• Title, Summary, Keyword: Energy Intake

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Trends in energy intake among Korean adults, 1998-2015: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

  • Yun, Sungha;Kim, Hyun Ja;Oh, Kyungwon
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.147-154
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    • 2017
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Assessing changes in energy intake and dietary sources is important to understand trends in the prevalence of obesity. Thus, we examined trends in energy intake and its nutrient and food sources in Korean adults from 1998 through 2015. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This study included 70,769 subjects aged ${\geq}19$ years who completed a nutrition survey. Subject data were obtained from the 1998, 2001, 2005, 2007-2009, 2010-2012, and 2013-2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Dietary intake was assessed by a 1-day 24-hour recall method. RESULTS: In men, the daily energy intake significantly increased from 2,196 kcal in 1998 to 2,489 kcal in 2013-2015 (P for trend < 0.0001). However, the daily energy intake among women did not change significantly over the same period (P for trend = 0.5772). The percentages of energy intake from animal foods (e.g., meat and milk) and beverages increased during the study period in both men and women. However, the percentage of energy intake from plant foods decreased due to a marked decrease in the intake of white rice. Changes in food sources of energy intake led to changes in the nutrient sources of energy intake; for example, the increase of energy intake from fat and decrease of energy intake from carbohydrate. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that since 1998, energy intake has increased among Korean adult men, but not among women. However, the composition of food and nutrient sources of energy intake has changed in both men and women. Energy intake and its nutrient and food sources should continue to be monitored regularly in the Korean adult population.

Nutritional Status and Requirements of Protein and Energy in Female Korean College Students Maintaining Their Usual and Activity(2) : Nitrogen Intake and Balance (자유로운 식이와 활동을 유지하는 한국 여대생의 에너지와 단백질대사에 대한 연구(2) : 질소섭취와 평형)

  • 김주연
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.259-267
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    • 1995
  • A study was conducted to investigate nitrogen balance and to estimate daily nitrogen requirement in 43 Korean female college students students maintaining their usual diet and activity levels. Nitrogen intake and excretion were measured in two separate peroids about one month apart, each period lasting for 3 days. Nitrogen intake was assessed by duplicate portion analysis of diet, and N excretion in faces and urine were measured during the study period. Mean daily nitrogen intake level was 129.3mg/kg B.W and the apparent digestibility of nitrogen was 76%. Mean daily urinary nitrogen excretion was 113.5mg/kg BW. 895 of total nitrogen intake. Mean daily nitrogen balance of subjects was -14.5mg/kg BW. Mean daily requirements of nitrogen for 0 balance, calculated by regression analysis of N balance and energy-adjusted N intake. were 1) 197.mg/kg B.W with the present energy intake level of the study subjects. 2) 157mg/kg B.W when energy intake is sufficient to maintain energy balance, and 30 130mg/kg B.W. when energy intake is Korean RDA level for moderate activity. When energy intake level is sufficient to meet their requirement, daily protein requirement for 0 balance is about 1.0g/kg B.W. The results of this study indicate that nitrogen intake level of young female college students is not sufficient to meet their requirements, and they should increase protein intake together with increase in energy intake.

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Effects of Serum Insulin, Eating Style and Energy Intake on the Fatness (비만도와 혈청 인슐린 농도, 식사행동, 섭취열량과의 관련성)

  • 김석영
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.34-46
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    • 1993
  • This study was performed to investigate the interrelationship between fasting serum insulin, eating behaviour, daily energy intake and the fatness in obese and non-obese women. The possibility of fasting serum insulin as potential predictive factor for eating behaviour and daily energy intake was also investigated. The results are as follows: 1) In obese women ; Subjects with higher fasting serum insulin were associated with higher speed of eating and shorter meal duration time. No association could be found between daily energy intake or the degree of obesity and fasting serum insulin. There was a significant positive correlation between obesity, daily energy intake and speed of eating. Obesity, daily energy intake were negatively related to meal duration time. Subjects with a rapid speed of eating were apt to overeat during eating behaviour experiment. Our findings suggested that a rapid speed of eating is a contributing factor to the development of obesity in obese women. 2) In non-obese women ; While subjects with higher insulin level were apt to overeat, we could not find any relation between overeating and daily energy intake. There was no correlation between eating speed and daily energy intake, but a significant positive correlation was found between meal duration time and daily energy intake. The degree of fatness was increased with the lower daily energy expenditure per body weight, or the higher waist hip girth ratio, fasting serum insulin and daily energy intake.

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Relationship between intake of energy and protein and permanent teeth caries (에너지 및 단백질 섭취와 영구치 우식과의 관련성)

  • Kim, Han-Na
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.943-953
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the association between intake of energy, calcium and protein and permanent teeth caries in Korean children. Methods: Research data were obtained from the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) and 1,274 Korean children within 9 to 12 years were selected as subjects for the study. The DMFT index, nutrition factors including total energy and protein intake, and degree of calcium intake were identified Chi-square test was performed to assess the difference of distribution in socioeconomic status, oral health behavior and nutrition factors according to sex. Multilevel linear regression analysis was performed to identify the relationship between DMFT index and the related variables. Results: Significant differences in energy, protein and Ca intake were confirmed according to the sex. Among 10 year-old children who intake total energy less than the recommended had few dental caries (p=0.058, ${\beta}=-0.411$). In addition, 11-year-old children having protein intake more than the recommended experienced dental caries (p=0.02, ${\beta}=0.588$). Conclusions: These results suggest that, there is significant differences between intake of energy and protein and dental caries among Korean children. However, further researches is needed to confirm between intake of energy and protein as a related factor.

No Effect of Energy Intake Overall on Risk of Endometrial Cancers: a Meta-analysis

  • Chu, Ke-Tan;Song, Yang;Zhou, Jian-Hong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.23
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    • pp.10293-10298
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    • 2015
  • Background: Previous epidemiologic studies on the association between energy intake and endometrial cancer risk have only generated contradictory results. The role of energy intake in endometrial carcinogenesis thus remains unclear. To quantitatively assess the potential association between energy intake and endometrial cancer, a meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies was here conducted. Materials and Methods: Eligible studies were retrieved via both computerized searches and review of references. Fixed-or random-effect models were used to summarize the estimates of OR with 95%CIs. Stratified analyses on study design, region and macronutrients' calorie were performed. Results: Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria of the meta-analysis. No association between total energy intake and endometrial cancer was observed in either overall group (OR=1.11, 95%CI 0.92-1.30) or subgroups stratified by study design and region. In the specific macronutrients' calorie analysis, higher fat energy intake was found to be associated with increased endometrial risk (OR=1.72, 95%CI 1.12-2.32) while energy from carbohydrate and protein was not related to endometrial cancer risk. Conclusions: Our analysis did not support that total energy intake is related to endometrial cancer risk, in contrast to fat energy.

A Comparison of Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure in Normal-Weight and Over-Weight Korean Adults (정상체중 성인과 과체중 성인의 에너지 섭취량, 휴식대사량, 활동대사량 비교연구)

  • 박정아;김기진;윤진숙
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.285-291
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study was to compare the energy expenditure and energy intake of normal-weight and overweight Korean adults. We recruited 242 adults to determine resting energy expenditure, physical activity and energy intake. Resting energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry. Energy intake for consecutive two days was assessed by 24 hour recall method. Daily activity pattern for 24 hour was collected from each subject. Body weight, lean body mass and percentage body fat were measured by INBODY 3.0. The subject were divided into normal ($20\leqBMI$ < 25) and overweight ($BMI \geq 25$) groups by BMI. There was no significant difference in intake of energy between two groups. Energy intake of each group was lower than the 7th Korean RDA of energy. Overweight subjects showed significantly lower REE/kg body weight. However, REE/kg lean body mass (LBM) did not differ between the two groups. Total activity energy was significantly higher in the overweight group compared to the normal group. Daily activity coefficient of overweight group in male was lower than that of normal group. Daily activity coefficient was almost same in two female groups. LBM was highly correlated with REE and total energy expenditure. We concluded that the overweight group consumed more energy than the normal group due to the heavier body weight.

EFFECTS OF DIETARY TRYPTOPHAN LEVEL AND FOOD INTAKE ON ENERGY UTILIZATION BY MALE GROWING CHICKS

  • Sugahara, K.;Kubo, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.647-651
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    • 1992
  • Two experiments involving comparative slaughter procedures were conducted to see if the decrease in total energy retention (ER) resulted from the decreased food intake in growing chicks fed on a diet containing tryptophan less than the requirement. Ad libitum-feeding a diet containing 50% of tryptophan of a control diet (1.5 g/kg) decreased body weight gain, apparent metabolizable energy intake (AMEI), ER and ER : AMEI ratio. When both the control diet and the 0.75 g/kg tryptophan diet were tube-fed at the two levels of food intake, body weight gain was significantly lower in chicks on the low tryptophan diet than in the control chicks at each level of intake. AME : gross-energy ratio decreased only when the low tryptophan diet was tube-fed at the higher level of intake. Energy retained as protein was significantly decreased by the low tryptophan level and reduction of food intake. Energy retained as fat was affected by food intake. ER and ER : AMEI ratio were unaffected by dietary tryptophan level and were proportional to AMEI. Heat increment of feeding was affected by neither tryptophan nor food intake. These results indicate that the decreased ER in chicks fed on the low tryptophan diet was due mainly to the decreased food intake and not to the decreased efficiency of ME utilization.

Energy Value of Breakfast and Its Relation to Total Daily Nutrient Intake and Serum Lipid in Korean Urban Adults (도시성인 아침식사의 열량기 및 이의 영양소 섭취와 혈청 지질 수준간의 관련성 연구)

  • 현화진;이정원;곽충실;송경희
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.368-379
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the energy value of breakfast and its relation to total daily nutrient intake and serum lipid. Dietary intakes were evaluated through the 3-day dietary recalls(interview for 1day and self-report for 2 days) from 333 Korean urban adults aged 20-49 year. Serum lipids in fasting blood samples were measured form 98 of those 333 adults. Low energy breakfast(<15% of daily energy intake) was consumed by 22.6% of males and 18.5% of females. 59.4 of males and 43.3% of females consumed a breakfast of average energy intake(15-25% daily energy intake) ; and 18.1 of males and 38.2% of females consumed a significant contribution to a total daily nutrient intake. The daily nutrient intake except crude fiber and vitamin A, B, B, and C in males and except vitamin C in females significantly increased as the energy value of breakfast increased. The differences in energy and nutrient intakes at breakfast were not made up for by other meals. To make matters worse, the satisfactory-energy breakfast group took more energy at dinner compared with the low-energy and average-energy breakfast group took more energy at dinner compared with the low-energy and average-energy breakfast groups in females. Among serum lipid parameters, TG was negatively correlated with energy provided at breakfast, and total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol had a negative correlation with energy and carbohydrates provided at breakfast in males. For females TG was positively correlated with the ratio of carbohydrates to energy at breakfast but negatively correlated with the ratio of fat to energy at breakfast. These results suggest that satisfactory energy intakes at breakfast have positive effects on the adequacy of daily nutrient intake and may positively affect the serum lipid status.

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Associating Factors on Energy Drinks Intake of Some Middle School Students in Incheon Area (인천지역 일부 중학생의 에너지 음료의 섭취 관련 영향요인)

  • Oh, Ji-Won;Jang, Jae-Seon
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.618-626
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the intake of energy drinks and awareness of caffeine among middle school students. The subject was 313 middle school in Incheon area. The questionnaire respondents are consisted of 133 male students and 180 female students. The recognition result that allowed multiple responses to energy drink types was recognized by hot six at 28.9%, followed by red bull 24.3%, monster energy 13.8%, wolf energy 8.0% and taurine soda 6.9%, respectively. There was a significant difference in the experience of energy drink intake, intake reason, intake time and place (p<0.05), but there was no significant difference in intake frequency and place (p>0.05). There were significant differences in experience and frequency of energy drink intake (p<0.05), but there was no significant difference in intake reason, choice criteria, intake time and place (p>0.05). The result of the perception of energy drinks according to gender was 2.25 points for male students and 2.61 points for female students in the question 'caffeine is also present in tea, green tea, cola and chocolate'. There was a significant difference between male and female students (p<0.05). As a result of the recogniton of energy drinks, "the appropriate amount of caffeine is cleared and the concentration improves." When asked, "low body weight is 2.24 points, normal 2.27 points, overweight 1.89 points, obesity 2.46 points (p<0.05). There was a statistically significant difference in body mass index (BMI) between the two groups (1.95 for low body weight, 2.10 for normal body weight, 1.62 for overweight and 2.43 for obesity). Regression analysis showed that $R^2=0.007$ and F=2.798, respectively. Significant differences were found at the significance level of p<0.05. Energy drink consumption expenditure(${\beta}=0.121$, p<0.05), sleep time(${\beta}=0.130$, p<0.05), and caffeine perception(${\beta}=-0.162$, p<0.05) were significant determinants of energy drinks intake.

Nutritional Status and Energy Expenditure in the Elderly in a Rural Community (농촌지역 노인의 영양상태와 활동량)

  • 이성국;윤희정;권진희
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.336-344
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    • 2002
  • In this study, nutrient intake status and energy expenditure were examined to investigate the nutritional status of the elderly in a rural community. The results obtained by questionaries, the 24 hour recall method, and time-diary were as follows: The elderly men surveyed were 73.8 years old, on the average. The elderly women surveyed were 73.5 years old, on the average. The proportion of the elderly with diseases was 51.9%. Most of the subjects (86.1%) had a regular meal pattern of consuming three meals a day. The average daily energy intake of the rural elderly was much lower than the Korean RDA. The dietary assessment data showed that each energy intake of the males and the females was 79.5% and 84.3% of the RDA, respectively. The dietary intake of Ca, Fe, niacin, thiamin, and riboflavin was lower than the Korean RDA, and that of P and Vitamin C was adequate. The Fe intake was significantly different with respect to age and sex (p < 0.05). Although, in both elderly men and elderly women it decreased with age, the elderly men's intake was lower than the elderly women's. The heights of the elderly men and the elderly women was 159.7 cm and 147.5 cm, respectively, and the weights were 60.0 kg and 52.2 kg, respectively, and the BMI was in the moderate range. Heights significantly decreased with age (p < 0.05). According to daily living schedules, leisure time (11.0 hour) was the longest, physiological time (9.6 hours) was next, and work time (3.4 hours) was the shortest. Energy expenditure significantly decreased with age (p < 0.01). Energy intake also decreased with aging. Energy balance (energy expenditure/energy intake) was 93.4% in elderly men and 104.0% in elderly women. Especially, in elderly men in the 65 to 74 age range, the energy balance was the lowest, and the nutrient intake was also much lower than that of elderly women.