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Evaluation of Movement Pattern of Erythroculter erythropterus Inhabit in the Mid-lower Part of Nakdong River Using Acoustic Telemetry (낙동강 중.하류 구간에서 수중 음향측정방식을 이용한 강준치의 이동성 평가)

  • Yoon, Ju-Duk;Kim, Jeong-Hui;In, Dong-Su;Yu, Jae Jeong;Hur, Moonsuk;Chang, Kwang-Hyeon;Jang, Min-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.403-411
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    • 2012
  • Acoustic telemetry is used to obtain a relatively continuous record of fish movement. This method has several advantages for studying migrating fish populations that are moving from large rivers. The Nakdong River is the longest river in South Korea and the main stream has faced a change, which consists of the installation of the large weirs. In this study, we applied acoustic telemetry to monitor the movement pattern of Erythroculter erythropterus (family Cyprinidae) and identified home range and movement distance in the Nakdong River. A total of fourteen individuals were released at three different locations and around 80 km section from the estuary barrage was investigated. Eight individuals were tagged and released at estuary barrage (N02) utilized up to 15.9 km (home range) upstream from the release site as home range. Four individuals were tagged and released at Samrangjin (N07), most fish moved and stayed within 9.7 km (home range) downstream area, except E12, which did not show any movement. Two individuals were tagged and released at Changnyeong-Haman weir (N10), and all individuals migrated downstream from the release site. Especially, E14 recorded the longest accumulated detected distance, 36.7 km downstream during 32 days after release. There was no correlation identified between movement (accumulated detected distance and home range) and standard length (Spearman rank correlation, p>0.05). Although, this technique could be an available method to monitor behavior and ecology of freshwater fish effectively, increment of number of receivers and tags are required for more detailed results of fish migration.

Analysis of Kap-Chon's Water Level by the Waterside Planting (수변 식재에 따른 갑천의 수위 분석)

  • Woo, Won-Jae;Chung, Dong-Yang
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.3-17
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    • 1998
  • The purposes of this study is to investigate the possibility of planting trees at space land in the riverside. The space land is for the green space. Calculating the plantable space in the representation section and the flood flowing stability of the existing banks based on the hydrological and meteorological data of the Kap-Chon riverbasin located in Tae-jon, the following results are drawn. (1) The flood discharges in each flow section are $698.7m^3/s$ in section 1, $654.6m^3/s$ in section 2, and $1353.3m^3/s$ in section 3 during 100 years recurrence interval. Because the designed-flood discharges in those sections are $1719.9m^3/s$, $2119.7m^3/s$, and $1512.8m^3/s$ respectively, safety for flood flowing is sufficient in existing banks. (2) The possible clearance for planting trees is 1.80m in section 1, 3.90m in section 2, and 0.01m in section 3. Planting clearance is enough in section 1 and 2. However, planting should be planned after estimating a rise-height due to the bridge piers, because many piers under riverine-highway are now on the construction in section 2. The section 3 does not have sufficient clearance for planting trees, but the planting is possible after getting enough flow area with slope by cutting the terrace land on the river artificially heightened. (3) In case of planting a tree 70cm diameter in $1m^2$ in section 1, the water level increases by 0.60m. Planting a tree in a $48m^2$ area increases the water level by 0.90m. Considering that plantable clearance is 1.8m in section 1, it is sufficient to flow safely. But if the trees are planted so compactly from the upper stream, expected heavy resistance is expected due to caught materials on the trees. So, trees have to be planted widely in upper streams but compactedly in lower streams. (4) The river width without changing, Kap-Chon's flow channel can be snaked in accordance with the nature law the wide terrace land in the riverside. Decreased flow area due to planting trees will be compensated by the inclination of terrace land. And, it is theoretically proved that the flood discharge is safe even though the terrace land on the river is parked similar to the nature. Planting trees in the terrace land of the Kap-chon river to the extent that flood flowing is not adversely affected, we can get the enjoyable park to citizens not spending expensive cost. It also contributes to the recovery of ecosystem, which gives the natural beauty of river and shade to citizens and becomes good natural-educational places for children.

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A Study on Demand and the Supply for Home-based Cancer Patient Management Projects of Public Health Centers (보건소 재기 암환자 관리사업에 대한 환자의 요구도 및 제공정도)

  • Cho, Hyun;Son, Joo-Young;Heo, Jeom-Do;Jin, Eun-Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.195-201
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: As a part of the analysis of home-based cancer patients management of public health renters in cities, counties and districts across the nation, this study is to understand the degree of patient demands for that management and the degree and scope of the supply for the patient's demand. Methods: Developed the questionnaire which was constituted of degree of demand and supply for home-based cancer patient management and analyzed data centering on the frequencies and percentages by utilizing SPSS WIN 12.0. Results: The services provided through the home-based cancer patients management project include physical, emotional, spiritual and education/informative services. A survey was conducted for home-based cancer patients about these services, and its result showed that the degree of demand and supply was highest for emotional service, followed by education/informative service, spiritual service and physical service in the order of the demand-supply degree. When main items for each service were examined, it was found that: in the case of physical service, pain control was provided murk lower than its demand, while excretion disorder control and individual hygiene is provided murk more than its demand. In the case of emotional service, the degree of demand was overall higher than that of supply; spiritual service was provided appropriately to the degree of demand. Conclusion: This study examines the home-based canter patients management project of public health centers and compares and analyzes the degree of demand for patient services and the degree of services that are actually provided. The findings could be used as based data for the development of effective programs in future on the basis of actual demands of home-based cancer patients.

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Hydrogeochemical, Stable and Noble Gas Isotopic Studies of Hot Spring Waters and Cold Groundwaters in the Seokmodo Hot Spring Area of the Ganghwa Province, South Korea (강화 석모도 지역 온천수와 지하수의 수리지구화학 및 동위원소 연구)

  • Kim, Kyu-Han;Jeong, Yun-Jeong;Jeong, Chan-Ho;Keisuke, Nagao
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.15-32
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    • 2008
  • The hydrochemical and isotopic (stable isotopes and noble gas isotopes) analyses for hot spring waters, cold groundwaters and surface water samples from the Seokmodo hot spring area of the Ganghwa province were carried out to characterize the hydrogeochemical characteristics of thermal waters and to interpret the source of thermal water and noble gases and the geochemical evolution of hot spring waters in the Seokmodo geothermal system. The hot spring waters and groundwaters show a weakly acidic condition with the pH values ranging from 6.42 to 6.77 and 6.01 to 7.71 respectively. The outflow temperature of the Seokmodo hot spring waters ranges from $43.3^{\circ}C\;to\;68.6^{\circ}C$. Relatively high values of the electrical conductivities which fall between 60,200 and $84,300{\mu}S/cm$ indicate that the hot spring waters were mixed with seawater in the subsurface geothermal system. The chemical compositions of the Seokmodo hot spring waters are characterized by Na-Ca-Cl water type. On the other hand, cold groundwaters and surface waters can be grouped into three types such as the Na(Ca)-$HCO_3$, Na(Ca)-$SO_4$ and Ca-$HCO_3$ types. The ${\delta}^{18}O\;and\;{\delta}D$ values of hot spring waters vary from -4.41 to -4.47%o and -32.0 to -33.5%o, respectively. Cold groundwaters range from -7.07 to -8.55%o in ${\delta}^{18}O$ and from -50.24 to -59.6%o in ${\delta}D$. The oxygen and hydrogen isotopic data indicate that the hot spring waters were originated from the local meteoric water source. The enrichments of heavy isotopes ($^{18}O\;and\;^2H$) in the Seokmodo hot spring waters imply that the thermal water was derived from the diffusion Bone between fresh and salt waters. The ${\delta}^{34}S$ values ranging from 23.1 to 23.5%o of dissolved sulfate are very close to the value of sea water sulfate of ${\delta}^{34}$S=20.2%o in this area, indicating the origin of sulfate in hot springs from sea water. The $^3H/^4He$ ratio of hot spring waters varies from $1.243{\times}10^{-6}\;to\;1.299{\times}10^{-6}cm^3STP/g$, which suggests that He gas in hot spring waters was partly originated from a mantle source. Argon isotopic ratio $(^{40}Ar/^{36}Ar=298{\times}10^{-6}cm^3STP/g)$ in hot spring waters corresponds to the atmospheric value.

Synthesis of Fully Dehydrated Partially Cs+-exchanged Zeolite Y (FAU, Si/Al = 1.56), |Cs45Na30|[Si117Al75O384]-FAU and Its Single-crystal Structure

  • Seo, Sung-Man;Kim, Ghyung-Hwa;Lee, Seok-Hee;Bae, Jun-Seok;Lim, Woo-Taik
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.1285-1292
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    • 2009
  • Large single crystals of zeolite, |$Na_{75}$|[$Si_{117}Al_{75}O_{384}$]-FAU (Na-Y, Si/Al = 1.56), were synthesized from gels with composition of 3.58Si$O_2$ : 2.08NaAl$O_2$ : 7.59NaOH : 455$H_2$O : 5.06TEA : 2.23TCl. One of these, a colorless single-crystal was ion exchanged by allowing aqueous 0.02 M CsOH to flow past the crystal at 293 K for 3 days, followed by dehydration at 673 K and 1 ${\times}\;10^{-6}$ Torr for 2 days. The crystal structure of fully dehydrated partially $Cs^+$-exchanged zeolite Y, |$Cs_{45}Na_{30}$|[$Si_{117}Al_{75}O_{384}$]-FAU per unit cell (a = 24.9080(10) $\AA$) was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction technique in the cubic space group Fd $\overline{3}$ m at 294(1) K. The structure was refined using all intensities to the final error indices (using only the 877 reflections with $F_o\;>\;4{\sigma}(F_o))\;R_1$ = 0.0966 (Based on F) and $R_2\;=\;0.2641\;(Based\;on\;F^2$). About forty-five $Cs^+$ ions per unit cell are found at six different crystallographic sites. The 2 $Cs^+$ ions occupied at site I, at the centers of double 6-ring (D6Rs, Cs-O = 2.774(10) $\AA$ and O-Cs-O = 88.9(3) and 91.1(3)$^o$). Two $Cs^+$ ions are found at site I’ in the sodalite cavity; the $Cs^+$ ions were recessed 2.05 $\AA$ into the sodalite cavity from their 3-oxygen plane (Cs-O = 3.05(3) $\AA$ and O-Cs-O = 77.4(13)$^o$). Site-II’ positions (opposite single 6-rings in the sodalite cage) are occupied by 7 $Cs^+$ ions, each of which extends 2.04 $\AA$ into the sodalite cage from its 3-oxygen plane (Cs-O = 3.067(11) $\AA$ and O-Cs-O = 80.1(3)$^o$). The 26 $Cs^+$ ions are nearly three-quarters filled at site II in the supercage, being recessed 2.34 $\AA$ into the supercage (Cs-O = 3.273(8) $\AA$ and O-Cs-O = 74.3(3)$^o$). The 4 $Cs^+$ ions are found at site III deep in the supercage (Cs-O = 3.321(19) and 3.08(3) $\AA$), and 4 $Cs^+$ ions at another site III’ (Cs-O = 2.87(4) and 3.38(4) $\AA$). About 30 $Na^+$ ions per unit cell are found at one crystallographic site; The $Na^+$ ions are located at site I’ in the sodalite cavity opposite double 6-rings (Na-O = 2.578(11) $\AA$ and O-Na-O = 97.8(4)$^o$).

Characteristics of Fish Fauna in the Lower Geum River and Identification of Trophic Guilds using Stable Isotopes Analysis (금강하류의 어류상 및 안정동위원소 분석을 이용한 섭식길드 파악)

  • Yoon, Ju-Duk;Park, Sang-Hyeon;Chang, Kwang-Hyeon;Choi, Jong-Yun;Joo, Gea-Jae;Nam, Gui-Sook;Yoon, Johee;Jang, Min-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.34-44
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    • 2015
  • Fish fauna, difference of stable isotope ratio between freshwater and seawater, and trophic guilds of freshwater fishes were investigated in the lower Geum River. The study was conducted in 2011, and total study area was about 30 km of 20 km upstream and 10 km downstream from the Geum River estuary barrage. Only freshwater fishes were used for analyzing trophic guilds, and discriminant function analysis (DFA) was utilized to reclassify trophic guilds based on stable isotope ratio. Fish fauna in freshwater and seawater areas were entirely different each other, but small number of migratory species such as Coilia nasus and Chelon haematocheilus occurred both areas. Other species were not collected in the different areas because they did not have physiological ability to adapt different salinity concentrations. Stable isotope ration of two areas were different considerably due to food sources. Estuary and seawater fishes uptake food sources originated from marine, and freshwater fishes were from freshwater and terrestrial. Some migratory species showed reverse stable isotope ratio. Even though they collected in freshwater, they showed stable isotope ratio of seawater. This is because ecological characteristics of each species. Trophic guilds of freshwater fishes were reclassified by DFA, and showed slight difference with literatures. However, because this result is related with ontogenetic shift of species, more studies are needed to explain exact and correct trophic guilds. Stable isotope ratio can be changed among regions, seasons and ontogenetic stage, thus we always consider these aspects when analyzing results to get a right answer.

The Effect of Integrated Mind Map Activities on the Creative Thinking Skills of 2nd Year Students in Junior High School (통합형 마인드맵 활동이 중학교 2학년 학생들의 창의적 사고력에 미치는 영향)

  • Yoon, Hyunjung;Kang, Soonhee
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.59 no.2
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    • pp.164-178
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study was to design a teaching and learning method conductive to the development of creative thinking skills and investigate its effects. It has been developed integrated mind map with feature of visualizing the divergent thinking to the aspects of Science (S), Technology (T) & Engineering (E), Arts (A), Mathematics (M). Integrated mind map can be divided into four types of STEAM type, STEA type, STEM type, STE type depending on the category of key words in the first branch. And Integrated mind map can be divided into three levels of guided, intermediate, open depending on the teacher's guide degree. And also integrated mind map activities were carried out in the form of group, class share as well as individual. This study was implemented during a semester and students in experiment group experienced individual-integrated mind map activity 10 times, group-integrated mind map activity 10 times, class share-integrated mind map activity 3 times. The results indicated that the experimental group presented statistically meaningful improvement in creative thinking skills (p<.05). And there was a statistically meaningful improvement in fluency, flexibility, originality as a sub-category of creative thinking skills(p <.05). Also creative thinking skills are not affected by the level of cognitive, academic performance, gender (p<.05). In conclusion, it was found that 'integrated mind map activity' improved student's creative thinking skills. There was no interaction effect about creative thinking skills between the teaching strategy and cognitive level, achivement, gender of those students.

A comparative study on the spiritual needs between nursing students and nurses in Busan and Gyeongnam province (부산 경남 지역 간호 대학생과 간호사의 영적 요구도 비교)

  • Cho, Hyun;Sim, Eun-Kyung;Kwon, Young-Chae;Bae, Young-Hee;Woo, Young-Ok;Ji, Jae-Hoon;Jung, Ja-Young
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.2178-2188
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    • 2012
  • This study is based upon 200 final responses from a survey conducted for 153 nurses and 147 nursing students in Busan and Gyeongnam province from september to october 2011. It is carried out to compare and understand the spiritual needs of nurses and nursing students that are inclined to be more exposed unhealthy people rather than healthy people. In this study, the level of spiritual care needs was divided into five fields such as 'love and fellowship', 'hope and peace', 'meaning and purpose of life', 'acceptance of death' and 'relationship with God' and was investigated. As a result, the love and fellowship was the highest level in group of nurses (r = 3.82) and the relationship with God was the lowest one (r = 2.73). In contrast, a group of nursing students showed that love and fellowship was the highest level (r = 3.92) and relationship with God was the lowest (r = 2.99) among five fields. There were statistical significances between nurses and nursing students in 'acceptance of death' and 'relationship with God' (p < 0.05). When looking at correlation between fields of spiritual needs of nurses, the correlation between 'meaning and purpose of life' and 'hope and peace' was the highest (r = .699) and the correlation between 'relationship with God' and 'hope and peace' was the lowest (r = .247). As the result of analysis on correlation between fields of spiritual needs of nursing students, the correlation between 'meaning and purpose of life' and 'hope and peace' was the highest (r = .660) and the correlation between 'acceptance of death' and 'relationship with God' was the lowest (r = .277). Therefore, it would be imperative to develop a more efficient and systemized education program for the spiritual care of nursing patients, on the basis of understanding the spiritual needs of nurses and nursing students.

Hydrochemistry and Noble Gas Origin of Various Hot Spring Waters from the Eastern area in South Korea (동해안지역 온천유형별 수리화학적 특성 및 영족기체 기원)

  • Jeong, Chan-Ho;Nagao, Keisuke;Kim, Kyu-Han;Choi, Hun-Kong;Sumino, Hirochika;Park, Ji-Sun;Park, Chung-Hwa;Lee, Jong-Ig;Hur, Soon-Do
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study is to characterize the hydrogeochemical characteristics of hot spring waters and to interpret the source of noble gases and the geochemical environment of the hot spring waters distributed along the eastern area of the Korean peninsula. For this purpose, We carried out the chemical, stable isotopic and noble gas isotopic analyses for eleven hot spring water and fourteen hot spring gas samples collected from six hot spring sites. The hot spring waters except the Osaek hot spring water show the pH range of 7.0 to 9.1. However, the Osaek $CO_2$-rich hot spring water shows a weak acid of pH 5.7. The temperature of hot spring waters in the study area ranges from $25.7^{\circ}C$ to $68.3^{\circ}C$. Electrical conductivity of hot spring waters varies widely from 202 to $7,130{\mu}S/cm$. High electrical conductivity (av., $3,890{\mu}S/sm$) by high Na and Cl contents of the Haeundae and the Dongrae hot spring waters indicates that the hot spring waters were mixed with seawater in the subsurface thermal system. The type of hot springs in the viewpoint of dissolved components can be grouped into three types: (1) alkaline Na-$HCO_3$ type including sulfur gas of the Osaek, Baekam, Dukgu and Chuksan hot springs, and (2) saline Na-Cl type of the Haeundae and Dongrae hot springs, and (3) weak acid $CO_2$-rich Na-$HCO_3$ type of Osaek hot spring. Tritium ratios of the Haeundae and the Dongrae hot springs indicate different residence time in their aquifers of older water of $0.0{\sim}0.3$ TU and younger water of $5.9{\sim}8.8$ TU. The ${\delta}^{18}O$ and ${\delta}D$ values of hot spring waters indicate that they originate from the meteoric water, and that the values also reflect a latitude effect according to their locations. $^3He/^4He$ ratios of the hot spring waters except Osaek $CO_2$-rich hot spring water range from $0.1{\times}10^{-6}$ to $1.1{\times}10^{-6}$ which are plotted above the mixing line between air and crustal components. It means that the He gas in hot spring waters was originated mainly from atmosphere and crust sources, and partly from mantle sources. The Osaek $CO_2$-rich hot spring water shows $3.3{\times}10^{-6}$ in $^3He/^4He$ ratio that is 2.4 times higher than those of atmosphere. It provides clearly a helium source from the deep mantle. $^{40}Ar/^{36}Ar$ ratios of hot spring water are in the range of an atmosphere source.

A Study on the Measurement of the Dimensionless Light Extinction Constant for Particulate Matter from Fuel Oil for Marine and Land Diesel Engines (선박 및 육상 디젤 엔진용 연료유에서 발생하는 입자상물질에 대한 무차원 광소멸계수 계측에 관한 연구)

  • Rho, Beom-Seok;Choi, Jae-Hyuk;Cho, Kwon-Hae;Park, Seul-Hyun;Lee, Won-Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.275-281
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    • 2018
  • It is known that he pollutant emitted from the combustion process of marine fuel oil causes air pollution and harmful effects to the human body. Accordingly, IMO regulates pollutants emitted from ships. However, the regulation of Particulate Matter (PM) is still in the process of debate, so preemptive action is needed. Fundamental research on PM is essential. In this study, the Dimensionless Light Extinction Constant ($K_e$) of fuel oil used in marine diesel engines was measured and analyzed to construct the basic data of the PM generated from marine-based fuel oil. The fuel oil used in the land diesel engine was measured in the same way for character comparison. Both fuel oils differ in sulfur content and density. The $K_e$ was measured via the optical method using a 633 nm laser and was determined by using the volume fraction of PM collected by the gravimetric filter method. The $K_e$ of the PM discharged from marine fuel oil is 8.28, and the land fuel oil is 8.44. The $K_e$ of two fuel oils was similar within the measurement uncertainty range. However, it was found by comparison with the value obtained by the Rayleigh-Limit solution that the light scattering portion could be large. Also, it was found that light extinction characteristics could be different due to the relationship between light transmittance and collected mass.