The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business
Researches based on the pattern of planned behavior holds that the three variables of entrepreneurial attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavior control influence each other and influence entrepreneurial intentions respectively. However, there are also different, even conflicting research conclusions that continue to emerge. Researches based on the pattern of alertness, believe that profit opportunities and individuals' pursuit to truth are the driving forces. Many scholars have demonstrated the impact of individual entrepreneurial alertness on entrepreneurial intentions. However, as an exogenous causal agent, profit opportunities have a logical problem: if there are no other assumptions, the mere existence of opportunities does not adequately explain entrepreneurial alertness. To address this gap, this study considered samples from mainland China, where entrepreneurial activities are very active currently, to test the role that entrepreneurial alertness is assumed to play in the planned behavior model. The results show that the three dimensions of alertness, individually partly intermediate the influence of entrepreneurial attitude on entrepreneurial intention, the influence of subjective norms on entrepreneurial intention, and that of perceived behavior control on entrepreneurial intention. This article studied the production of entrepreneurial intention by integrating the two patterns of planned behavior and alertness through empirical analysis, and opened up a new field for subsequent research on entrepreneurial intention.
Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
This study focuses on the proposition that the qualities and environmental conditions required for exploring entrepreneurial opportunities and realizing entrepreneurial opportunities depend on the types of entrepreneurial opportunities. In particular, this study aims to identify the type of entrepreneurial opportunities for laboratory start-ups, which have recently been gaining policy level attention. If the type of entrepreneurial opportunities for laboratory start-ups is identified as discriminative, appropriate start-up support policies and training programs can be established. For this study, eight major papers were identified among the papers of last 30 years related to the types of entrepreneurial opportunities. After, the classification attributes for each opportunity type were derived. Then, the existing theories of recognition, discovery and creative opportunities were organized, critically reviewed and reorganized. In addition, the substance of laboratory start-ups was verified according to the standardized classification attributes of the revised and reorganized opportunity types and newly classified as 'creative opportunity'. This study also presents networking capabilities and market orientation as examples of the capabilities needed for entrepreneurs of creative opportunity type. The implication of this study is that it makes it easy to discriminate ontological typology of entrepreneurial opportunity, derives important classification attributes, and that it organizes them conceptually. In addition, it critically reconstructs the problems of confusion in the existing typology, and based on this, the type of entrepreneurial opportunities for laboratory start-ups is determined as creative opportunity. These achievements can contribute to the improvement of start-up policies and start-up training programs according to the types of entrepreneurial opportunity and laboratory start-ups in the future, resulting in realization of actual results at the start-up sites.
This paper aims to examine structural relationship between startup programs aided by university what reflected in GEM(Global Entrepreneurship Monitor) model and was establishing entrepreneurial intention of current university students. Total of 364 suitable sample data were used to empirical analysis hypotheses. The results of the hypothesis test through analysis of the structural model are summarized as follows. First, among the factors of universities' startup support programs, entrepreneurial education, entrepreneurial consulting, R&D transfer, and entrepreneurial culture has a positive effect on recognition of entrepreneurial opportunities. Second, entrepreneurial education and entrepreneurial consulting has a positive influence on entrepreneurship. Third, the parameters of entrepreneurial opportunities and entrepreneurship positively influences on entrepreneurial intention. Therefore, University should support entrepreneurial education, R&D transfer, entrepreneurial consulting and makes entrepreneurial culture intensely for vitalizing university students entrepreneurial intention.
Even though it is generally recognized that entrepreneurship is complex socio-economic phenomena and entrepreneurial opportunities can be created from economic, social, technological, political and legal forces, entrepreneurship has been discussed in very narrow economic terms and focusing on narrow economic relationships such as consumers, suppliers, owners and employee. However, recently, a lot of researchers talk about social entrepreneurship. How can we explain social entrepreneurs? In our paper, employing stakeholder theory, we try to offer more realistic model to understand entrepreneurial opportunities. We claim that entrepreneurial exploitations can be successful only when entrepreneurs can identify ex post stakeholder inefficiencies. Thus, our efforts focus on the question of where, when, and how stakeholder inefficiencies occur?
Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
This paper is to investigate how cognitive bias of college students and entrepreneurs relates to perceived risks and entrepreneurial opportunities that represent uncertainty, and how various cognitive bias and entrepreneurial efficacy In the same way. The purpose of this study is to find improvement points of entrepreneurship education for college students and to suggest problems and improvement possibilities in the decision making process of current entrepreneurs. This empirical study is a necessary to improve the decision-making of individuals who want to start a business at the time when various attempts are made to activate the start-up business and increase the sustainability of the existing SME management. And understanding of the difference in opportunity evaluation, and suggests that it is necessary to provide good opportunities together with the upbringing of entrepreneurs. In order to achieve the purpose of the study, questionnaires were conducted for college students and entrepreneurs. A total of 363 questionnaire data were obtained and demonstrated through structural equation modeling. This study confirms that there is some relationship between perceived risk and cognitive bias. Overconfidence and control illusions among cognitive bias have a significant relationship between perceived risk and wealth. Especially, it is confirmed that control illusion of college students has a significant relationship with perceived risk. Second, cognitive bias demonstrated some significant relationship with opportunity evaluation. Although we did not find evidence that excess self-confidence is related to opportunity evaluation, we have verified that control illusions and current status bias are related to opportunity evaluation. Control illusions were significant in both college students and entrepreneurs. Third, perceived risk has a negative relationship with opportunity evaluation. All students, regardless of whether they are college students or entrepreneurs, judge opportunities positively if they perceive low risk. Fourth, it can be seen from the college students 'group that entrepreneurial efficacy has a moderating effect between perceived risk and opportunity evaluation, but no significant results were found in the entrepreneurs' group. Fifth, the college students and entrepreneurs have different cognitive bias, and they have proved that there is a different relationship between entrepreneurial opportunity evaluation and perceived risk. On the whole, there are various cognitive biases that are caused by time pressure or stress on college students and entrepreneurs who have to make judgments in uncertain opportunities, and in this respect, they can improve their judgment in the future. At the same time, university students can have a positive view of new opportunities based on high entrepreneurial efficacy, but if they fully understand the intrinsic risks of entrepreneurship through entrepreneurial education and fully understand the cognitive bias present in direct entrepreneurial experience, You will get a better opportunity assessment. This study has limitations in that it is based on the fact that university students and entrepreneurs are integrated, and that the survey respondents are selected by the limited random sampling method. It is necessary to conduct more systematic research based on more faithful data in the absence of the accumulation of entrepreneurial research data. Second, the translation tools used in the previous studies were translated and the meaning of the measurement tools might not be conveyed due to language differences. Therefore, it is necessary to construct a more precise scale for the accuracy of the study. Finally, complementary research should be done to identify what competitive opportunities are and what opportunities are appropriate for entrepreneurs.
Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
In young entrepreneurs, the individual situation of opportunity discovery is very important. It is very important that the opportunities that are created for a particular individual entrepreneur are also recognized and assessed through the process. The need for the development of entrepreneurial opportunity competencies, which have a low proportion of opportunistic entrepreneurship, is low in the entrepreneurship education. In particular, young entrepreneurs are in desperate need of opportunistic entrepreneurship. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of entrepreneurship motivation on entrepreneurial opportunity competence, using entrepreneurial orientation and entrepreneurship orientation as mediation variables for preliminary young entrepreneurs (19-39 old). In the case of young entrepreneurs, there is a tendency to study entrepreneurship policies and education through the system of youth entrepreneurship schools, mainly on college students and youths, and on the effects of institutional support on entrepreneurship. There is little research on the effect of a entrepreneurial motivation on the entrepreneurial opportunity competence needed to promote an entrepreneurial venture in a model with multiple mediators. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of start - up motivation on the entrepreneurial opportunity competence. To do this we analyzed 374 questionnaires collected from preliminary young entrepreneurs in Seoul and Gyeonggi provinces. The results of the analysis using SPSS v22.0 and Process macro v3.0 showed that the motivation of start - up had a significant effect on both opportunity recognition and opportunity evaluation of entrepreneurial opportunity competence. Second, motivation of entrepreneurs has a significant effect on entrepreneurial efficacy. Third, entrepreneurial efficacy has a significant effect on entrepreneurial orientation. Fourth, entrepreneurial orientation has a significant effect on entrepreneurial opportunity competence. Fifth, there is a significant indirect effect between entrepreneurial motivation and entrepreneurial opportunity recognition when passing through entrepreneurial orientation, entrepreneurial efficacy and entrepreneurial orientation at the same time, But indirect effects was insignificant when only entrepreneurship efficacy is passed. There is a significant indirect effect on all mediators between entrepreneurial motivation and entrepreneurial opportunity valuation. It is suggested that strengthening education on entrepreneurship is necessary to cultivate awareness of entrepreneurship opportunities and strengthening education on both entrepreneurial efficacy and entrepreneurship is necessary to cultivate evaluation of entrepreneurship opportunities by type of entrepreneurial motivation.
Lately, there is a worldwide boom for start-ups. This trends has led to develop many policies for entrepreneurship in Korea, which focused on college education. Also, as the forth industrial revolution knows no borders, demands of software early education are expanding in line with strong interests in IT (Information Technology). Information technology is now an essential competency for all professionals who need creative thinking. And entrepreneurs are a representative job that requires creative thinking. This study suggests IT competencies-IT planning competencies (ITPC) and IT development competencies (ITDC)-as a core factor of the entrepreneurial intention. This paper is to study the relationship between IT competencies and entrepreneurial Intention. So we investigated IT competence and entrepreneurial intention in university students with a questionnaire. The results of this empirical study can be summarized as follows. First, IT planning competencies have positive influence on entrepreneurial attitude and intention. But IT development competencies do not influence directly on entrepreneurial intention. Second, entrepreneurial attitude have mediating effects in the relationship between IT planning competencies and entrepreneurial intention. So, we need to develop good contents related to the IT planning capabilities when organizing training programs in start-up course. In order to improve the quality of entrepreneurship education, it will be necessary to develop educational contents that can have a broad perspective for understanding the trends of technology convergence and creating opportunities.
This article provides a comprehensive review of the entrepreneurial university concept and its place and role in the triple helix of university, industry, and government. This is increasingly important because stake-holders' expectations towards universities are growing; this growth in turn leads to increased pressure on universities to move beyond their traditional roles and models towards taking responsibility for economic development, large scale basic education and targeted further education and the development of value from research. These expectations provide opportunities for universities, but impose threats on the existing models and practices. It further elaborates on implications for university management, departments, faculty members and supporting organizations. Moreover it reflects on the meaning of the entrepreneurial university for stakeholders, i.e., university boards, regional and national policy and administrative bodies, funding agencies, the business community, university ranking institutions and the global university community overall. Recent literature on entrepreneurial universities is incomplete and mostly focused on the commercialization of research, technology transfer and the third mission of universities. The article expands the predominant thinking about entrepreneurial universities and gives a broader structured definition. Eventually the article shows the need for STI policy to intervene and measures for developing entrepreneurial universities further.
Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
The purpose of this study is to find out how the support system of the government and the local governments for enhancing the success rate of the startup firms affected the performance of the enterprises according to the behavior characteristics of the founders. It is divided entrepreneurial support system into entrepreneurial policy support such as entrepreneurial education, mentoring and consulting, and funding of startup support such as policy fund and R & D fund, distinguished the behavior of founder into behaviors for discovery of entrepreneurial opportunities and behaviors for exploiting entrepreneurial opportunities. In order to analyze whether it affects the corporate management performance, a research model was created based on the previous research and hypotheses were set up, and the hypotheses were verified based on this questionnaire. The results of this study are as follows: First, it is found that the support for entrepreneurial policy has a positive effect on the behavior characteristics of entrepreneur. Second, it is found that the startup support such as policy fund affects the behavioral characteristics for finding the opportunity of the founder, but it does not affect the behavioral characteristics for the opportunity exploit. Third, it was found that the behavior characteristics of entrepreneur founding opportunity and exploition of entrepreneurial opportunity influenced the performance of the company. According to the this study, the following conclusion were obtained, First, it is necessary to apply different policies according to the stage of growth of startup companies. Second, startup companies grow through the stages of development of new technologies and ideas, commercialization, and marketing, at each stage, entrepreneur must overcome the so-called Death Valley, which requires funding.
Research on entrepreneurial giftedness is in its initial stage and the importance is increasing these days. The purpose of this article is to establish a foundation of entrepreneurial giftedness research by conceptualizing the concept and characteristics of entrepreneurial giftedness. The author reviewed prior research on entrepreneur and entrepreneurship, potential entrepreneur, gifted youth in invention, and entrepreneurial gifted youth, and proposed a new perspective on entrepreneurial gifted youth based on the findings from the review. Entrepreneurial giftedness proposed in this study is someone who is risk-taking to achieve opportunities and innovation and who has potential to be competent in managing resources. The author also proposed that entrepreneurial giftedness study needs to focus on developmental characteristics, management ability, and practical intelligence. Finally, based on the findings from previous research on entrepreneurial giftedness, environmental and personality characteristics, temperament and character, cognitive traits, and vocational interest of entrepreneurial giftedness are discussed. Implications and further research directions were discussed.
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