• Title, Summary, Keyword: Ellagic

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Ellagic Acid Exerts Anti-proliferation Effects via Modulation of Tgf-Β/Smad3 Signaling in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

  • Zhang, Tao;Chen, Hong-Sheng;Wang, Li-Feng;Bai, Ming-Han;Wang, Yi-Chong;Jiang, Xiao-Feng;Liu, Ming
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.273-276
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    • 2014
  • Ellagic acid has been shown to inhibit tumor cell growth. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, our aim was to investigate whether ellagic acid inhibits the proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells via regulation of the TGF-${\beta}$/Smad3 signaling pathway. MCF-7 breast cancer cells were transfected with pEGFP-C3 or pEGFP-C3/Smad3 plasmids, and treated with ellagic acid alone or in combination with SIS3, a specific inhibitor of Smad3 phosphorylation. Cell proliferation was assessed by MTT assay and the cell cycle was detected by flow cytometry. Moreover, gene expression was detected by RT-PCR, real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. The MTT assay showed that SIS3 attenuated the inhibitory activity of ellagic acid on the proliferation of MCF-7 cells. Flow cytometry revealed that ellagic acid induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest which was mitigated by SIS3. Moreover, SIS3 reversed the effects of ellagic acid on the expression of downstream targets of the TGF-${\beta}$/Smad3 pathway. In conclusion, ellagic acid leads to decreased phosphorylation of RB proteins mainly through modulation of the TGF-${\beta}$/Smad3 pathway, and thereby inhibits the proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

Effects of Gellan, Xanthan, and $\lambda$-Carrageenan on Ellagic Acid Sedimentation, Viscosity, and Turbidity of 'Campbell Early' Grape Juice

  • Ghafoor, Kashif;Jung, Ji-Eun;Choi, Yong-Hee
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.80-84
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    • 2008
  • The effect of gellan (GE), xanthan (XA), and $\lambda$-carrageenan (LC) on the viscosity, sedimentation, ellagic acid content, and turbidity of grape 'Campbell Early' juice (CEJ) was investigated. CEJ samples with 0.15% each of GE, XA, and LC were tested for the above variables after 0, 5, 10, and 20 days of storage. The samples containing GE (0.15%) showed the least amount of sediment formation, the lowest ellagic acid content and turbidity, and a rise in viscosity. Sedimentation in CEJ decreased with increased viscosity due to the addition of gums which also limited the ellagic acid content and turbidity. GE was the most effective additive for the stabilization of CEJ.

Determination of Flavonoids, Tannins and Ellagic Acid in Leaves from Rubus L. Species

  • Gudej, Jan;Tomczyk, Michal
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.27 no.11
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    • pp.1114-1119
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    • 2004
  • This paper describes the quantitative determination of flavonoids, tannins and ellagic acid in the leaves from wild and cultivated variations of Rubus L. species (Rosaceae): raspberry (2 wild and 13 cultivars) and blackberry (3 wild and 3 cultivars). The content of flavonoids was analyzed using spectrophotometric (the Christ-M llers method) and HPLC analysis after acid hydrolysis. The content of tannins was determined by the weight method, with hide powder, described by German Pharmacopoeia 10 (DAB 10). Ellagic acid content was examined using the HPLC method after acid hydrolysis. Flavonoid content, determined using the Christ-Muller's method was higher for the blackberry leaves than for the raspberry leaves and varied between 0.46% and 1.05%. Quercetin and kaempferol were predominant in all samples analyzed using the HPLC method. The highest flavonoid content was found in the leaves of R. nessensis (1.06%); with results in all of the examined samples varying between 0.27% and 1.06%. The concentration of ellagic acid in all species was determined after acid hydrolysis and ranged from 2.06% to 6.89%. The leaves of raspberries are characterized by greater amounts of tannins (varying between 2.62% and 6.87%) than the leaves of other species. The results from this study indicate that the analyzed species are a rich source of flavonoids, ellagic acid and tannins, which may be used for the quality assessment of Rubus L. species leaves.

Modifying Effects of Ellagic Acid in Food on Carcinogenesis (식품 중 Ellagic acid의 발암수식효과)

  • 장동덕;신동환;홍충만;조재천;한정희
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.29-33
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    • 1998
  • The effect of ellagic acid (EA) on hepatocarcinogenesis induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN), and promoted by phenobarbital (PB), and hepatectomized partially was investigated in male Wi star rats. All rats were injected 200 mg of DEN intraperitoneally, received 0.05 % of PB in drinking water at week 2, and hepatectomized 2/3 of liver at week 3. Rats of group 2, 3 and 4 were fed diet containing 400ppm EA for 1 week before DEN administration, for 9 weeks from beginning of experiment to sacrifice and for 6 weeks from PB treatment to sacrifice respectively. Rats of group 5, 6 and 7 were fed 800 ppm EA in the same manner as group 2, 3 and 4. Animals were killed at 8 weeks after DEN administration. The number and area of preneoplastic lesions were quantified the glutathione-S-transferase placental-form (GST-P) positive foci using immunohistochemical method. Decrease of number and area of the positive foci was observed in the rats fed 400 ppm EA for 9 weeks. In addition, the reduction of the foci can examine in all group fed 800 ppm EA. In conclusion, EA inhibited the hepatocarcinogenesis induced by DEN when it was administrated 800 ppm.

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Comparison of whitening effect of Rubus coreanus fruit according to maturity (성숙도에 따른 복분자 열매의 미백 활성 비교)

  • Park, Jeong-Yong;Lee, Ji Yeon;Seo, Kyung Hye;Jang, Gwi Young;Lee, Seung Eun;Ji, Yun-Jeong;Kim, Hyung Don
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.121-128
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: The Rubus coreanus fruit (RF) is an important traditional medicinal herb having antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunoregulatory properties. These activities are known to change dramatically, depending on maturity of the RF. It is presumed that change of functional components, such as flavonoids, tannins, phenolic acids, triterpenoids and organic acids in RF, affect the various bioactivities. This study aimed to confirm changes in the anti-melanogenic effects of RF based on maturity, and to identify the bioactive compounds responsible. Methods: The cell viability of mature RF (MRF) and immature RF (IRF) extracts was investigated using B16F10 cells. To compare the anti-melanogenic effect of MRF and IRF extracts, we first assessed the melanin content. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis was performed to evaluate changes in the level of ellagic acid according to maturity of the RF. In addition, tyrosinase inhibitory activity of both extracts was examined. Results: MRF and IRF extracts (50-200 ㎍/mL) do not affect the cell viability of B16F10 melanoma cells. IRF extract more effectively inhibited melanin synthesis than MRF extract. The content of ellagic acid in IRF extract was higher than that obtained in MRF extract. Furthermore, greater inhibition of tyrosinase activity was observed after exposure to IRF extract than MRF extract. A positive correlation was determined between ellagic acid content and tyrosinase inhibitory activity, and a negative correlation was obtained between ellagic acid content and melanin content. Taken together, our results indicate that ellagic acid is one of the major bioactive compounds of RF that imparts a whitening effect. Conclusion: Our results indicate that ellagic acid in MRF and IRF extracts affect the anti-melanogenesis effect through inhibition of tyrosinase activity. Therefore, the ellagic acid rich IRF has greater potential for application as a natural and functional cosmetic material.

Quantitative Analysis of the Three Marker Compounds in Sanguisorbae Radix by Processing Method (포제에 따른 지유의 지표성분 함량분석)

  • Seo, Chang-Seob;Kim, Jung-Hoon;Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo;Kim, Byoung-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.342-351
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    • 2015
  • In this study, we performed quantitative determination of the three marker compounds such as gallic acid, ellagic acid, and quercetin in the 70% ethanol extracts of non-processed Sanguisorbae Radix and processed Sanguisorbae Radix using a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector. The analytical column for separation of the three compounds was used a Gemini $C_{18}$ column ($5{\mu}m$, $4.6{\times}250mm$) by the gradient elution with distilled water and acetonitrile containing 1.0% (v/v) acetic acid as mobile phase. The flow rate and injection volume were $1.0{\mu}L/min$ and $10{\mu}L$. The concentrations of gallic acid, ellagic acid, and quercetin in non-processed Sanguisorbae Radix were 0.25, 0.26, and 0.007%, respectively, while the concentrations of gallic acid, ellagic acid, and quercetin in non-processed Sanguisorbae Radix 0.14-0.55, 0.27-2.03, and 0.001-0.007%, respectively. Among the three components, the amount of the ellagic acid was increased after processing in Sanguisorbae Radix.

Unique Phenolic Sulphate Conjugates from the Flowers of Tamarix amplexicaulis

  • Souleman, Ahmed A.M.;Barakat, Heba H.;Hussein, Sahar A.M.;El-Mousallamy, Amani M.D.;Nawwar, Mahmoud A.M.
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.245-252
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    • 1998
  • The unique sulphated phenolics, gallic acid 3-methyl ether 5-potassium sulphate, isoferulic acid 3-potassium sulphate, and ellagic acid 4,4'-dimethyl ether 3-potassium sulphate have been isolated from the flowers of Tamarix amplexicaulis Ehrenb. (Tamaricaceae). The hitherto unknown natural phenolic acid, gallic acid 3-methyl ether, together with the known phenolic, gallic acid, gallic acid 4-methyl ether, isoferulic acid, ferulic acid, ellagic acid, and ellagic acid 4,4'-dimethyl ether have been also separated and characterized. The structures were established by conventional methods, including electrophoretic analysis and confirmed by ESI-MS, $^1H-\;and\;^{13}C-NMR$.

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Quantitative Analysis of Ellagic Acid in Nymphaea tetragona Georgi Root by HPLC-UVD (HPLC-UVD를 이용한 수련(Nymphaea tetragona Georgi)의 Ellagic Acid 정량 분석)

  • Lee, Dong Young;Jeong, Eun Ju;Jeon, Byung Ju;Sung, Sang Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.84-87
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    • 2014
  • A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the quantitation of ellagic acid in Nymphaea tetragona was developed for the quality control of functional cosmetic ingredient, the extract of N. tetragona. Separation and quantitation were successfully achieved with a Kromasil C18 column ($5{\mu}m$, $250mm{\times}4.6mm$, i.d.) by isocratic elution of a mixture of acetonitrile containing 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid and water containing 0.03% phosphoric acid at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The UV detector was used for the detection and the wavelength for quantitation was set at 254 nm. The presence of ellagic acid in the extract was determined by comparison of retention time and spiking with authentic standard. Analytical results showed good linearity ($R^2=0.99996$) in relatively wide concentration ranges. The R.S.D. for precision test was less than 3.0%. Recovery of the compound was 98.55~101.72% with R.S.D values less than 4.0%. In conclusion, this method has been successfully applied to the determination of ellagic acid in N. tetragona.

Method Development of Ellagic Acid as Marker Compound for Standardization of Gochang Bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miquel) as Functional Ingredient (고창 복분자의 기능성원료 표준화를 위한 지표성분으로서 Ellagic Acid의 분석법 개발)

  • Kim, Yunjeong;Han, Song-Hee;Jeon, Ji-Yeong;Hwang, Minho;Im, Yong-Jin;Chae, Soo-Wan;Kim, Min-Gul
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.11
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    • pp.1554-1558
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    • 2012
  • Method development and validation of ellagic acid for the standardization of Gochang Bokbunja as a functional ingredient and health food were accomplished. A Symmetry$^{(R)}$ (C18, $4.6{\times}250mm$, $5.0{\mu}m$) column was used with a gradient elution system of 1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile. This method was validated according to specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision test, and recovery test. Specificity was confirmed with identical retention time, and calibration curves of ellagic acid showed good linear regression ($R^2$ >0.9996). Relative standard deviations (RSD) of data from the intra- and inter-day experiments were less than 2.28% and 2.84%, except in the low limit of quality control (LLOQ, $1{\mu}g/mL$) sample. The results of the recovery test were from 89.17% to 97.92% with RSD values from 0.05 to 0.14%. Therefore, we performed analysis of ellagic acid as a marker compound in Gochang Bokbunja extracts. The amount of ellagic acid in Gochang Bukbunja was about $1.918{\mu}g/mg$ (0.192%) in the three times analysis, and RSD was less than 2.36% by the validated method. These results suggest that the developed HPLC method is simple, efficient, and could contribute to the quality control of Gochang Bokbunja extract as a functional ingredient.

Chemical Constituents of Domestic Quercus spp. Barks (국내산 참나무속 수종 수피의 추출성분)

  • Kim, Jin-Kyu;Kwon, Dong-Joo;Lim, Soon-Sung;Bae, Young-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.359-374
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    • 2010
  • This study was carried out to investigate the chemotaxonomical correlation and chemical constituents of domestic Quercus spp. barks. The barks of Q. mongolica, Q. aliena, Q. serrata, Q. acutissima, Q. dentata, and Q. variabilis were collected in the experimental forest of Kangwon National University. The combined extracts were successively fractionated with n-hexane, methylene chloride and ethyl acetate using a separation funnel. A portion of the ethyl acetate and H2O soluble materials of each species were chromatographed on a Sephadex LH-20 column using various aqueous MeOH and EtOH-hexane as washing solvents. Spectrometric analysis such as NMR and MS, including TLC, were performed to characterize the structures of the isolated compounds. Ellagic acid (0.03 g), (+)-catechin (4.59 g), taxifolin (3.35 g), and glucodistylin (20.52 g) were isolated from Q. mongolica bark. Gallic acid (0.18 g), (+)-catechin (8.52 g), (+)-gallocatechin (0.09 g), taxifolin (0.54 g), and glucodistylin (3.28 g) were characterized from Q. acutissima bark. Gallic acid (0.38 g), ellagic acid (0.11 g), (+)-catechin (2.01 g), (+)-gallocatechin (0.12 g), and glucodistylin (0.39 g) were identified from Q. dentata bark. Ellagic acid (1.51 g), (+)-catechin (21.91 g), and glucodistylin (3.91 g) were purified from Q. aliena bark. Ellagic acid (0.84 g), (+)-catechin (0.82 g), taxifolin (4.02 g), and glucodistylin (21.50) were isolated from Q. serrata bark. Gallic acid (0.24 g), caffeic acid (0.05 g), (+)-catechin (0.32 g), and glucodistylin (0.65 g) were purified from Q. variabilis bark. (+)-Catechin and glucodistylin were isolated from all the barks. Glucodistylin can be a taxonomic index on Quercus spp.