• Title, Summary, Keyword: Ellagic

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Study on the Immunomodulatory Effects of Ellagic Acid and their Mechanisms Related to Toll-like Receptor 4 in Macrophages (Ellagic acid가 대식세포의 면역조절작용에 미치는 영향과 Toll-like receptor 4 관련 작용기전 연구)

  • NamKoong, Seung;Kim, Ye-Jin;Kim, Taeseong;Sohn, Eun-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.561-567
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    • 2012
  • Ellagic acid (EA) is a phenolic compound in fruits and nuts including raspberries, strawberries, grapes and walnuts. Previous studies have indicated that EA possesses antioxidant activity, growth-inhibition and apoptosis-promoting activity in cancer cells. However, macrophage mediated cytotoxicity and immunomodulating effects on cancer cells have not been clarified. In the present study, we show that EA increased effects on macrophage mediated tumoricidal activity and NO production without direct tumor cell cytotoxicity. To further determine whether TLR4 (toll like receptor 4) is involved in anti-tumor activity, cells were treated TLR4 signaling inhibitor, CLI-095 in the presence of EA. CLI-095 treatment partially reduced macrophage-mediated tumoridial activity. EA also has inhibitory effects of NO production induced by LPS, whereas phagocytic activity was not changed. These results suggest that EA induces macrophage mediated tumoricidal activity which is partially related to TLR4 signaling and has a potential adjuvant in cancer therapy.

Chemical compositions and functional characteristics of Korean and imported pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) (국내산과 수입산 석류의 화학적 성분과 기능적 특성)

  • Kim, Mi Sook;Yun, Seol Hee;Na, Hwan Sik;Park, Hark Jae;Choi, Gyeong Cheol;Yang, Soo In;Lee, Ji Heon
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.342-347
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    • 2013
  • In recent years, polyphenol-rich herbs, fruits and processed foods, which are made of plant origin, have attracted much attention due to their potential health benefits. Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is an important source of bioactive compounds and has been used to treat diseases because of its medicinal properties. This research was focused on characterizing Korea's national cultivar and a similar product from California, USA. To evaluate their bioactive compounds and pharmacological activities, their anti-oxidation and cancer inhibition properties, as well as their organic acid and free sugar contents, were investigated. The national cultivar had low total sugar and high organic acid contents, contrary to the imported product. The results showed that the peel of national cultivar had high polyphenol and ellagic acid contents compared to imported product. The free radical scavenging capacity was evaluated via 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and its positive correlation with the total polyphenol contents was found. The anti-cancer activity of methanol extracts revealed growth inhibition against the prostate cancer cell. These results signify that while pomegranate, national cultivar, is more sour than the imported product, its health benefits could be excellent. Also, the polyphenol compound content of the non-edible part (such as the peel and the seed) was higher than that of the juice. Thus, it is suggested that the byproduct of the juice extraction could be potentially used in other fields such as medicine or dietary agents.

Impact of Cellular Genetic Make-up on Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines Response to Ellagic Acid: Implications of small interfering RNA

  • Yousef, Amany I;El-Masry, Omar S;Abdel Mohsen, Mohamed A
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.743-748
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    • 2016
  • Background: $K^-Ras$ activation is an early event in colorectal carcinogenesis and associated mutations have been reported in about 40% of colorectal cancer patients. These mutations have always been responsible for enhancing malignancy and silencing them is associated with attenuation of tumorigenicity. Among downstream effectors are the RAF/MEK/ERK and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. PI3K/Akt signaling leads to reduction of apoptosis, stimulated cell growth and enhanced proliferation. Ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring antioxidant, has recently emerged as a promising anti-cancer agent. Purpose: To evaluate the impact of cellular genetic makeup of two colon cancer cell lines with different genetic backgrounds, HCT-116 ($K^-Ras^-/p53^+$) and Caco-2 ($K^-Ras^+/p53^-$), on response to potential anti-tumour effects of EA. In addition, the influence of $K^-Ras$ silencing in HCT-116 cells was investigated. Materials and Methods: Cellular proliferation, morphology and cell cycle analysis were carried out in addition to Western blotting for detecting total Akt and p-Akt (at Thr308 and Ser473) in the presence and absence of different concentrations of EA. Cell proliferation was also assessed in cells transfected with different concentrations of $K^-Ras$ siRNA or incubated with ellagic acid following transfection. Results: The results of the present study revealed that EA exerts anti-proliferative and dose-dependent pro-apoptotic effects. Cytostatic and cytotoxic effects were also observed. p-Akt (at Thr308 and Ser473) was downregulated. Moreover, EA treatment was found to (i) reduce $K^-Ras$ protein expression; (ii) in cells transfected with siRNA and co-treated with EA, pronounced anti-proliferative effects as well as depletion of p-Akt (at Thr308) were detected. Conclusions: Cellular genetic makeup ($K^-Ras^-/p53^-$) was not likely to impose limitations on targeting EA in treatment of colon cancer. EA had a multi-disciplinary pro-apoptotic anti-proliferative approach, having inhibited Akt phosphorylation, induced cell cycle arrest and showed an anti-proliferative potential in HCT-116 cells (expressing mutant $K^-Ras$).

Changes in Bioactive Compounds Contents of 'Maehyang' and 'Seolhyang' Strawberry Fruits by UV Light Illumination

  • Kim, Sung-Kyeom;Bae, Ro-Na;Chun, Chang-Hoo
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.172-180
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    • 2011
  • The net photosynthetic rate of 'Seolhyang' strawberry plants was measured daily for 7 days after treatment at three UV illumination dosages (0, 9.8, and 29.5 $kJ{\cdot}m^{-2}$). The net photosynthetic rates of the strawberry plants with 9.8 and 29.5 $kJ{\cdot}m^{-2}$ UV light illumination decreased by 20.2 and 61.4%, respectively, at 7 days after UV light treatments. UV treatments with two illumination dosages (7.9 and 15.7 $kJ{\cdot}m^{-2}$) altered the phenolic compounds contents during the cultivation period when compared to those in the control fruits. The anthocyanin content with 7.9 $kJ{\cdot}m^{-2}$ UV light illumination of 'Seolhyang' increased by 18.7% compared with those in control fruits at the 11 DAT. However, the anthocyanin content of 'Maehyang' was not significantly different among treatments during experiment period. The highest level of ellagic acid was found with 7.9 $kJ{\cdot}m^{-2}$ UV light illumination in both cultivars at the 11 DAT. Our results showed that strawberries illuminated with UV light during cultivation period had higher bioactive compounds contents than control fruits. These results suggest that UV light treatments may be a useful non-chemical way of promoting strawberry fruits quality.

Flavonoid Constituents of Acacia catechu (Acacia catechu의 플라보노이드 성분)

  • Hong, Seong Su;Choi, Yun-Hyeok;Suh, Hwa-Jin;Kang, Min-Jung;Shin, Jung-Hye;Kwon, Oh-Oun;Oh, Joa Sub
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.58 no.2
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    • pp.189-194
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    • 2015
  • Ten compounds were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Acacia catechu (Fabaceae), and their structures were identified as nine flavonoids [(+)-catechin (1), (-)-epicatechin (2), (+)-afzelechin (3), (-)-epiafzelechin (4), (+)-mesquitol (5), kaempferol (6), quercetin (7), quercetin 3-methyl ether (8), and caryatin (9)] and an ellagic acid (10). The chemical structures of these compounds were identified on the basis of spectroscopic methods (mass spectrometry, 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance) and comparison with literature values. This is the first time that the isolation of caryatin (9) has been reported from Acacia genus.

Contents of Bioactive Constituents and Antioxidant Activities of Cultivated and Wild Raspberries (재배종 및 야생 산딸기의 기능성 성분 함량과 항산화 활성)

  • Lee, Heon Ho;Moon, Yong Sun;Yun, Hae Keun;Park, Pil Jae;Kwak, Eun Jung
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.115-122
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    • 2014
  • In order to select the raspberry cultivars that have high contents of bioactive constituents and high antioxidant activities, 7 cultivated and 2 wild raspberries which were selected and cultivated in the Bokbunja Institute were evaluated for their physicochemical characteristics, bioactive constituents, and antioxidant activities. The wild raspberry of Asan was the smallest among the sample raspberries but it had the highest sugar and lowest acid contents among the raspberries. Another wild raspberry of Ulleungdo had the highest total phenolic compound and ellagic acid contents, 182.97, $55.25mg{\cdot}100g^{-1}FW$, respectively, although it was small and had low sugar and high acid contents. Among the widely cultivated raspberry cultivars in Kimhae, 'Wangttal' cultivar was a big raspberry with 12.80% sugar content, and another unknown raspberry cultivar was as small as the wild raspberry with 14.60% sugar content. Although 'Wangttal' and the unknown raspberry cultivars cultivated in Kimhae possess lower contents of total phenolic compound (159.62, $165.94mg{\cdot}100g^{-1}$) and ellagic acid (45.7, $52.1mg{\cdot}100g^{-1}$ ) than the wild raspberry of Ulleungdo, the contents of total flavonoids (14.28, $14.90mg{\cdot}100g^{-1}$) and total anthocyanins (28.69, $30.48mg{\cdot}100g^{-1}$) were higher. Also the wild raspberry of Ulleungdo, 'Wangttal', and the unknown raspberry cultivar of Kimhae had higher antioxidant activities measured by FRAP (Ferric reducing antioxidant power), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), and ABTS (2,2' azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assays. The present study shows that three raspberry cultivars could be potent resources for raspberry breeding and functional material development.

Comparison of Chemical Composition and Radical Scavenging Activity of Pomegranate Extracts from Different Growing Areas

  • Lee, Hyun-Jung;Cho, Hye-Jin;Lee, Hyun-Sun;Kwon, Ki-Han;Hong, Yang-Hee;Kim, Seon-Hee;Suh, Hyung-Joo
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.214-219
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    • 2009
  • The pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a promising source of functional food, which contains several phytochemicals that perform important roles in reducing the risk of pathological diseases. Chemical compositions, such as the total sugar, uronic acid, polyphenols, and anthocyanin contents, and radical scavenging activity were determined and compared among PEs from six different cultivation areas. Total anthocyanin contents (TAC) and total polyphenol contents (TPC) from various growing areas were detected in the following order, respectively: Spain (19.08 ${\mu}g$/mL)> Turkey (12.91 ${\mu}g$/mL)> Iran-A (6.67 ${\mu}g$/mL)> Taiwan (4.77 ${\mu}g$/mL)> Uzbekistan (1.88 ${\mu}g$/mL)> Iran-B (0.76 ${\mu}g$/mL) and Turkey (639.52 ${\mu}g$/mL)> Uzbekistan (502.19 ${\mu}g$/mL)> Spain (306.40 ${\mu}g$/mL)> Iran-B (249.20 ${\mu}g$/mL)> Taiwan (162.78 ${\mu}g$/mL)> Iran-A (143.93 ${\mu}g$/mL). PEs from six different cultivation areas were determined to vary in ellagic acid content from 8.90 ${\mu}g$/mL to 332.52 ${\mu}g$/mL. The amounts of total sugars in PE from Iran-A evidenced relatively high total sugar contents, but low uronic acid levels (11.92 mg/mL). DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activities were as follows: Turkey> Uzbekistan $\gg$ Spain> Iran-B> Iran-A> Taiwan. ABTS [2,20-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] radical scavenging activities were detected in the following order: Turkey$\geq$ Uzbekistan$\gg$ Spain> Iran-B> Iran-A> Taiwan. These results indicate that the PEs from Turkey with higher levels of TPC, TAC, ellagic acid, and higher radical scavenging activity may constitute a promising functional source for the prevention of several degenerative diseases.