• Title, Summary, Keyword: Environmental benefit

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An Extended Benefit-Cost Analysis of Land Consolidation and On-farm Development Project -With Respect to Jigok Land Consolidation and On-farm Development Project in Seosan, Chungnam Province, Korea- (경지정리사업의 확장편익-비용분석 - 충남서산시 지곡지구를 중심으로 -)

  • Lim, Jae-Hwan;Lee, Min-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.66-83
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    • 2002
  • The economic feasibility analysis including benefit-cost ratio and internal rate of return of a land consolidation and on-farm development project was mainly depended upon the direct benefits and costs arising during project life. Therefore the projects were neglected in allocating the government's financial funds and loans on account of the low economic rate of return of the project. Accordingly the extended benefit-cost analysis method should be introduced and adapted to cover not only the benefit s such as non-market values of environmental and food security fun ct ions of the project but also market values of the project outputs. The main purposes of this study are (1) to prepare a guide line for economic feasibility analysis based on the IBRD and ADB guidelines, (2) to estimate the benefits from productivity increase, labor saving, savings of O&M cost of farm mechanization and project facilities, savings of farmer's burden for their public health, increasing environmental and public functional value of paddy fields, improving food security condition and formation of peaceful and uncontroversial rural society by implementing the land consolidation and on-farm development, (3) to introduce the newly adapted analytical method as the extended benefit cost analysis which could make possible to be included the values of non-market goods such as the food security and the environmental public function of paddy fields. To carry out this study, the existing publications on the guidelines for economic agricultural projects were reviewed and consultation was made with a For the post evaluation study of the land consolidation and on-farm development project, field survey in Jigok and other comparative area were made to get available information. According to the project completion report, Jigok land consolidation and on-farm development project has 55ha of benefit area out of 69ha of gross area. The project was started in November 11th, 2000 and completed october 30th, 2001. The total project costs were amounted to 2,548 million won and the annual project benefits were estimated at 335million won evaluated by domestic market prices. The ERR(Economic Rate of Return) and SRR(Social Rate of Return) of the project based on the shadow pricing system were estimated at 4.4% and 16% respectively. On the other hand, the ERR and SRR based on the domestic market value system were amounted to 6.37% and 14.62%. In conclusion, Korean land consolidation and on-farm development projects have not carried out from the view point of economic rate of return under shadow pricing system but from the view point of domestic pricing system. For the future feasibility studies on land consolidation projects have to be carried out including the non-market values as environmental and food security function of the projects.

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Optimum Service Life Management Based on Probabilistic Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit Analysis (확률론적 생애주기비용-이익분석 기반 수명관리 최적화 기법)

  • Kim, Sunyong
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.19-25
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    • 2016
  • Engineering structures including civil infrastructures require a life-cycle cost and benefit during their service lives. The service life of a structure can be extended through appropriate inspection and maintenance actions. In general, this service life extension requires more life-cycle cost and cumulative benefit. For this reason, structure managers need to make a rational decision regarding the service life management considering both the cost and benefit simultaneously. In this paper, the probabilistic decision tool to determine the optimal service life based on cost-benefit analysis is presented. This decision tool requires an estimation of the time-dependent effective cost-benefit under uncertainty to formulate the optimization problem. The effective cost-benefit is expressed by the difference between the cumulative benefit and life-cycle cost of a deteriorating structure over time. The objective of the optimization problem is maximizing the effective cost-benefit, and the associated solutions are the optimal service life and maintenance interventions. The decision tool presented in this paper can be applied to any deteriorating engineering structure.

Risk-Based Damage Cost Estimation on Mortality Due to Environmental Problems (환경 오염으로 인한 인체 위해도에 입각한 사망 손실 비용 추정에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Ye-Shin;Lee, Yong-Jin;Park, Hoa-Sung;Shin, Dong-Chun
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.230-238
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    • 2003
  • Objectives : To estimate the value of statistical life (VSL) and health damage cost on theoretical mortality estimates due to environmental pollution. Methods : We assessed the health risk on three environmental problems and eight sub-problems. Willingness to pay (WTP) was elucidated from a questionnaire survey with dichotomous contingent valuation method and VSL (which is the division of WTP by the change of risk reduction) calculated from WTP. Damage costs were estimated by multiplying VSL by the theoretical mortality estimates. Results : VSLs from death caused by air pollution, indoor air pollution and drinking water contamination were about 0.3, 0.5 and 0.3 billion won, respectively. Damage costs of particulate matters ($PM_{10}$) and radon were higher in the sub-problems and were above 100 billion won. Because damage cost depends on theoretical mortality estimate and WTP, its uncertainty is reduced in the estimating process. Conclusion : Health damage cost or risk benefit should be considered as one scientific criterion for decision making in environmental policy.

Benefit Cost Analysis on Mitigation of Environmental Impacts Using Contingent Valuation Method : The Kwangyang Habor Case (환경저감화 시설에 대한 비용편인분석 : 광양만 사례연구)

  • Kang, Hee Yong;Jung, Seung Jin;Kim, Kyu Han;Pyun, Chong Kun
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.26 no.2B
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    • pp.217-223
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    • 2006
  • This study is to investigate the effect of environmental mitigation in relation to the construction of quay structures for containers and to estimate economic values of environment-friendly structures using CVM. The result shows that the B/C ratio of environment-friendly quay structures designed to mitigate environmental impact is 4. That is, environmental improvement work proves to generate environmental benefit over 4 times as much as the construction cost. Considering the results of the study, environmental improvement work is of great benefit to citizens, and CVM is expected to become an efficient method to measure a proper size for a large construction project as well as to forge public consensus.

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Environmental Improvement Effect and Social Benefit of Environmental Impact Assessment: Focusing on Thermal Power Plant (환경영향평가를 통한 화력발전소의 환경개선 효과와 사회적 편익)

  • Kang, Eugene;Kim, Yumi;Moon, Nankyoung
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.322-333
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    • 2018
  • This study was carried out to measure atmospheric environmental improvement effect and estimate its social benefit of thermal power plants through Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for quantitative analysis about operational performances of EIA. In this study, 'EIA outcome' is defined as whether or not the system is implemented, therefore, environmental standard to be followed by each project and consultation contents were compared. In total 60 cases of thermal power plant construction projects that have been consulted over the past 10 years since 2010, major air pollutants have been significantly reduced after the implementation of EIA. The $PM_{10}$ reduced annual 3,745 tons, $NO_2$ by 74,569 tons, and $SO_2$ by 37,647 tons, which were estimated at approximately 240 billion won~5 trillion 967 billion won per year for social benefit. This means the total cost of power plant operations will be cut to 7 trillion 192 billion won~178 trillion 994 billion won over a 30-year period. The reduced amount of air pollutants emitted by energy generation facilities across the country is worth 50%, and its economic value is larger than the annual Current Health Expenditure in Korea. This is meant by the fact that all projects are subject to uniform criteria under the existing relevant regulation, but that each project plans are optimized according to the characteristics of target areas and projects through the process of EIA.

Comparative Study on Benefit Evaluation of Urban Rail Construction Project : Korea vs Japan (도시철도 건설사업의 편익계측에 관한 한일 비교연구)

  • 최창식;김경철;김용일
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • pp.17-26
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    • 1999
  • This paper studies on the benefit evaluation of urban railway construction project. We compares Korean Method with Japanese in calculating the generalized cost(GC) of a trip. In Japan, the disadvantage of transferring to another mode or line is included to calculate GC of trip. And environmental effects are contained directly as rail construction benefit. But in Korea, inconvenience of transferring facilities like stairways and passageway for riding a subway is not accounted to analyse benefit. As a result, there is a little investigate to improve and overcoming the inconvenience facilities of transfer, access, and egress. So, we suggest the containing the disadvantage measure of transferring facilities when subway riderships are forecasted. That will be reduced tile capital size of subway.

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The Stream Restoration Program Evaluation Issue (하천복원사업 평가기준의 과제)

  • Choi, Mihee
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.13-22
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    • 2006
  • The Korean government adopted the integrated stream water management policy recently with growing perception that natural disasters and pollution in Korea have been due not only to such human factors as urbanization and industrialization, but also to the policy of functionally separated management of irrigation, flood control and ecological management. Contrary to its good intention, research result shows that it is not realistic to expect that this new integrated policy in Korea will work well. In order to be an effective policy and program evaluation, this paper suggests that evaluation indicator on related programs and projects should be made through bottom-up process. For example, environmental benefit should be taken into account rather than just economic benefit, and cultural and social characteristics in the project region should be also considered seriously.

A Training Intervention for Supervisors to Support a Work-Life Policy Implementation

  • Laharnar, Naima;Glass, Nancy;Perrin, Nancy;Hanson, Ginger;Anger, W. Kent
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.166-176
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    • 2013
  • Background: Effective policy implementation is essential for a healthy workplace. The Ryan-Kossek 2008 model for work-life policy adoption suggests that supervisors as gatekeepers between employer and employee need to know how to support and communicate benefit regulations. This article describes a workplace intervention on a national employee benefit, Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), and evaluates the effectiveness of the intervention on supervisor knowledge, awareness, and experience with FMLA. Methods: The intervention consisted of computer-based training (CBT) and a survey measuring awareness and experience with FMLA. The training was administered to 793 county government supervisors in the state of Oregon, USA. Results: More than 35% of supervisors reported no previous training on FMLA and the training pre-test revealed a lack of knowledge regarding benefit coverage and employer responsibilities. The CBT achieved: (1) a significant learning effect and large effect size of d = 2.0, (2) a positive reaction to the training and its design, and (3) evidence of increased knowledge and awareness regarding FMLA. Conclusion: CBT is an effective strategy to increase supervisors' knowledge and awareness to support policy implementation. The lack of supervisor training and knowledge of an important but complex employee benefit exposes a serious impediment to effective policy implementation and may lead to negative outcomes for the organization and the employee, supporting the Ryan-Kossek model. The results further demonstrate that long-time employees need supplementary training on complex workplace policies such as FMLA.

Development of Ex-post Cost Benefit criteria and Analysis Plan for an Urban Stream Restoration Project: The Case of Cheonggyecheon Restoration Project (도심 하천복원사업을 위한 사후 비용편익 항목 및 분석방안 제시: 청계천 복원사업을 사례로)

  • Lee, Miyeon;Jung, Insu
    • Journal of Environmental Policy
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.67-96
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    • 2012
  • The Ministry of Environment in Korea has been promoting the urban stream restoration project for paved streams in cities as the restored Cheonggyecheon. As an elementary study for suggesting policy implications for the project, cost and benefit criteria for an ex-post analysis on the Cheonggyecheon project is suggested in this study. The ex-ante analysis were reviewed critically by focusing on the cost and benefit criteria. Ex-post analysis plan in this study is developed considering the standard guideline of pre-feasibility, the theory of cost-benefit analysis, and the review results. The costs for compensating lands, amending conflicts, researching rivers, and maintaining water quantity were also included. For the benefits, this study proposes to estimate the benefits with the assessment on naturalness of stream. The results are expected to contribute to increase the efficiency of the urban stream restoration project and evaluate the project to match better with the meaning of the river restoration.

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Differences of Experts and Non-experts in Perceiving Environmental and Technological Risks (전문가와 비전문가의 환경 및 과학기술 위험에 대한 위해도 인식 차이)

  • Hahm, Myung-Il;Kwon, Ho-Jang;Lee, Hoo-Yeon;Park, Hwa-Gyoo;Lee, Sang-Gyu
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.269-277
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    • 2009
  • Objective : The objective of this study was to examine how experts and the public perceived various environmental and technological hazards based on psychometric paradigm. Methods : We conducted a survey that included 30 hazards and 10 risk attributes. Subjects of this study were 214 people with three groups; (1) experts (55 people), (2) graduates( 78 people), (3) under graduates (81 people). Factor analysis was used to confirm the common risk attribute from 8 risk attributes. Also, multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors influencing on perceived risk and benefit of hazards. Results : This study revealed that experts tend to be more tolerant than graduates and under graduate students for the 30 hazards. Using factor analysis, two main factors were identified: factor 1, commonly called "Dread Risk", and factors 2, commonly called, "Unknown Risk" in the literature. We identified that environmental hormone concentration and global warming ranked high in both dread risk and unknown risk. Multiple regression models were used to test the association of perceived social risk and perceived social benefit with two main factors. Dread risk had significant explanatory power on perceived social risk and benefit. We identified that the experts were less likely to perceived dread risk and know more information about the hazards. Conclusions : There were differences of risk perception between experts and lay people. Especially, experts' perception of risk was commonly lower than other people's perception.