• 제목, 요약, 키워드: Energy Intake

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Total energy intake according to the level of skeletal muscle mass in Korean adults aged 30 years and older: an analysis of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2008-2011

  • Jang, Bo Young;Bu, So Young
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.222-232
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    • 2018
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Since gain or loss of skeletal muscle mass is a gradual event and occurs due to a combination of lifestyle factors, assessment of dietary factors related to skeletal muscle is complicated. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in total energy intake according to the level of skeletal muscle mass. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 8,165 subjects ${\geq}30years$ of age from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2008-2011 were included in the analysis, and multivariate-adjusted regression analyses were performed to analyze the association of the quartiles of sarcopenia index (SI) with energy intake of the study population after adjusting for age and metabolic parameters. RESULTS: The increase in SI quartile was in proportion to the gradual decrease in systemic lipids and the anthropometric measurement of fat accumulation (P < 0.001). Subjects in higher SI quartiles tended to consume more total energy and energy-producing nutrients than those in lower quartiles (P < 0.001). After age, body weight, alcohol consumption, and metabolic parameters were adjusted in the analysis, total energy intake gradually increased according to the increase in SI quartile, and the association between total energy intake and SI was more pronounced in men. However, the risk (odd ratio) of having a low SI was not affected by any single macronutrient intake. CONCLUSION: In this study, total energy intake was positively associated with SI and relative skeletal mass in both men and women. However, no significant association or a weak association was observed between any single macronutrient intake and skeletal muscle mass. The data indicated that acquiring more energy intake within the normal range of energy consumption may help to maintain skeletal muscle mass.

Dietary patterns of obese high school girls: snack consumption and energy intake

  • Yoon, Jin-Sook;Lee, Nan-Jo
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.4 no.5
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    • pp.433-437
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    • 2010
  • In order to develop an obesity management program for teenagers, we compared obese and non-obese girls attending high schools in terms of their dietary practices related to snack consumption. Dietary records were collected for 7 days. No significant differences were found for the average daily energy intake between obese and non-obese girls. However, the highest energy intake was greater for obese girls while not much difference was found for the lowest amount of energy intake. Obese girls had significantly lower intakes in calcium (P < 0.01), vitamin A (P < 0.001) and folate (P < 0.01). Mean energy intake from snack ($594.1{\pm}312.1kcal$) was significantly higher for obese girls than for non-obese girls ($360.1{\pm}173.1kcal$) (P < 0.001). A significant, positive correlation was observed between energy intake from snack and total daily energy intake (r = 0.34 P < 0.01) only for obese girls. In case of dietary behaviors, obese adolescent girls consumed significantly greater number of items for snacks and fewer foods for regular meals compared to non-obese girls (P < 0.05). This study suggested that obesity management programs for adolescents should focus on providing strategies to reduce snack through enhancing balanced regular meals.

Effect of plate size on meal energy intake in normal weight women

  • Ayaz, Aylin;Akyol, Asli;Cetin, Cansu;Besler, H. Tanju
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.524-529
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    • 2016
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Use of smaller plates to control food intake is a commonly recommended strategy for restricting energy intake, despite conflicting results. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether or not three different sizes of plates influence energy intake during a multi-itemed buffet meal in normal weight women. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This was a cross-over study conducted on 37 female participants aged 19-25 years with normal BMI levels. Participants were recruited from Hacettepe University and the surrounding community. On experimental days, participants ate a standard breakfast and were then randomly assigned to eat lunch using a small (19 cm), medium (23 cm), or large (28 cm) diameter plate. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores on sensory and satiety outcomes were measured for all meals. Energy and macronutrient intakes during lunch were recorded. RESULTS: There was no evidence that use of a smaller plate size reduced energy or specific macronutrient intake during the free choice lunch meal. Multiple visits to the serving table were not associated with energy or macronutrient intake. Plate size did not affect VAS scores during the test days. CONCLUSIONS: Plate size did not influence energy intake, meal composition, or palatability in normal weight women during a multi-itemed open buffet lunch. Studies in natural settings at the population level are needed to clarify current outcomes.

Energy and Macronutrient Intakes during Menstrual Cycle in Young Women (월경주기동안의 여대생의 열량섭취와 열량구성비)

  • 김석영;차복경;박필숙
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.210-217
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this study was to examine changes in energy and macronutrient intakes during the premenstrual(days -10-1) and postmenstrual(days 5-14) phases. Thirty-two college female students recorded their food consumption and dietary patterns over 5 weeks from September 8 to October 12, 1997. Mean daily energy and macronutrient intakes and the percentage of energy intake from protein and carbohydrate were relatively consistent over the two menstrual cycle phases, but the energy intake from fat increased 1%(P<0.05)during the postmenstrual phase. Two different dietary patterns were identified by the shifts in energy intake between postmenstrual and premenstrual phases. Seventy five percent of subjects revealed a consistent pattern with the results of previous studies investigating food intake over the menstrual cycle, in which the premenstrual phase is associated with an increment in energy, carbohydrate, and protein intake. In contrast, energy, protein, and fat intakes increased during the postmenstrual phase in 25% of the subjects. We conclude that cyclical fluctuations in energy and macronutrient intakes occur in both postmenstrual and premenstrual dietary pattern groups across the two menstrual phased with the opposite directions.

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Effects of Non-protein Energy Intake on the Concentrations of Plasma Metabolites and Insulin, and Tissue Responsiveness and Sensitivity to Insulin in Goats

  • Fujita, Tadahisa;Kajita, Masahiro;Sano, Hiroaki;Shiga, Akio
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.7
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    • pp.1010-1018
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    • 2006
  • A glucose clamp technique was used to investigate the effects of non-protein energy intake on tissue responsiveness and sensitivity to insulin for glucose metabolism in intact adults male goats. Three goats were fed diets at 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 times of ME for maintenance, each for 21 d. Crude protein intake was 1.5 times of maintenance requirement in each treatment. Tissue responsiveness and sensitivity to insulin were evaluated using a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique with four levels of insulin infusion, beginning at 13 h after feeding. Concentrations of plasma metabolites and insulin were also measured at 3, 6 and 13 h after feeding, for evaluating effects of non-protein energy intake on the metabolic status of the animals. Increasing non-protein energy intake prevented an increase in plasma NEFA concentration at 13 h after feeding (p = 0.03). Plasma urea-nitrogen and total amino-nitrogen concentrations decreased (p<0.01) and increased (p = 0.03), respectively, with increasing non-protein energy intake across time relating to feeding. Plasma insulin concentration was unaffected (p = 0.43) by non-protein energy intake regardless of time relating to feeding. In the glucose clamp experiment, increasing non-protein energy intake decreased numerically (p = 0.12) the plasma insulin concentration at half-maximal glucose infusion rate (insulin sensitivity), but did not affect (p = 0.60) maximal glucose infusion rate (tissue responsiveness to insulin). The present results suggest that an increase in non-protein energy intake may enhance insulin sensitivity for glucose metabolism, unlike responsiveness to insulin, in adult male goats. The possible enhancement in insulin sensitivity may play a role in establishing anabolic status in the body, when excess energy is supplied to the body.

A Study of Nutritional Assessment and Dietary intake after Gastrectomy of Gastric Cancer patients (위암환자의 위절제술 후 영양상태 평가 및 식사섭취도에 관한 연구)

  • 김태현
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.27 no.8
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    • pp.844-855
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    • 1994
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the nutritional status and dietary intake of gastrectomized cancer patients. For this study, from 1993. 1 to 1993. 8, 50 postoperative gastric cancer patients were selected to examine anthropometric and laboratory data(Body Weight, Body Fat, serum Albumin, Total Lympocyte count), and dietary intake related symptoms. The results were 1) All anthropometric and laboratory data were significantly deteriorated by gastrectomy(s-Albumin, TLC. Body Fat : p<0.001). Weight loss of gastrectomized patients was 8.23$\pm$3.72% from admission to discharge. 2) In many gastrectomized cancer patients, preoperative dietary intake was decreased by abdominal discomfort, indigestion, early satiety, and anorexia. 3) Postoperative energy intake was 602$\pm$158㎉, and it is correspond to 31.18$\pm$.90% of daily energy requirement(1918$\pm$236㎉). The cause of poor oral intake is mostly fear, abdominal distension and fullness, and early satiety. In consideration of the fact that an inadequate energy intake was the main cause of the decreasing nutritional status, a careful nutritional care and dietary education is necessry after gastrectomy.

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Nutritional Status and Requirements of Protein and Energy in Female Korean College Students Maintaining Their Usual Diet and Activity(1) : Energy Intake and Balance (자유로운 식이와 활동을 유지하는 한국 여대생의 에너지와 단백질 대사에 대한 연구(1) : 에너지 섭취와 평형)

  • 김주연
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.336-346
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    • 1994
  • balance and to estimate daily energy requirement in 43 Korean female college students maintaining their usual diet and activity level. Energy intake and expenditure were measured in two separate periods about one month apart, each period lasting for 3 days. All the subjects participated in both periods. Energy intake was assessed by two methods ; weighed diet record and duplicate portion analysis of diet minus fecal and urinary excretion. Mean daily energy intake level calculated from diet records was 28.5 kcal/kgB.W(1, 476 kcal/day), and similar to the level of 27.8 kcal/kgB.W(1, 438 kcal/days) obtained from the chemical analysis of duplicate portions. Mean daily energy expenditure, calculated from activity records of each subject, was 34.6 kcal/kgB.W, or 1.39 times BMR, which corresponds to light activity level. Mean daily energy balance of subjects was -5.9 kcal/kgB.W. Mean daily requirement of energy, calculated from the activity records of the subjects, was 34.6 kcal/kgB.W, similar to the level of the Korean RDA for light activity level. The results of this study indicate that 1) the activity level of the study subjects corresponds to the sedentary level ; 2) present Korean RDA for energy for light activity is adequate for the subjects ; and 3) the subjects should increase their energy intake since they are largely in negative energy balance.

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Effects of Nutrition Counseling on Diet and Nutritional Status of Cancer Patients on Radiotherapy (영양 상담이 방사선 치료를 받는 암환자의 식이 섭취와 영양 상태에 미치는 영향)

  • 백희영
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.193-201
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    • 2000
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of nutrition counseling on the dietary intake and nutritional status cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy treatment. The study was conducted over 6 week period and included 104 patients : 66 received nutrition counseling as the variable group of 42 male and 24 female and 38 patients received no counseling as the control group of 19 male and 19 female. Nutrition counseling was accompanied with the radiation therapy and adminstered via counseling session and distribution of printed material during radiation therapy for 6 weeks. Nutrition counseling aimed at maintaining a balanced diet and preventing weight loss of subjects, guideline used for energy and protein intake were 35kcal/kg IBW and 1.5-2.0g/kg IBW, respectively. Over the course of the study, the counseling group increased significantly in comparison to the control group's energy intake, evidenced by the counseling group's initial mean daily energy intake of 1932.0kcal, and 4 and 6 week mean energy intake values of 2046.6kcal, 2066kcal, respectively. But mean energy values of control group was 1614.3kcal at 4 week. Th energy intake per weight values and protein intake per weight values for initial, 4 and 6 week intervals for counseling group were 33.2kcal/kg, 33.7kcal/kg, 34.0kcal/kg, and 1.48g/kg, 1.58g/kg, 1.59g/kg, respectively. Based on results, nutrition counseling had positive effects on both the variety of diet and energy intake of the variable group, mostly due to an increase in dairy product and egg consumption. In addition, the percentage of counseling group patients who consumed all 5 food group increased from 48.5% to 54.5%. Sufficient energy intake and protein consumption seem to be important factors in weight loss prevention, evidenced by weight gain by subjects in the counseling group who had 36.1kcal/kg/day mean energy intake and 1.77g/kg/day mean protein intake after 4 weeks. Counseling group subjects experiencing weight loss had lower intake and 1.77g/kg/day mean protein intake after 3 weeks. Counseling group subjects experiencing weight loss had lower intakes of 29.3kcal/kg/day for energy and 1.33g/kg/day for protein during the same period. Another significant factor in weight loss prevention of the counseling group could be the variety of diet. The dietary variety scores(DVS) of both counseling and control groups differed significantly : the counseling group had a mean score of 34 while the control group of patients. At the end of the study, the mean percentage of subjects within each group having a DDS 5 was higher in the counseling group (54.5% v.s. 24.0%). In this study, nutrition counseling for cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy proved to be effective in preventing weight loss, a major complication during radiotherapy. Nutrition counseling not only increased protein and energy intake, but also had desirable effects on variety or diversity of diet.

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Analysis of the Energy Consumption in Underfloor Air Distribution System depending on Outdoor Air Intake Rates (외기 도입에 따른 바닥급기 시스템의 에너지 사용량 분석)

  • Kim, Dong-Hee;Huh, Jung-Ho;Cho, Dong-Woo;Yu, Ki-Hyung;Yu, Ji-Yong
    • Proceedings of the SAREK Conference
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    • pp.826-831
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    • 2006
  • In this paper, we discussed the energy performance of underfloor air distribution(UFAD) and overhead air distribution system according to outdoor air intake rates in a office building. For this, the laboratory(S lab.) is selected for measuring the thermal environments of UFAD system and overhead system. Based on the measured data, the TRNSYS simulation is used to evaluate the energy performance of UFAD system and the overhead system according to outdoor air intake rates. By increasing outdoor air intake rates from required outdoor air intake rates(100CMH) to maximum air intake rates, the energy savings of UFAD system comparing with overhead system are varied $15%{\sim}25.6%$ in summer, $12.8%{\sim}19%$ in fall/spring and not varied in winter(8%). As results of simulations on stratification height and cooling set temperature, the lower the stratification height and the higher cooling set temperature, the larger cooling energy savings of UFAD comparing with overhead system according to outdoor air intake rates.

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Effect of Glucose-Sweetened Drinks on Blood Glucose, Energy, and Water Intake at a Meal 3h Later in Healthy Males

  • Kim, Seok-Young
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.280-287
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    • 2006
  • The aims of this study were to describe the effects of glucose-sweetened drinks on blood glucose, energy, and water intake at a meal 3 hours later. The effect of blood glucose on prandial energy intake and the relationship between water and energy intake during a meal were also determined. Twenty healthy normal-weight men were fed pizza test meals 3h after consuming four drinks of 0, 50g, 65g, and 75g glucose in random order, within-subjects design. Blood samples were measured at baseline and every 30 min after ingestion of drinks and 30min after the end of the test meal and the appetite was also assessed by visual analog test at the same interval. The results of this study showed that various glucose drinks altered blood glucose responses compared with that of water control(p<0.0001). Blood glucose areas under the curve(AUC) for glucose-sweetened drinks were significantly(p<0.05) higher than that for the control over 3 hours after a drink and 30 min after the test meal. Consumption of the glucose-sweetened drinks significantly increased(p<0.05) energy and water intake at a test meal compared with the water control, except the drink containing 75g glucose. For all drinks combined, the energy intake was negatively correlated with the blood glucose and positively correlated with the volume of water consumed at a test meal at 3 hours later.