• Title, Summary, Keyword: Engineering education

Search Result 8,282, Processing Time 0.1 seconds

Recent Technique Analysis, Infant Commodity Pattern Analysis Scenario and Performance Analysis of Incremental Weighted Maximal Representative Pattern Mining (점진적 가중화 맥시멀 대표 패턴 마이닝의 최신 기법 분석, 유아들의 물품 패턴 분석 시나리오 및 성능 분석)

  • Yun, Unil;Yun, Eunmi
    • Journal of Internet Computing and Services
    • /
    • v.21 no.2
    • /
    • pp.39-48
    • /
    • 2020
  • Data mining techniques have been suggested to find efficiently meaningful and useful information. Especially, in the big data environments, as data becomes accumulated in several applications, related pattern mining methods have been proposed. Recently, instead of analyzing not only static data stored already in files or databases, mining dynamic data incrementally generated in a real time is considered as more interesting research areas because these dynamic data can be only one time read. With this reason, researches of how these dynamic data are mined efficiently have been studied. Moreover, approaches of mining representative patterns such as maximal pattern mining have been proposed since a huge number of result patterns as mining results are generated. As another issue, to discover more meaningful patterns in real world, weights of items in weighted pattern mining have been used, In real situation, profits, costs, and so on of items can be utilized as weights. In this paper, we analyzed weighted maximal pattern mining approaches for data generated incrementally. Maximal representative pattern mining techniques, and incremental pattern mining methods. And then, the application scenarios for analyzing the required commodity patterns in infants are presented by applying weighting representative pattern mining. Furthermore, the performance of state-of-the-art algorithms have been evaluated. As a result, we show that incremental weighted maximal pattern mining technique has better performance than incremental weighted pattern mining and weighted maximal pattern mining.

Estimation of Refractive Index in MIR range from the Reflectance Measurements for IR Optics Materials (반사율 측정에 의한 적외선 광학재료의 중적외선 굴절률 추정)

  • Jin, Doo-han;Jeong, Kyung-Seok
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
    • /
    • v.21 no.6
    • /
    • pp.411-416
    • /
    • 2020
  • An optical arrangement has been set inside a photo-spectrometer to measure the reflectance of IR optics materials in mid IR range. The optical arrangement consists of equally spaced 4 gold coated full reflecting mirrors with the incidence angle of 45°. Baseline beam intensity IB has been measured while the beam proceeds through the 4 mirrors. Reflectance of a mirror has been estimated from the IB. And the beam intensity IS with the specimen in the optical path has been measured with the 4th mirror replaced with the specimen. Reflectance of the specimen has been estimated from the value of IS/IB. Then the estimated reflectance has been put in Fresnel equation relating reflectance and refractive index(RI) to estimate the RI of the material. Measurement has been made for sapphire, germanium, magnesium fluoride, and zinc sulfide. The estimated RI of the materials are closely matching with reference data and the maximum difference less than 2% over the wavelength range 3-5㎛ for all materials tested. As an FT-IR photo-spectrometer with a broadband wavelength infrared light source is used, this method has the advantage of measuring the refractive index at multiple wavelengths in a single measurement.

An Ecological Study on the Wetlands in Haman Area (함안지역 습지에 대한 생태학적 연구)

  • Cheong, Seon-Woo;Kim, In-Taek;Seo, Jeoung-Yoon;Park, Joong-Suk;Oh, Kyung-Hwan;Lee, Chan-Won
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
    • /
    • v.5 no.2
    • /
    • pp.15-32
    • /
    • 2003
  • The ecological study on seven wetlands of Haman area in Kyungsangnamdo, Korea, was carried out. In especial, the biological data of the sites were unknown. In this study, water quality including water temperature, pH, DO, COD, T-N, T-P, SS were tested. On the survey of plants and animals, vegetation and flora were investigated and the fauna of insects, fish, and amphibians were studied on each wetland. Water of wetland Oksu was heavily polluted and wetlands Pyungy and Dodulyangy were relatively clean. The water pollution was most severe in winter at all of the wetlands. Plant communities were classified into 9 natural communities and 1 artificial community. On the vegetation, wetland Sugok showed the highest plant taxa, and 41 families, 78 species and 16 varieties were classified. There was remarkable difference in number of plant taxa. The difference may be caused by the variances of wetland sizes, the influence from terrestrial environment. Wetland Sugok showed most rich insect fauna, and 10 orders, 76 families 224 species and 1082 individuals were identified. The species diversity was 2.05 and the species richness was 73.49. Wetland Ddun showed poor insect fauna, and 6 orders, 23 families, 29 species and 81 individuals were identified. Total collected fish were 4 orders, 7 families and 11 species. The fish fauna was most rich in wetlands Oksu and Pyungy, but poor in wetland Unan. Total collected amphibians were 2 orders, 3 families and 4 species.

  • PDF

Simultaneous Multiple Transmit Focusing Method with Orthogonal Chirp Signal for Ultrasound Imaging System (초음파 영상 장치에서 직교 쳐프 신호를 이용한 동시 다중 송신집속 기법)

  • 정영관;송태경
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
    • /
    • v.23 no.1
    • /
    • pp.49-60
    • /
    • 2002
  • Receive dynamic focusing with an array transducer can provide near optimum resolution only in the vicinity of transmit focal depth. A customary method to increase the depth of field is to combine several beams with different focal depths, with an accompanying decrease in the frame rate. In this Paper. we Present a simultaneous multiple transmit focusing method in which chirp signals focused at different depths are transmitted at the same time. These chirp signals are mutually orthogonal in a sense that the autocorrelation function of each signal has a narrow mainlobe width and low sidelobe levels. and the crossorelation function of any Pair of the signals has values smaller than the sidelobe levels of each autocorrelation function. This means that each chirp signal can be separated from the combined received signals and compressed into a short pulse. which is then individually focused on a separate receive beamformer. Next. the individually focused beams are combined to form a frame of image. Theoretically, any two chirp signals defined over two nonoverlapped frequency bands are mutually orthogonal In the present work. however, a tractional overlap of adjacent frequency bands is permitted to design more chirp signals within a given transducer bandwidth. The elevation of the rosscorrelation values due to the frequency overlap could be reduced by alternating the direction of frequency sweep of the adjacent chirp signals We also observe that the Proposed method provides better images when the low frequency chirp is focused at a near Point and the high frequency chirp at a far point along the depth. better lateral resolution is obtained at the far field with reasonable SNR due to the SNR gain in Pulse compression Imaging .

Removal of Soluble Fe(II) using Reactive Media Coated with both Fe and Mn (철과 망간이 동시에 코팅된 반응성 매질을 이용한 용존 Fe(II) 제거)

  • Min, Sang-Yoon;Chang, Yoon-Young;Yang, Jae-Kyu
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
    • /
    • v.33 no.2
    • /
    • pp.85-92
    • /
    • 2011
  • Evaluation of the removal efficiencies of Fe(II) by reactive sand media coated with manganese (MCS), iron (ICS) and both of iron and manganese (IMCS) was investigated as functions of solution pH ranging from 2 to 9, reaction time and concentration of Fe(II) in a batch reactor using each reactive medium and additional oxidants such as $KMnO_4$ and NaOCl. When only Fe(II) was present in solution without any reactive medium, removal of Fe(II) was quite low below pH 5 due to a slow oxidation of Fe(II) and/or negligible precipitation but greatly increased above pH 5 due to a rapid oxidation of Fe(II) and subsequent precipitation of oxidized Fe species. ICS showed negligible efficiency on the removal of Fe(II) through adsorption. However, an efficient removal of Fe(II) was observed at low solution pH in the presence of IMCS or MCS through rapid oxidation and subsequent precipitation. Removal efficiency of Fe(II) by IMCS in the presence or absence of NaOCl was quite similar. Removal rate of Fe(II) by IMCS and additional oxidants gradually increased as the solution pH increased. From the kinetic experiments, removal pattern of Fe(II) was better described by pseudo-second-order equation than pseudo-first-order equation. A rapid removal of Fe(II) using IMCS in the presence of $KMnO_4$ was observed in the first 10 min. The initial removal rate of Fe(II) using $KMnO_4$ was 14,286 mg/kg hr. In case of using NaOCl, the removal of Fe(II) occurred rapidly in the first 6 hrs and then reached the near-equilibrium state. Removal of Fe(II) on IMCS was well expressed by Langmuir isotherm and the maximum removal capacity of Fe(II) was calculated as 1,088 mg/kg.

Removal of Soluble Mn(II) using Multifunctional Sand Coated with both Fe- and Mn-oxides (철과 망간이 동시에 코팅된 다기능성 모래를 이용한 용존 Mn(II) 제거)

  • Lim, Jae-Woo;Chang, Yoon-Young;Yang, Jae-Kyu
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
    • /
    • v.32 no.2
    • /
    • pp.193-200
    • /
    • 2010
  • This study evaluated treatability of soluble Mn(II) using multifunctional sand media simultaneously coated with iron and manganese. In the preparation of IMCS(Iron and Manganese Coated Sand), 0.05 M Mn(II) solution and Fe(III) solution was mixed with sand at pH 7. The mineral type of IMCS was identified as the mixture of ${\gamma}-MnO_2$, goethite and magnetite($F_{e3}O_4$). The contents of Mn and Fe coated onto sand were 826 and 1676 mg/kg, respectively. The $pH_{pzc}$ of IMCS was measured as 6.40. The removal of soluble Mn(II) using IMCS and oxidants such as NaOCl and $KMnO_4$ was investigated with variation of the solution pH, reaction time and Mn(II) concentration in a batch test. The removal of Mn(II) on IMCS was 34% at pH 7.4 and the removals of Mn(II) on IMCS in the presence of NaOCl(13.6 mg/L) at pH 7 and $KMnO_4$(4.8 mg/L) at pH 7.6 were 96% and 89%, respectively. The removal of Mn(II) using IMCS and oxidants followed a typical cationic type, showing a gradual increase of removal as the solution pH increased. The removal of Mn(II) was rapid in the first 6 hrs and then a constant removal was observed. The maximum removed amount of Mn(II) on IMCS-alone and IMCS in the presence of oxidants such as NaOCl(13.6 mg/L) and $KMnO_4$(4.8mg/L) were 833.3, 1428.6 and 1666.7 mg/kg, respectively. Mn(II) removal onto the IMCS in the presence of oxidants was well described by second-order reaction and Langmuir isotherm expression.

Effect of Extraction Process on the Physicochemical Characteristics of Seed Oil of Camellia sinensis (추출 공정에 따른 Camellia sinensis 오일의 물리화학적 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Youn-Soon;Kim, Ran;Na, Myung-Soon;Choi, DuBok
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
    • /
    • v.21 no.2
    • /
    • pp.148-153
    • /
    • 2010
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of extraction methods on the physicochemical characteristics using seed oil of wild green tea (Camellia sinensis). When the solvent extraction method after grinding and steam treatment (SGS) was used for oil extraction, the yield was highest. The specific gravity was a range of $0.91{\sim}0.94g/cm^{3}$ irrespective of extraction methods of oil. However, the light in the solvent extraction method after grinding (SG), the red in the pressure extraction method after grinding and roasting treatment (PGR), and the yellow in SG method were highest. Among various fatty acids, the concentrations of C16 : 0, C18 : 1 and C18 : 2 were highest, irrespective of extraction methods. Especially, the C16 : 0 concentration was in the order of SG (34.78%), SGS (23.04%), and PRGS method (23.01%), the C18 : 1 concentration was in the order of PGR (43.35%), SGS (42.7%), SG method (39.0%), and in the case of C18 : 2, it was in order of PGR (23.15%), SGS (23.03%), and SG method (15.01%). The saturated fatty acid concentration was in the order of SG (40.59%), PGR (31.61%), and SGS method (30.1%). On the other hand, in the case of the unsaturated fatty acid, it was in the order of SGS (69.9%), PGR (68.39%), and SG method (59.41%). The acid values in the SGS and SG method after 10 days of storage were in the range of 6~8 mgKOH/g. However, in the case of PGR method, it was increased with the increase of storage time and was 49.3 mgKOH/g after 60 days. The peroxide values in the SGS and SG method were in the range of 60~100 mEq/g from 10 to 60 days of storage. On the other hand, when the storage time was increased from 10 to 30 days, it was sharply increased from 60 to 240 mEq/g. The rancidity was in the order of $Fe^{2+}$, $Cu^{2+}$, $Cr^{2+}$, $Zn^{2+}$ and $Ni^{2+}$, irrespective of extraction methods. Especially, when butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was added into oil containing 1.0 ppm of <$Fe^{2+}$, the peroxide value was decreased from 539.4 to 216.6%. These results show that seed oil of Camellia sinensis grown in Iksan can be applied as sources for cosmetics, detergents, food, and pharmaceuticals.

A Proposed Algorithm and Sampling Conditions for Nonlinear Analysis of EEG (뇌파의 비선형 분석을 위한 신호추출조건 및 계산 알고리즘)

  • Shin, Chul-Jin;Lee, Kwang-Ho;Choi, Sung-Ku;Yoon, In-Young
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
    • /
    • v.6 no.1
    • /
    • pp.52-60
    • /
    • 1999
  • Objectives: With the object of finding the appropriate conditions and algorithms for dimensional analysis of human EEG, we calculated correlation dimensions in the various condition of sampling rate and data aquisition time and improved the computation algorithm by taking advantage of bit operation instead of log operation. Methods: EEG signals from 13 scalp lead of a man were digitized with A-D converter under the condition of 12 bit resolution and 1000 Hertz of sampling rate during 32 seconds. From the original data, we made 15 time series data which have different sampling rate of 62.5, 125, 250, 500, 1000 hertz and data acqusition time of 10, 20, 30 second, respectively. New algorithm to shorten the calculation time using bit operation and the Least Trimmed Squares(LTS) estimator to get the optimal slope was applied to these data. Results: The values of the correlation dimension showed the increasing pattern as the data acquisition time becomes longer. The data with sampling rate of 62.5 Hz showed the highest value of correlation dimension regardless of sampling time but the correlation dimension at other sampling rates revealed similar values. The computation with bit operation instead of log operation had a statistically significant effect of shortening of calculation time and LTS method estimated more stably the slope of correlation dimension than the Least Squares estimator. Conclusion: The bit operation and LTS methods were successfully utilized to time-saving and efficient calculation of correlation dimension. In addition, time series of 20-sec length with sampling rate of 125 Hz was adequate to estimate the dimensional complexity of human EEG.

  • PDF

The Ages of Fault Activities of the Ilgwang Fault in Southeastern Korea, Inferred by Classification of Geomorphic Surfaces and Trench Survery (지형면 분류 및 트렌치 조사에 의한 일광단층의 단층활동시기 추정)

  • Jang, Ho;Lee, Jin-Han;An, Yun-Seong;Joo, Byeong-Chan
    • The Korean Journal of Quaternary Research
    • /
    • v.18 no.1
    • /
    • pp.21-30
    • /
    • 2004
  • The Ilgwang Fault is NNE-striking, elongated 40 Km between Ulsan and Haeundae-ku, Busan in southeastern part of the Korean Peninsula. This paper si mainly concerned about the ages of the fault activities especially in the Quaternary, inferred from classification of geomorphic surfaces and trench excavation for the construction of Singori nuclear power plant. The geomorphic surfaces are classified into Beach and the Alluvial plain, the 10 m a.s.l. Marine terrace(MIS 5a), the 20 m a.s.l. Marine terrace(MIS 5e), the Reworked surface of 45 m a.s.l. Marine terrace(MIS 7 or 9) and the Low relief erosional surface. The Low relief erosional surface is distributed coastal side, the Reworked surface of 45m a.s.l. Marine terrace inland side by the Ilgwang Fault Line as the boundary line. But the former is above 10 m higher in relative height than the latter. The 20 m a.s.l. Marine terrace on the elongation line of the Ilgwang Fault reveals no dislocation. A site was trenched on the straight contact line with $N30^{\circ}E$-striking between the 10 m a.s.l. Marine terrace and the 20 m a.s.l. Marine terrace. Fault line or dislocation was not observable in the trench excavation. Accordingly, the straight contact line is inferred as the ancient shore line of the 10 m a.s.l. Marine terrace. The Ages of the Fault activities are inferred after the formation of the Ichonri formation - before the formation of the 45 m a.s.l. Marine terrace(220 Ka. y. B.P. or 320. Ka. y. B.P.). The Low relief erosional surface was an island above the sea-level during the formation of the 45 m a.s.l. marine terrace in the paleogeography.

  • PDF

Relationship between HsCRP and Pulse Transit Time (HsCRP와 맥파전달시간에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Yun-Jin;Min, Hong-Gi;Kim, Young-Joo;Jeon, Ah-Young;Jeon, Gye-Rok;Ye, Soo-Young
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.17 no.2
    • /
    • pp.218-222
    • /
    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and pulse transit time (PPT). Apparently healthy 233 subjects had been enrolled in the health promotion center of the Pusan National University Hospital from Jan. 29 to Feb. 26, 2004. They had no previous history of diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Subjects were categorized according to tertiles of hsCRP level [Group 1: first tertile $(0.01\;{\sim}\;0.02\;mg/dl)$, Group 2: second tertile $(0.03\;{\sim}\;0.05\;mg/dl)$, Group 3: third tertile $(0.06\;{\sim}\;0.12\;mg/dl)$, and Group 4: Fourth tertile $(0.13\;{\sim}\;16.8\;mg/dl)$]. PTT body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol (T-C), LDL-cholesterol(LDL-C), blood sugar (BS), systolic blood pressure (sBP) and diastolic blood pressure (dBP) were significantly different among hsCRP groups (p<0.05). HsCRP is positively related with BMI, tryglyceride (TG), LDL, sBP and dBP (p<0.05), and negatively related with PTT and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) (p<0.05). PTT is significantly negatively related with hsCRP, T-C, TG, LDL-C, BS, dBP and sBP (p<0.05). The hsCRP and PTT were related before controlling BMI, T-C, LDL-C, sBP, and dBP, but not related after conkolling. The relationship between hsCRP and PTT depends on cardiovascular disease risk factors.