• Title, Summary, Keyword: Electronic transport

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Evaluation on the Impact of the Rotterdam Rules on Facilitating the Use of Electronic Transport Reocrds (로테르담 규칙의 운송서류 전자화에 대한 영향 평가)

  • SUH, Paik-Hyun
    • The Korean Research Institute of International Commerce and Law
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    • v.75
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    • pp.71-94
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    • 2017
  • The Rotterdam Rules is the first international maritime carriage of goods Convention that acknowledge electronic records of contracts of carriage. The Rules have developed separate chapter in relation to electronic transport records' issuing, transfer, etc. This paper aims to evaluate Rotterdam Rules' contribution to the use of electronic transport records. To achieve the aims firstly this paper have examined the related articles of Rotterdam Rules, Secondly in practical aspects, this paper explores the opportunities and obstacles which could be happened in practical procedures, applicable to transport industry, shipper and holder of electronic transport records. Findings could be summarized as follows, first the Rules shows high acceptability to whom it may involved in transport industry by simplify the contents of the Rules to avoid conflict with each countries' national laws. The Rules acknowledge the functional equivalence between paper and electronic transport records in specific provisions. This could be important development to facilitate the use of electronic transport records. But the Rules have not mentioned liability limit of transport industry when the problems arise from issuing, tele-transmission, transfer of the records. And the secure of the functional equivalence between paper and electronic transport records also could be remained in uncertain regime due to different stance of each national laws.

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Emission Characteristics of Green OLED with Hole Transport Material

  • Gao, Xinwei;Park, Jong-Yek;Baek, Yong-Gu;Ju, Sung-Hoo;Yang, Jae-Woong;Lee, Bong-Sub;Kim, Jung-Taek;Paek, Kyeong-Kap
    • 한국정보디스플레이학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.687-690
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    • 2007
  • OLED devices with a multilayer structure were fabricated using newly synthesized hole transport materials. We confirmed that ELM229 and ELM339, hole transport materials did not affect the electroluminescence color, and that by adopting this novel hole transport materials, OLEDs with a lower driving voltage but a higher efficiency were developed.

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Emission Characteristics of White OLEDs with Various Hole Transport Layers (정공수송층에 따른 백색 OLED의 발광 특성)

  • Lim, Byung-Gwan;Seo, Jung-Hyun;Ju, Sung-Hoo;Paek, Kyeong-Kap
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.23 no.12
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    • pp.983-987
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    • 2010
  • In order to investigate the emission characteristics of the phosphorescent white organic light-emitting diodes (PHWOLEDs) according to various hole transport layers (HTLs), PHWOLEDs composed of HTLs whose structure are NPB/TCTA, NPB/mCP and NPB/TCTA/mCP, two emissive layers (EMLs) which emit two-wavelengths of light (blue and red), and electron transport layer were fabricated. The applied voltage, power efficiency, and external quantum efficiency at a current density of $1 mA/cm^2$ for the fabricated PHWOLEDs were 7.5 V, 11.5 lm/W, and 15%, in case of NPB/mCP, 5 V, 14.8 lm/W, and 13.7%, in case of NPB/TCTA, and 5.5 V, 14.6 lm/W, and 15%, in case of NPB/TCTA/mCP in the hole transport layer, respectively. High emission efficiency can be obtained when the amount of hole injection from anode is balanced out by the amount of electron injection from the cathode to EML by using NPB/TCTA/mCP structured HTL.

Electronic and carrier transport properties of small molecule donors

  • Valencia-Maturana, Ramon;Pao, Chun-Wei
    • Coupled systems mechanics
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.75-96
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    • 2017
  • As electron donor/acceptor materials for organic photovoltaic cells, small-molecules donors/acceptor are attracting more and more attention. In this work, we investigated the electronic structures, electrochemical properties, and charge carrier transport properties of four recently-synthesized small-molecule donors/acceptor, namely, DPDCPB (A), DPDCTB (B), DTDCPB (A1), and DTDCTB (B1), by a series of ab initio calculations. The calculations look into the electronic structure of singly oxidized and reduced molecules, the first anodic and cathodic potentials, and the electrochemical gaps. Results of our calculations were in accord with those from experiments. Using Marcus theory, we also computed the reorganization energies of hole/electron hoppings, as well as hole/electron transfer integrals of multiple possible molecular dimer configurations. Our calculations indicated that the electron/hole transport properties are very sensitive to the relative separations/orientations between neighboring molecules. Due to high reorganization energies for electron hopping, the hole mobilities in the molecular crystals are at least an order of magnitude higher than the electron mobilities.

Development of Blue Organic Light-Emitting Diodes(OLEDs) Due to Change in Mixed Ratio of HTL:EML(DPVBi:NPB) Layers (HTL:EML(DPVBi:NPB) 층의 조성비 변화에 따른 청색 유기 발광 소자 개발)

  • Lee, Tae-Sung;Lee, Byoung-Wook;Hong, Chin-Soo;Kim, Chang-Kyo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.31-32
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    • 2008
  • The structure of OLEDs with conventional heterostructure consists of anode, hole injection layer, hole transport layer, light-emitting layer, electron transport layer, electron injection layer, and cathode. NPB used as a hole transport layer and DPVBi used as a blue light emitting layer were graded-mixed at selected ratio. Interface at heterojunction between the hole transport layer and the elecrtron transport layer restricts device's stability. Mixing of the hole transport layerand the emitting layer removes abrupt interface between the hole transport. layer and the electron transport layer. The stability of OLED with graded mixed-layer developed in this study was improved.

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2D Quantum Effect Analysis of Nanoscale Double-Gate MOSFET (이차원 양자 효과를 고려한 극미세 Double-Gate MOSFET)

  • Kim, Ji-Hyun;Son, Ae-Ri;Jeong, Na-Rae;Shin, Hyung-Soon
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SD
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    • v.45 no.10
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    • pp.15-22
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    • 2008
  • The bulk-planer MOSFET has a scaling limitation due to the short channel effect (SCE). The Double-Gate MOSFET (DG-MOSFET) is a next generation device for nanoscale with excellent control of SCE. The quantum effect in lateral direction is important for subthreshold characteristics when the effective channel length of DG-MOSFET is less than 10nm, Also, ballistic transport is setting important. This study shows modeling and design issues of nanoscale DG-MOSFET considering the 2D quantum effect and ballistic transport. We have optimized device characteristics of DG-MOSFET using a proper value of $t_{si}$ underlap and lateral doping gradient.

Analysis of Electron Transport in InAlAs/InGaAs HBT by Hybride Monte Carlo Simulation (Hybrid Monte Carlo 시뮬레이션에 의한 InAlAs/InGaAs HBT의 전자전송 해석)

  • 송정근;황성범;이경락
    • Electrical & Electronic Materials
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    • v.10 no.9
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    • pp.922-929
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    • 1997
  • As the size of semiconductor devices shrinks in the horizontal as well as vertical dimension it is difficult to estimate the transport-velocity of electron because they drift in non-equilibrium with a few scattering. In this paper HYbrid Monte Carlo simulator which employs the drift-diffusion model for hole-transport and Monte Carlo model for electron-transport in order to reduce the simulation time and increase the accuracy as well has been developed and applied to analyze the electron-transport in InAlAs/InGaAs HBT which is attractive for an ultra high speed active device in high speed optical fiber transmission systems in terms of the velocity and energy distribution as well as cutoff frequency.

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A Study on Digitization of Sea Transport Document - Focusing on ESS-Databridge - (해상운송서류 전자화에 관한 소고 - ESS-Databridge를 중심으로 -)

  • LIM, Sung-Chul
    • The Korean Research Institute of International Commerce and Law
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    • v.65
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    • pp.95-116
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    • 2015
  • So far several attempts have been made to digitalizing sea transport documents. Three notable examples are SeaDocs, Bolero, e-B/L Korea and Ess-Databridge. Ess-Databridge was established in 2003, with the aim of promoting the use of electronic alternative to shipping documents. The ESS-Databridge system was piloted from 2005 and went live in January 2010. The ESS-Databridge operates under a private legal outline, the Databridge Services and Users Agreement (DSUA). In the Ess-Databridge system, only the user who is in control of the original bill of lading will be able to indorse it on to another user. Once the indorsement is effected and unless the indorsee decide store turn the documents, the indorser loses control and retains access only to an electronic document marked 'copy' for its records. A feature that appears to have been crucial to the success of the CargoDocs service is that visually, e-B/Ls produced using ESS-Databridge appear identical to the paper documents. The ESS-Databridge may be even more successful if the legislators take certain steps that will increase uniformity and certainty in electronic transport documentation.

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Fully Solution-Processed Green Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using the Optimized Electron Transport Layers (최적화된 전자 수송층을 활용한 완전한 용액공정 기반 녹색 유기발광다이오드)

  • Han, Joo Won;Kim, Yong Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.31 no.7
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    • pp.486-489
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    • 2018
  • Solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have the advantages of low cost, fast fabrication, and large-area devices. However, most studies on solution-processed OLEDs have mainly focused on solution-processable hole transporting materials or emissive materials. Here, we report fully solution-processed green OLEDs including hole/electron transport layers and emissive layers. The electrical and optical properties of OLEDs based on solution-processed TPBi (2,2',2"-(1,3,5-Benzinetriyl)-tris(1-phenyl-1-H-benzimidazole)) as the electron transport layer were investigated with respect to the spin speed and the number of layers. The performance of OLEDs with solution-processed TPBi exhibits a power efficiency of 9.4 lm/W. We believe that the solution-processed electron transport layers can contribute to the development of efficient fully solution-processed multilayered OLEDs.

Fabrication and Characterization of Graphene/Molecule/Graphene Vertical Junctions with Aryl Alkane Monolayers

  • Jeong, Inho;Song, Hyunwook
    • Journal of the Korean Physical Society
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    • v.71 no.10
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    • pp.692-696
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    • 2017
  • In this study, we fabricated and characterized graphene/molecule/graphene (GMG) vertical junctions with aryl alkane monolayers. The constituent molecules were chemically self-assembled via electrophilic diazonium reactions into a monolayer on the graphene bottom electrode, while the other end physically contacted the graphene top electrode. A full understanding of the transport properties of molecular junctions is a key step in the realization of molecular-scale electronic devices and requires detailed microscopic characterization of the junction's active region. Using a multiprobe approach combining a variety of transport techniques, we elucidated the transport mechanisms and electronic structure of the GMG junctions, including temperature- and length-variable transport measurements, and transition voltage spectroscopy. These results provide criteria to establish a valid molecular junction and to determine the most probable transport characteristics of the GMG junctions.