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The Ages of Fault Activities of the Ilgwang Fault in Southeastern Korea, Inferred by Classification of Geomorphic Surfaces and Trench Survery (지형면 분류 및 트렌치 조사에 의한 일광단층의 단층활동시기 추정)

  • Jang, Ho;Lee, Jin-Han;An, Yun-Seong;Joo, Byeong-Chan
    • The Korean Journal of Quaternary Research
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.21-30
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    • 2004
  • The Ilgwang Fault is NNE-striking, elongated 40 Km between Ulsan and Haeundae-ku, Busan in southeastern part of the Korean Peninsula. This paper si mainly concerned about the ages of the fault activities especially in the Quaternary, inferred from classification of geomorphic surfaces and trench excavation for the construction of Singori nuclear power plant. The geomorphic surfaces are classified into Beach and the Alluvial plain, the 10 m a.s.l. Marine terrace(MIS 5a), the 20 m a.s.l. Marine terrace(MIS 5e), the Reworked surface of 45 m a.s.l. Marine terrace(MIS 7 or 9) and the Low relief erosional surface. The Low relief erosional surface is distributed coastal side, the Reworked surface of 45m a.s.l. Marine terrace inland side by the Ilgwang Fault Line as the boundary line. But the former is above 10 m higher in relative height than the latter. The 20 m a.s.l. Marine terrace on the elongation line of the Ilgwang Fault reveals no dislocation. A site was trenched on the straight contact line with $N30^{\circ}E$-striking between the 10 m a.s.l. Marine terrace and the 20 m a.s.l. Marine terrace. Fault line or dislocation was not observable in the trench excavation. Accordingly, the straight contact line is inferred as the ancient shore line of the 10 m a.s.l. Marine terrace. The Ages of the Fault activities are inferred after the formation of the Ichonri formation - before the formation of the 45 m a.s.l. Marine terrace(220 Ka. y. B.P. or 320. Ka. y. B.P.). The Low relief erosional surface was an island above the sea-level during the formation of the 45 m a.s.l. marine terrace in the paleogeography.

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Relationship between HsCRP and Pulse Transit Time (HsCRP와 맥파전달시간에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Yun-Jin;Min, Hong-Gi;Kim, Young-Joo;Jeon, Ah-Young;Jeon, Gye-Rok;Ye, Soo-Young
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.218-222
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and pulse transit time (PPT). Apparently healthy 233 subjects had been enrolled in the health promotion center of the Pusan National University Hospital from Jan. 29 to Feb. 26, 2004. They had no previous history of diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Subjects were categorized according to tertiles of hsCRP level [Group 1: first tertile $(0.01\;{\sim}\;0.02\;mg/dl)$, Group 2: second tertile $(0.03\;{\sim}\;0.05\;mg/dl)$, Group 3: third tertile $(0.06\;{\sim}\;0.12\;mg/dl)$, and Group 4: Fourth tertile $(0.13\;{\sim}\;16.8\;mg/dl)$]. PTT body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol (T-C), LDL-cholesterol(LDL-C), blood sugar (BS), systolic blood pressure (sBP) and diastolic blood pressure (dBP) were significantly different among hsCRP groups (p<0.05). HsCRP is positively related with BMI, tryglyceride (TG), LDL, sBP and dBP (p<0.05), and negatively related with PTT and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) (p<0.05). PTT is significantly negatively related with hsCRP, T-C, TG, LDL-C, BS, dBP and sBP (p<0.05). The hsCRP and PTT were related before controlling BMI, T-C, LDL-C, sBP, and dBP, but not related after conkolling. The relationship between hsCRP and PTT depends on cardiovascular disease risk factors.

Personal Financial Management Ability of College Students -A survey of D college- (대학생의 개인재무관리역량 -대구 D대학교를 중심으로-)

  • Lee, Sang-Kyung;Park, Su-Yong
    • Journal of the Korea society of information convergence
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.23-44
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    • 2013
  • First, the average scores of personal financial management ability in the college students' financial management attitude were 72.24 for male and 71.65 for female, so that male students showed a little higher score than female. College students who had an experience of opening a bank account and who kept a record of spending revealed higher scores. Those whose parents were elementary or middle school graduates unfolded the highest score, 73.67, and the lowest score, 63.35, from those whose parents had M.A. or Ph.D. The average scores of personal financial management ability in the college students' financial management knowledge indicated almost no difference with 63.26 for male and 63.35 for female. Only whether they had an experience of opening a bank account, keeping a record of spending, or a credit card revealed score differences. Depending on the students' majors, there were also score differences. Students from engineering department came up with the highest score, an average of 66.88, and students from art & physical education department with the lowest score, 53.39, in the financial management knowledge. The personal financial management ability in the college students' financial management function showed that the score of male students was a little higher than that of female, 64.26 versus 63.58. Students who kept a record of spending and whose parents' income was between three million won and four million won marked the highest score, an average of 65.26, and students whose parents' income was below two million won marked the lowest score, an average of 60.43, in the college students' financial management function. There were score differences in the college students' financial management function depending on the students' majors. Students from engineering department came up with the highest score, an average of 69.67, and students from public health department with the lowest score, 63.21.

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Food Sources of the Ascidian Styela clava Cultured in Suspension in Jindong Bay of Korea as Determined by C and N Stable Isotopes (탄소 및 질소안정동위원소 조성에 의한 남해안 진동만 양식 미더덕의 먹이원 평가)

  • Moon, Changho;Park, Hyun Je;Yun, Sung Gyu;Kwak, Jung Hyun
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.302-307
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    • 2014
  • To examine the trophic ecology of the ascidian Styela clava in an aquaculture system of Korea, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes were analyzed monthly in S. clava, coarse ($>20{\mu}m$, CPOM) and fine particulate organic matters ($0.7<<20{\mu}m$, FPOM). CPOM (means: $-18.5{\pm}1.2$‰, $9.3{\pm}0.7$‰) were significantly higher ${\delta}^{13}C$ and ${\delta}^{15}N$ values than those ($-20.5{\pm}1.5$‰, $8.4{\pm}0.5$‰) of FPOM. S. clava had mean ${\delta}^{13}C$ and ${\delta}^{15}N$ values of $-18.9({\pm}1.7)$‰ and $11.6({\pm}0.7)$‰, respectively. S. clava were more similar to seasonal variations in ${\delta}^{13}C$ and ${\delta}^{15}N$ values of FPOM than those of CPOM, suggesting that they rely largely on the FPOM as a dietary source. In addition, our results displayed that the relative importance between CPOM and FPOM as dietary source for the ascidians can be changed according to the availability of each component in ambient environment, probably reflecting their feeding plasticity due to non-selective feeding irrespective of particle size. Finally, our results suggest that dynamics of pico- and nano-size plankton (i.e., FPOM) as an available nutritional source to S. clava should be effectively assessed to maintain and manage their sustainable aquaculture production.

Implementation of Markerless Augmented Reality with Deformable Object Simulation (변형물체 시뮬레이션을 활용한 비 마커기반 증강현실 시스템 구현)

  • Sung, Nak-Jun;Choi, Yoo-Joo;Hong, Min
    • Journal of Internet Computing and Services
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.35-42
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    • 2016
  • Recently many researches have been focused on the use of the markerless augmented reality system using face, foot, and hand of user's body to alleviate many disadvantages of the marker based augmented reality system. In addition, most existing augmented reality systems have been utilized rigid objects since they just desire to insert and to basic interaction with virtual object in the augmented reality system. In this paper, unlike restricted marker based augmented reality system with rigid objects that is based in display, we designed and implemented the markerless augmented reality system using deformable objects to apply various fields for interactive situations with a user. Generally, deformable objects can be implemented with mass-spring modeling and the finite element modeling. Mass-spring model can provide a real time simulation and finite element model can achieve more accurate simulation result in physical and mathematical view. In this paper, the proposed markerless augmented reality system utilize the mass-spring model using tetraheadron structure to provide real-time simulation result. To provide plausible simulated interaction result with deformable objects, the proposed method detects and tracks users hand with Kinect SDK and calculates the external force which is applied to the object on hand based on the position change of hand. Based on these force, 4th order Runge-Kutta Integration is applied to compute the next position of the deformable object. In addition, to prevent the generation of excessive external force by hand movement that can provide the natural behavior of deformable object, we set up the threshold value and applied this value when the hand movement is over this threshold. Each experimental test has been repeated 5 times and we analyzed the experimental result based on the computational cost of simulation. We believe that the proposed markerless augmented reality system with deformable objects can overcome the weakness of traditional marker based augmented reality system with rigid object that are not suitable to apply to other various fields including healthcare and education area.

Consumers Perceptions on Monosodium L-glutamate in Social Media (소셜미디어 분석을 통한 소비자들의 L-글루타민산나트륨에 대한 인식 조사)

  • Lee, Sooyeon;Lee, Wonsung;Moon, Il-Chul;Kwon, Hoonjeong
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.153-166
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate consumers' perceptions on monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) in social media. Data were collected from Naver blogs and Naver web communities (Korean representative portal web-site), and media reports including comment sections on a Yonhap news website (Korean largest news agency). The results from Naver blogs and Naver web communities showed that it was primarily mentioned MSG-use restaurant reviews, 'MSG-no added' products, its safety, and methods of reducing MSG in food. When TV shows on current affairs, newspaper, or TV news reported uses and side effects of MSG, search volume for MSG has increased in both PC and mobile search engines. Search volume has increased especially when TV shows on current affairs reported it. There are more periods with increased search volume for Mobile than PC. Also, it was mainly commented about safety of MSG, criticism of low-quality foods, abuse of MSG, and distrust of government below the news on the Yonhap news site. The label of MSG-no added products in market emphasized "MSG-free" even though it is allocated as an acceptable daily intake (ADI) not-specified by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). When consumers search for MSG (monosodium L-glutamate) or purchase food on market, they might perceive that 'MSG-no added' products are better. Competent authorities, offices of education and local government provide guidelines based on no added MSG principle and these policies might affect consumers' perceptions. TV program or news program could be a powerful and effective consumer communication channel about MSG through Mobile rather than PC. Therefore media including TV should report item on monosodium L-glutamate with responsibility and information based on scientific background for consumers to get reliable information.

Hydrochemical and Isotopic Characteristics, and Origin of Noble Gas for Low-temperature Hot Spring Waters in the Honam Area (호남지역 저온형 온천수의 수리지화학적 및 안정동위원소 특성과 영족기체의 기원에 관한 연구)

  • Jeong, Chan-Ho;Hur, Hyun-Sung;Nagao, Keisuke;Kim, Kyu-Han
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.635-649
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    • 2007
  • Geochemical composition, stable isotopes $({\delta}^{18}O,\;{\delta}D,\;{\delta}^{34}S)$ and noble gases(He, Ne and Ar) of nine hot spring water and three groundwater for five hot springs(Jukam, Hwasun, Dokog, Jirisan, Beunsan) from the Honam area were analyzed to investigate the hydrogeochemical characteristics and the hydrogeochemical evolution of the hot spring waters, and to interpret the source of sulfur, helium and argon dissolved in the hot spring waters. The hot spring waters show low water temperature ranging from 23.0 to $30.5^{\circ}C$ and alkaline characteristics of pH 7.67 to 9.98. Electrical conductivity of hot spring waters is $153{\sim}746{\mu}S/cm$. Groundwaters in this area were characterized by the acidic to neutral pH range$(5.85{\sim}7.21)$, the wide electrical conductivity range $(44{\sim}165{\mu}S/cm)$. The geochemical compositions of hot spring and groundwaters can be divided into three water types: (1) $Na-HCO_3$ water type, (2) Na-Cl water type and (3) $Ca-HCO_3$ water type. The hot spring water of $Ca-HCO_3$ water type in early stage have been evolved through $Ca(Na)-HCO_3$ water type into $Na-HCO_3$ type in final stage. In particular, Jurim alkaline(pH 9.98) hot spring water plotted at the end point of $Na-HCO_3$ type in the Piper diagram is likely to arrive into the final stage in geochemical evolution process. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic data of the hot spring water samples indicate that the hot spring waters originated from the local meteoric water showing latitude and altitude effects. The ${\delta}^{34}S$ value for sulfate of the hot spring waters varies widely from 0.5 to $25.9%o$. The sulfur source of most hot spring waters in this area is igneous origin. However, The ${\delta}^{34}S$ also indicates the sulfur of JR1 hot water is originated from marine sulfur which might be derived ken ancient seawater sulfates. The $^3He/^4He\;and\;^4He/^{20}Ne$ ratios of the hot spring waters range from $0.0143{\times}10^{-6}\;to\;0.407{\times}10^{-6}\;and\;6.49{\sim}584{\times}10^{-6}$, respectively. The hot spring waters are plotted on the mixing line between air and crustal components. It means that the He gas in the hot spring waters was mainly originated from crustal sources. However, the JR1 hot spring water show a little mixing ratio of the helium gas of mantle source. The $^{40}Ar/^{36}Ar$ ratios of hot spring water are in the range from $292.3{\times}10^{-6}\;to\;304.1{\times}10^{-6}$, implying the atmospheric argon source.

True Digestibility of Phosphorus in Different Resources of Feed Ingredients in Growing Pigs

  • Wu, X.;Ruan, Z.;Zhang, Y.G.;Hou, Y.Q.;Yin, Y.L.;Li, T.J.;Huang, R.L.;Chu, W.Y.;Kong, X.F.;Gao, B.;Chen, L.X.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.107-119
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    • 2008
  • To determine the true digestible phosphorus (TDP) requirement of growing pigs, two experiments were designed with the experimental diets containing five true digestible P levels (0.16%, 0.20%, 0.23%, 0.26% and 0.39%) and the ratio of total calcium to true digestible P (TDP) kept at 2:1. In Experiment 1, five barrows (Duroc${\times}$Landrace${\times}$Yorkshire) with an average initial body weight of 27.9 kg were used in a $5{\times}5$ Latin-square design to evaluate the effect of different dietary P levels on the digestibility and output of P and nitrogen. In Experiment 2, sixty healthy growing pigs (Duroc${\times}$Landrace${\times}$Yorkshire) with an average body weight (BW) of 21.4 kg were assigned randomly to one of the five dietary treatments (12 pigs/diet), and were used to determine the true digestible phosphorus (TDP) requirement of growing pigs on the basis of growth performance and serum biochemical indices. The results indicated that the true digestibility of P increased (p<0.05) linearly with increasing dietary TDP level below 0.26%. The true P digestibility was highest (56.6%) when dietary TDP was 0.34%. Expressed as g/kg dry matter intake (DMI), fecal P output increased (p<0.05) linearly with increasing P input. On the basis of g/kg fecal dry matter (DM), fecal P output was lowest for Diet 4 and highest (p<0.05) for Diet 5. The apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP) did not differ (p>0.05) among the five diets, with the average nitrogen output of 12.14 g/d and nitrogen retention of 66% to 74% (p>0.05), which suggested that there was no interaction between dietary P and CP protein levels. During the 28-d experimental period of Experiment 2, the average daily gain (ADG) of pigs was affected by dietary TDP levels as described by Eq. (1): $y=-809,532x^4+788,079x^3-276,250x^2+42,114x-1,759$; ($R^2=0.99$; p<0.01; y = ADG, g/d; x = dietary TDP, %), F/G for pigs by Eq. (2): $y=3,651.1x^4-3,480.4x^3+1,183.8x^2-172.5x+10.9$ ($R^2=0.99$; p<0.01; y = F/G; x = dietary TDP, %), and Total P concentrations in serum by Eq. (3): $y=-3,311.7x^4+3,342.7x^3-1,224.6x^2+195.6x-8.7$ (R2 = 0.99; p<0.01; y = total serum P concentration and x = dietary TDP, %). The highest ADG (782 g/d), the lowest F/G (1.07) and the highest total serum P concentration (3.1 mmol/L) were obtained when dietary TDP level was 0.34%. Collectively, these results indicate that the optimal TDP requirement of growing pigs is 0.34% of the diet at a total Ca to TDP ratio of 2:1.

Uncertainty analysis of quantitative rainfall estimation process based on hydrological and meteorological radars (수문·기상레이더기반 정량적 강우량 추정과정에서의 불확실성 분석)

  • Lee, Jae-Kyoung
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.51 no.5
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    • pp.439-449
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    • 2018
  • Many potential sources of bias are used in several steps of the radar-rainfall estimation process because the hydrological and meteorological radars measure the rainfall amount indirectly. Previous studies on radar-rainfall uncertainties were performed to reduce the uncertainty of each step by using bias correction methods in the quantitative radar-rainfall estimation process. However, these studies do not provide comprehensive uncertainty for the entire process and the relative ratios of uncertainty between each step. Consequently, in this study, a suitable approach is proposed that can quantify the uncertainties at each step of the quantitative radar-rainfall estimation process and show the uncertainty propagation through the entire process. First, it is proposed that, in the suitable approach, the new concept can present the initial and final uncertainties, variation of the uncertainty as well as the relative ratio of uncertainty at each step. Second, the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) and Uncertainty Delta Method (UDM) were applied to quantify the uncertainty and analyze the uncertainty propagation for the entire process. Third, for the uncertainty quantification of radar-rainfall estimation at each step, two quality control algorithms, two radar-rainfall estimation relations, and two bias correction methods as post-processing through the radar-rainfall estimation process in 18 rainfall cases in 2012. For the proposed approach, in the MEM results, the final uncertainty (from post-processing bias correction method step: ME = 3.81) was smaller than the initial uncertainty (from quality control step: ME = 4.28) and, in the UDM results, the initial uncertainty (UDM = 5.33) was greater than the final uncertainty (UDM = 4.75). However uncertainty of the radar-rainfall estimation step was greater because of the use of an unsuitable relation. Furthermore, it was also determined in this study that selecting the appropriate method for each stage would gradually reduce the uncertainty at each step. Therefore, the results indicate that this new approach can significantly quantify uncertainty in the radar-rainfall estimation process and contribute to more accurate estimates of radar rainfall.

Water Quality of Streams and Riparian Vegetation at Rice Cultivation Area of Eastern Jeonnam (벼 재배기간중 전남동부지역 농촌하천의 수질과 분포초종)

  • Lee, Do-Jin;Cho, Ju-Sik;Kuk, Yong-In;Ahn, Ho-Geun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.7-15
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    • 2003
  • The characteristic of the quality of stream water and the riparian vegetation during rice cultivation in the rural area of the eastern Jeonnam province was surveyed from April to November, 2000. The water quality of the streams during rice cultivation was variable. The pH of these water bodies ranged from $6.5{\sim}8.3$. Electro conductivity (EC) at each water body ranged from $162{\sim}4,910\;{\mu}S/cm$ for Beogyo-cheoa $114.7{\sim}286.6\;{\mu}g/cm$ for Boseong-cheon, $74.8{\sim}147\;{\mu}S/cm$ for Songgwang-cheon, and $61.6{\sim}82.1\;{\mu}S/cm$ for Isa-cheon. Total nitrogen and other parameters (K, Ca, Mg, Na, $Cl^-$, SS) were higher at May (Boseong-cheon) through June (Songgwang-cheon, Isa-cheon) during the transplanting season than these same parameters at August October and November. Thirty weed species of sixteen families were found in the survey areas of Songgwang-cheon, Boseong-cheon Isa-cheon and Beolgyo-cheon. Nine annual weeds, four biennial weeds, and seventeen perennial weeds were found, several different life forms were identified. Of those species three were submerged, two were free floating, five were emerged, and twenty were water-side weeds.