• Title, Summary, Keyword: Environmental benefit

Search Result 540, Processing Time 0.048 seconds

A study on Applying Hyperbolic Social Discount Rate onto the Benefit-Cost Analysis: Focused on Appropriate Analytical Time Span (쌍곡선함수 방식의 사회적할인율 적용에 대한 연구: 적정 분석기간의 설정을 중심으로)

  • Kim, Sang Kyum
    • Environmental and Resource Economics Review
    • /
    • v.24 no.1
    • /
    • pp.85-107
    • /
    • 2015
  • This study analyzes the effect of applying hyperbolic social discount rate onto the results of benefit-cost analysis of environmental public investment projects in Korea. In order to check the application possibility to the actual feasibility study, the discount factors generated by hyperbolic function, rather than traditional exponential one, would be applied to the benefit and cost data from the pre-feasibility studies which peformed for environmental public investment projects. The results of this study shows that using hyperbolic social discount rate is effective for enhancing test results, only under the condition of which the full expansion of the time periods of analysis is satisfied. According to the simulation results of this study, to achieve higher benefit/cost ratio by using hyperbolic social discount rate, the period should be increased up to 120 to 150 years at least.

Review of Railway Projects Evaluation Methodologies considering the Benefit Incidence (편익귀속을 고려한 철도사업의 평가방법론에 대한 고찰)

  • 정병두;박정욱;김경철
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.65-72
    • /
    • 1999
  • In this paper, we reviewed the evaluation methodologies of railway project considering the benefit incidence. Generally railway projects are much more reduced tile energy consumption, traffic accident and environmental pollution than road projects. But conventional B/C analysis of railway project does not measured including those benefits. Also there is a few attention to an incidence of benefits producing from railway construction. So we developed the evaluation method of railway project contained the railway oriented benefits and also considered of the benefit incidence producing from railway construction.

  • PDF

Performance assessment model for robot-based automated construction systems

  • Lee, Ung-Kyun;Yoo, Wi Sung;An, Sung-Hoon;Doh, Nakju;Cho, Hunhee;Jun, Changhyun;Kim, Taehoon;Lee, Young Hoon
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Building Construction
    • /
    • v.13 no.4
    • /
    • pp.416-423
    • /
    • 2013
  • An adjusted assessment model based on benefit-cost analysis (BCA) is proposed for evaluating the economic efficiency of automated construction technologies. In contrast to conventional BCA, the model does not compare monetary values, but the differences in benefits and costs between traditional and automated construction methods. To verify the usefulness of the model, it was applied to a real-scale building construction project that used a fully automated building construction system, and the face validity of the model was confirmed. The results indicate that the model can support decision makers in identifying valuable benefit factors and in assessing the cost effectiveness of the system.

Cost , Benefit Analysis of Operation System Change in the Hospital Foodservice (대학병원 영양부서 운영체계 변경의 비용.편익분석)

  • Kim, Hyeong-Mi;Yang, Il-Seon;Park, Eun-Cheol;Im, Hyeon-Suk
    • Journal of the Korean Dietetic Association
    • /
    • v.6 no.1
    • /
    • pp.33-43
    • /
    • 2000
  • Environmental pressures from such sources an economic condition, the government and inter-institutional competition create managerial challenges. Economic pressures may be forcing dietetic dept, in hospital to utilize cost∙benefit analysis to assist them in their problem solving. Cost∙benefit analysis have been widely used in business, industry and many other fields with only limited application to foodservice. Due to the lack or this information the purposes of this study were to identify use of cost∙benefit analysis in hospital foodservice system to evaluate the economic efficiency of alternatives, and to make recommendation for operation system change. Using the cost∙benefit method, cash flows are separated into cost and benefits. For an alternative to be selected, indicators, such as NPV, benefit-cost ratio (B/C ratio) with 5% discount rate per annum. The sensitivity analysis was also conducted with difference rate 3%, 7% respectively and reduced employee payroll change. The result of this study can be summarized as follows : 1. The total cost of investment for operation system change was 390,570 thousand won and the total benefit through operation system change was 865,808 thousand won. 2. Net present value(NPV) for 5 years was 475,239 thousand won and benefit-cost ratio was 2.22. 3. In sensitivity analysis with different discount rate 3%, 7%, benefit-cost ratio was 2.25, 2.18 respectively, with total reduced employee payroll change, benefit-cost ratio was 2.86. In conclusion, total benefits were exceeded total costs. Therefore, the project of operation system change in hospital foodservice was found to be economically efficient.

  • PDF

Enhanced Method for Environmental Benefit via Application of Low Impact Development (LID) Technique in Tram Design (트램 설계시 LID 기법 적용을 통한 환경편익 증대 방안)

  • Gu, Su-Hwan;Lee, Yunhee;Oa, Seong-Wook
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Railway
    • /
    • v.19 no.6
    • /
    • pp.826-832
    • /
    • 2016
  • Reduced greenhouse gas effect induced by LID (Low Impact Development) technique application in tramway construction was quantified to increase environmental benefit as part of an overall economic assessment. In addition, by application of penetration type permeable blocks, the effect of the urban water cycle was examined as a special assessment item in the policy analysis. The carbon emission ratios of the permeable turf block, according to the turf coverage rate (100%, 50% granite, and 50% HDPE), against the concrete track construction were -184.7%, -127.3%, and -116.3%, respectively. The carbon emission ratios of permeable blocks with granite and HDPE were 30.1% and 52.5%. In the case of the penetration type permeable block, it was possible to store rainfall in the block until 90mm/hr of rainfall intensity (94.3% of water reserve rate); therefore, this method was effective as part of the urban water cycle system. As a result, an increased environmental benefit from LID technique application is expected in tramway construction; this needs to be considered as a policy factor in AHP analysis.

Cost-Benefit Analysis for Planting Type of Street Trees (가로수 조성 유형에 따른 비용편익 비교 분석)

  • Kim, Joon Soon;Lee, Dong Kun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
    • /
    • v.17 no.6
    • /
    • pp.29-37
    • /
    • 2014
  • The objective of this study is to estimate the cost and benefits of street trees for their planting types, specifically, single row, single row+bottom, double row, double row+bottom. Different planting types are compared and analyzed by using Net Present Value (NPV) and benefit-cost ratio (BCR). Existing data are collected from the literature reviews for the use of meta-analysis method for estimating cost and benefit. The elements for analyzing costs are management and planting costs, and benefits are air purification, energy saving and landscape view. The discount rate is applied at a minimum of 3% and a maximum of 5.5%. The unit used in this calculation is km/year. The result shows that the net benefit is highest in double row, followed by single row, double row+bottom, and single row+bottom. The BCR is the highest in double row, followed by single row, double row+bottom, and single row+bottom. The BCR reaches the break-even point from 9 to 17 years depending on the planting types.

Environmental Accounting of the Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL) Program in the Nakdong River Basin using the Emergy Analysis (Emergy 분석을 이용한 낙동강유역의 오염총량관리계획에 대한 환경회계)

  • Kim, Jin Lee;Lee, Su-Woong;Kim, Yong-Seok;Lee, Suk-Mo
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
    • /
    • v.27 no.3
    • /
    • pp.349-356
    • /
    • 2011
  • This study, which evaluated the contribution of the real economic value and system in the Nakdong River Basin, estimated the emergy analysis for environmental accounting of the TMDL program. And an environmental accounting for TMDL is evaluated before and after adopting TMDL program respectively. The value of emergy after adopting the TMDL was 7.90 E+20 sej/yr. Although the real yield of the river after governmental investment was high (before: 9.7118 E+20 sej/yr and after: 9.7224 E+20 sej/yr), the effects of improvement was not great, in terms of an investment cost. The benefit/cost ratio resulted from environmental accounting has decreased from 1.493 to 1.230 due to the cost of managing treatment facilities. The method of improving water quality in the Nakdong River Basin by the TMDL program should be changed into an ecological treatment facilities using resources efficiently from a control of water quality depending on expansion of the wastewater treatment facilities and advanced treatment plant using high cost and non-renewable energies.

Cost-benefit Analysis on Occupational Reference Levels for Radon (지각방사선(라돈) 참조준위별 저감 대책에 따른 비용 편익 분석)

  • Choi, Eun-Hi;Chung, Eun Kyo;Kim, Su-Geun;Jung, Myung-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
    • /
    • v.29 no.1
    • /
    • pp.57-68
    • /
    • 2019
  • Objective: The purpose of this study is to propose the benefits of reduction measures according to the occupational radon reference level in order to present basic data for radon management guidelines considering domestic circumstances. Methods: This study uses radon data measured in the subway stations from 2015 to 2016. Of the total of 4,643 cases, 4,231 cases were analyzed excluding the 412 cases where the values were below $300Bq/m^3$. Results: Cost-Benefit analysis was done on the results of the field survey on subway work sites. At the exposure level of $400Bq/m^3$, the ratio between the cost and the benefit was highest at 1 : 1.81(the cost was KRW 1,398,568,032, while the benefit KRW 2,5248,772,841). At the exposure level of $600Bq/m^3$, the ratio of cost and benefit was 1: 1.80, at $300Bq/m^3$ it was 1.72, at $800Bq/m^3$ it was 1.71, at $200Bq/m^3$ it was 1.54, and at $100Bq/m^3$ it was 1.40. Conclusions: Radon management in the workplace provides economic benefits and appropriate reduction strategies are needed. In addition, it is necessary to establish and distribute radon exposure assessment procedures and guidelines for the safety and health of employees when exceeding the exposure standard, and guidelines for radon management in the workplace should be established.

The Concept of Clean Technology

  • Clift, Roland
    • Clean Technology
    • /
    • v.1 no.1
    • /
    • pp.34-46
    • /
    • 1995
  • Clean Technology goes beyond Clean-UP (or "End of PiPe) Technologies to include Pollution prevention, waste minimisation, and cleaner production. However, the concept of Clean Technology goes deeper than changes in technology, to ways in which human needs can be satisfied sustainably. In other words, Clean Technology, concentrates on delivering a human benefit rather than making a product. Introducing cleaner technology may therefore involve new commercial relationships as well as new technological practices. In some economic sectors, this involves leasing or providing a service rather than selling a product. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an important tool in Clean Technology. LCA involves determining all the resources used and all the wastes and emissions produced in providing the human benefit. Use of LCA ensures that improved environmental performance in one part of the Life Cycle is not achieved merely at the expense of more environmental damage elsewhere. Going beyond LCA, the concepts of Life Cycle Design and "metabolised" use of materials are approaches to obtain maximum benefit from materials as they pass through the human economy. "Closed-loop" use can be a component of clean technology. Looking beyond simple re-use and recycling, a material may pass through a "cascade of uses". typically a series of applications with progressively lower performance specifications. Closed-loop use necessarily involves a change in commercial practice, because the material or product must be recovered after use.

  • PDF

Emergy Cost-Benefit Evaluation of the Down Stream of Nakdong River Using Environmental-Ecological Concept (환경 생태학적 개념을 이용한 낙동강 하류의 에머지 비용-편익 평가)

  • Jung, Hwa-Sook;Lee, Seog-Mo;Son, Hyeng-Sik;Son, Hee-Jong
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
    • /
    • v.22 no.4
    • /
    • pp.507-514
    • /
    • 2013
  • The Nakdong River being used as drinking water sources for the Busan metropolitan city has the vulnerability of water management due to the fact that industrial areas are located in the upper Nakdong River. This study used emergy analysis method to evaluate ecological-economics of water treatment systems of D water treatment plant (WTP) where located in the downstream of the Nakdong River. The emergy methodology is a system evaluation tool that uses energy as the common currency to compare different resources on a common basis. Emergy yield ratio (EYR) and emergy sustainability index (EmSI) of D WTP were 1.16 and 0.18, respectively. It means not resources and sustainable system but consumer goods and not sustainable system. Ratio of emergy benefit to the purchaser (EBP) shows 2.7 times higher than economic costs. To change the weak water source and situations we need to diversity water intake.