma chloride tended to be greater in chicks receiving high chloride diet and was the highest in chicks fed the high lysine diet. Plasma sodium and potassium were unaffected by dietary lysine. Diet containing high lysine decreased the level of arginine and excess dietary electrolyte increased arginine level in plasma. It may be concluded that cation supplementation tended to alleviate the lysine-arginine antagonism but chloride exacerbated. Tibia bone length and ash contents were significantly affected by electrolyte balance and lysine level.

Oryeong-san has Different Effects on Water and Electrolyte Balance by Routes of Administration

  • Ahn, You-Mee;Kho, Joung-Hyun;Lee, Jae-Yun;Kang, Dae-Gill
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.338-343
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    • 2012
  • Oryeong-san which was first recorded in Shanghanrun describing the treatments of acute febrile disease is one of the frequently used oriental medicines. Oryeong-san has been prescribed for the treatment of symptoms accompanied by edema. The purpose of this study was to examine the diuretic effects of Oryeong-san by different routes of administration. Oryeong-san (100 mg/kg body weight) was administrated by three different routes in Sprague-Dawley rats: intravenous infusion, intraperitoneal injection and oral intake. Oral intake of Oryeong-san significantly increased urinary volume and excretion of $Na^+$, $Cl^-$, and $K^+$ compared to vehicle-treated control group. The effects were concentration-dependent. Intravenously administrated Oryeong-san increased urinary volume and electrolyte excretion but without significance in hydrated (0.02 ml/min/rat for 90 min) anesthetized rats. Similarly, intraperitoneally injected Oryeong-san had no effects on water and urine electrolyte excretion compared with saline control group. These findings suggest that Oryeong-san has different effects on water and electrolyte balance by routes of administration.

Effects of Dietary Electrolyte Balance on Growth Performance, Nitrogen Metabolism and Some Blood Biochemical Parameters of Growing Rabbits

  • Li, J.W.;Wang, X.P.;Wang, C.Y.;Zhu, Y.L.;Li, F.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.12
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    • pp.1726-1731
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    • 2013
  • The effects of different dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) on growth performance, nitrogen (N) metabolism and some blood biochemical parameters were investigated in 2 to 3 months old growing rabbits. A total of 150 growing rabbits of 2 months age were randomly divided into five groups according to average body weight, with 30 rabbits in each group. The DEB levels of the five experimental diets were -154, -3.16, +201, +347, and +500 meq/kg of dry matter (DM), respectively. There was a 7-d adaptation period and a 23-d experimental period. The results showed that the DEB levels had a quadratic affect on the average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.001). The greatest ADFI was achieved when the DEB level was +201 meq/kg DM. Fecal N (FN) content linearly decreased (0.047), while digestible N (DN), retained N (RN), efficiency of intake N converted into digestible N (DN/IN) and the efficiency of intake N converted into retained N (RN/IN) linearly increased with the DEB increase (0.020, 0.004, 0.021, and 0.049, respectively). Serum phosphorus (P) ion content linearly increased with the DEB increase (p = 0.036). The DEB had a quadratic relationship with serum anion gap (AG) (p = 0.002) and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) content (p = 0.016). The DEB levels quadratically affected base excess (BE) in the plasma (p<0.001). In conclusion, the DEB unaffected growth performance but affected feed intake, N metabolism and some blood biochemical parameters of growing rabbits.

A Study on the Degree of Need of Human Structure and Function Knowledge in Clinical Nurses (기초간호자연과학의 인체구조와 기능 내용별 필요도에 대한 연구)

  • Choe, Myoung-Ae;Byun, Young-Soon;Seo, Young-Sook;Hwang, Ae-Ran;Kim, Hee-Seung;Hong, Hae-Sook;Park, Mi-Jung;Choi, Smi;Lee, Kyung-Sook;Seo, Wha-Sook;Shin, Gi-Soo
    • Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.1-24
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study was to define the content of requisite human structure and function knowledge needed for clinical knowledge of nursing practice. Subjects of human structure and function were divided into 10 units, and each unit was further divided into 21 subunits, resulting in a total of 90 items. Contents of knowledge of human structure and function were constructed from syllabus of basic nursing subjects in 4 college of nursing, and textbooks published by nurse scholars prepared with basic nursing sciences. The degree of need of 90 items was measured with a 4 point scale. The subjects of this study were college graduated 136 nurses from seven university hospitals in Seoul and three university hospitals located in Chonnam Province, Kyungbook Province, and Inchon. They have been working at internal medicine ward, surgical ward, intensive care unit, obstetrics and gynecology ward, pediatrics ward, opthalmology ward, ear, nose, and throat ward, emergency room, rehabilitation ward, cancer ward, hospice ward, and their working period was mostly under 5 years. The results were as follows: 1. The highest scored items of human structure and function knowledge necessary for nursing practice were electrolyte balance, blood clotting mechanism and anticoagulation mechanism, hematopoietic function, body fluid balance, function of plasma, and anatomical terminology in the order of importance. The lowest scored items of human structure and function knowledge necessary for nursing practice was sexual factors of genetic mutation. 2. The highest order of need according to unit was membrane transport in the living unit, anatomical terminology in movement and exercise unit, mechanism of hormone function in regulation and integration unit, component and function of blood in oxygenation function unit, structure and function of digestive system in digestive and energy metabolism unit, temperature regulation in temperature regulation unit electrolyte balance in body fluid and electrolyte unit, concept of immunity in body resistance unit, and genetics terminology in genetics unit. The highest order of importance according to subunit was membrane transportation in cell subunit, classification of tissues in tissue unit, function of skin and skin in skin subunit, anatomical derivatives of the skeleton subunit, classification of joints in joint subunit, an effect of exercise on muscles in muscle subunit, function of brain in nervous system subunit, special sense in sensory subunit mechanism of hormone function in endocrine subunit, structure and function of female reproductive system in reproductive system unit, structure and function of blood in blood unit, structure of heart, electrical and mechanical function in cardiovascular system unit, structure of respiratory system in respiratory system subunit, structure and function of digestive system in digestive system subunit, hormonal regulation of metabolism in nutrition and metabolism subunit, function of kidney in urologic system subunit, electolyte balance in body fluid, electolyte and acid-base balance subunit. 3. The common content of human structure and function knowledge need for all clinical areas in nursing was structure and function of blood, hematopoietic function, function of plasm, coagulation mechanism and anticoagulation mechanism, body fluid, electrolyte balance, and acid-base balance. However, the degree of need of each human structure and function knowledge was different depending on clinical areas. 4. Significant differences in human structure and function knowledge necessary for nursing practice such as skin and derivatives of the skin, growth and development of bone, classification of joint, classification of muscle, structure of muscle, function of muscle, function of spinal cord, peripheral nerve, structure and function of pancrease, component and function of blood, function of plasma, structure and function of blood, hemodynamics, respiratory dynamics, gas transport, regulation of respiration, chemical digestion of foods, absorption of foods, characteristics of nutrients, metabolism and hormonal regulation, body energy balance were demonstrated according to the duration of work. 5. Significant differences in human structure and function knowledge necessary for nursing practice such as classification of tissue, classification of muscles, function of muscles, muscle metabolism, classification of skeletal muscles, classification of nervous system, neurotransmitters, mechanism of hormone function, pituitary and pituitary hormone, structure and function of male reproductive organ, structure and function of female reproductive organ, component and function of blood, function of plasma, coagulation mechanism and anticoagulation mechanism, gas exchange, gas transport, regulation of respiration, characteristics of nutrients, energy balance, function of kidney, concept of immunity, classification and function of immunity were shown according to the work area. Based on these findings, all the 90 items constructed by Korean Academic Society of Basic Nursing Science should be included as contents of human structure and function knowledge.

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A study for gas distribution in separators of molten carbonate fuel cell (용융 탄산염 연료전지의 분리판 내 연료 분배 해석)

  • Park, Joonho;Cha, Suk Won
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.82.2-82.2
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    • 2011
  • A channel design which is closely related with the mass transport overpotential is one of the most important procedures to optimize the whole fuel cell performance. In this study, three dimensional results of a numerical study for gas distribution in channels of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) unit cell for a 1kW class stack was presented. The relationship between the fuel and air distribution in the anode and cathode channels of the unit cell and the electric performance was observed. A charge balance model in the electrodes and the electrolyte coupled with a heat transfer model and a fluid flow model in the porous electrodes and the channels was solved for the mass, momentum, energy, species and charge conservation. The electronic and ionic charge balance in the anode and cathode current feeders, the electrolyte and GDEs were solved for using Ohm's law, while Butler-Volmer charge transfer kinetics described the charge transfer current density. The material transport was described by the diffusion and convection equations and Navier-Stokes equations govern the flow in the open channel. It was assumed that heat is produced by the electrochemical reactions and joule heating due to the electrical currents.

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Development of a 200 W Portable PEM Fuel Cell System (200 W급 휴대용 고분자 전해질막 연료전지 시스템 개발)

  • Han, Hun-Sik;Kim, Yun-Ho;Cho, Chang-Hwan;Kim, Seo-Young;Hyun, Jae-Min
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.91-101
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    • 2012
  • A 200 W portable polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system is developed. The PEMFC system consists of an air-cooled fuel cell stack module, a fuel supply subsystem, a power management subsystem, and a control electronics subsystem. The control logic is designed for the stable system operation. The system-level performance evaluation discloses that the present PEMFC system provides a rated power output of 200.5 W at 13.4 V with the maximum balance-of-plant (BOP) efficiency of 72%, and maximum system efficiency based on lower heating value (LHV) is 37% at 120.7 W system power output.

SIMULATION OF UNIT CELL PERFORMANCE IN THE POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL

  • Kim, H.G.;Kim, Y.S.;Shu, Z.
    • International Journal of Automotive Technology
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    • v.7 no.7
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    • pp.867-872
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    • 2006
  • Fuel cells are devices that convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy. Owing to the high efficiency of the fuel cells, a large number of research work have been done during these years. Among many kinds of the fuel cells, a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell is such kind of thing which works under low temperature. Because of the specialty, it stimulated intense global R&D competition. Most of the major world automakers are racing to develop polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell passenger vehicles. Unfortunately, there are still many problems to be solved in order to make them into the commercial use, such as the thermal and water management in working process of PEMFCs. To solve the difficulites facing the researcher, the analysis of the inner mechanism of PEMFC should be implemented as much as possible and mathematical modeling is an important tool for the research of the fuel cell especially with the combination of experiment. By regarding some of the assumptions and simplifications, using the finite element technique, a two-dimensional electrochemical mode is presented in this paper for the further comparison with experimental data. Based on the principals of the problem, the equations of electronic charge conservation equation, gas-phase continuity equation, and mass balance equation are used in calculating. Finally, modeling results indicate some of the phenomenon in a unit cell, and the relationships between potential and current density.

Wetting Behavior of Molten Salt on the Ceramic Filter Separators for Thermal Batteries (열전지용 세라믹 필터 분리판내 용융염의 젖음 거동)

  • Cho, Kwang-Youn;Riu, Doh-Hyung;Huh, Seung-Hun;Shin, Dong-Geun;Kim, Hyoun-Ee;Choi, Jong-Hwa;Cheong, Hae-Won
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.45 no.7
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    • pp.423-429
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    • 2008
  • Ceramic Fiber separator is the promising material for thermal battery system because it reduces the production cost and offers the potential to a new application compared to a pellet type electrolyte. The molten salt electrolytes for thermal battery were prepared by the impregnation of the commercial glass filters such as GF-A, C and F (Whatman, USA) with two types of molten-lithium salts, LiCl-KCl and LiK-LiBr-LiF. The wetting properties were evaluated by wetting balance test and wetting angle measurement. The wetting behaviors were strongly affected by the composition of the molten salts and the pore structure of the glass separators. The optimum wetting conditions for maximum loading and effective retention of the molten electrolyte were also studied.

A Case of Secondary FSGS due to Chronic Chloride Diarrhea

  • Kim, Byung Kwan;Lee, Hyun Soon;Yim, Hyung Eun;Cheong, Hae Il;Yoo, Kee Hwan
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.83-87
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    • 2016
  • Congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD) is a rare autosomal recessive disease that is difficult to diagnose. CLD requires early treatment to correct electrolyte imbalance and alkalosis and to prevent severe dehydration. Renal injury is clearly associated with defective electrolyte balance induced by CLD, particularly during the first months or years of life. A 7-year-old boy was diagnosed with CLD following detection of a homozygous mutation (c.2063-1G>T) in SLC26A3 at 6 months of age. During treatment with electrolyte supplements, mild proteinuria was detected at 8 months of age, and is still present. Renal biopsy showed the presence of focal renal dysplasia, with metaplastic cartilage and mononuclear cell infiltration, calcification, and fibrosis in the interstitium. Up to two-thirds of the glomeruli exhibited global obsolescence, mostly aggregated in the dysplastic area. In nondysplastic areas, the glomeruli were markedly increased in size and severely hypercellular, with increased mesangial matrix, and displayed segmental sclerosis. The marked glomerular hypertrophy with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis suggested a compensatory reaction to the severe nephron loss or glomerular obsolescence associated with renal dysplasia, with superimposed by CLD aggravating the tubulointerstitial damage.

Modeling of Hydrogen Recirculation System for Fuel Cell Vehicle (수소 연료전지차의 재순환시스템 모델링 연구)

  • Kim, Jae-Hoon;Noh, Young-Gyu;Jeon, Ui-Sik;Lee, Jong-Hyun
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.481-487
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    • 2011
  • A fuel cell vehicle using a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEM FC) as power source produces electric power by consuming the fuel, hydrogen. The unconsumed hydrogen is recirculated and reused to gain higer stack efficiency and to maintain the humidity in the anode side of the stack. So it is needed considering fuel efficiency to recirculated hydrogen. In this study, the indirect hydrogen recirculation flow rate measurement method for fuel cell vehicle is presented. By modeling of a convergent nozzle ejector and a hydrogen recirculation blower for the hydrogen recirculation of a PEM FC, the hydrogen recirculation flow rate was calculated by means of the mass balance and heat balance at Anode In/Outlet.