• Title, Summary, Keyword: Environmental benefit

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Multi-functional Benefits & Costs Analysis of Tide Land Reclamation Project and Development Guidelines in the Future (간척사업(干拓事業)의 다기능적(多機能的) 편익(便益)-비용분석(費用分析)과 발전방향(發展方向))

  • Lim, Jae Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.107-126
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    • 2005
  • The most limited production resource in Korea is land. During the period from 1995 to 2002, annual farm land area of 17,600ha have been converted to urban and industrial land. The self-sufficiency rate of rice, Korean staple food, is expected to be decreased from 97.5% in 2003 to 60-70% in 2020. Under such conditions, this study is aimed at first identifying multi-functional benefits of the reclamation projects such as agricultural production, industrial water supply, urban land supply, transportation effects, sightseeing effects and environmental values with and without the projects. To carry out the objectives, three existing tideland reclamation projects such as Daeho, Kumgang and Yongsangang irrigation project stage II were evaluated and Saemangeum tideland reclamation project which was jointly revaluated by environmental NGO and Govn't appointed specialists in 2000 was reviewed. According to this study results, tide land reclamation projects were showed financially and economically feasible and environmentally sustainable. The joint cost like estuary dam should be allocated based on the multi-functional benefits of the projects. To allocate the joint cost, legal and institutional improvement should adapt the joint cost allocation method as the specific cost-remaining benefit method. Korea has more than 402,000 ha of tidal flat of which 76,396ha have been reclaimed in 2003. To meet food security and to cope with shortage of land, phil-environmental reclamation projects should be continuously implemented and necessary tidal flats for protecting environmental ecosystem should be remained according to the detail survey results of reclaimable resources.

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Analysis of Socio-economic Effects of Land Consolidation and On-farm Development Project (경지정리사업(耕地整理事業)의 사회경제적효과분석(社會經濟的效果分析))

  • Lim, Jae Hwan;Kim, Jae Hong;Yeo, Soon Duck
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.158-175
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    • 2000
  • Up to date, the economic feasibility analysis on land consolidation and on-farm development projects were mainly depended upon the direct benefits from market value of project outputs. Therefore the projects were neglected in allocation of the government's financial funds and loans on account of undervaluation of the project benefits including socio-economic and environmental values of the projects. Accordingly the Extended Benefit Cost Analysis Method should be adapted to cover not only the benefits such as non-market values of environmental functions of the projects and but also the economic market values of the project outputs. The main objectives of this study is (1) to provision of the guideline for economic feasibility analysis based on the IBRD and ADB guidelines, (2) to estimate the benefits such as Productivity increase effect, labor saving effect, off-farm income increase effect during off-farm season, saving of O&M cost of farm mechanization, enhance of farmer's public health, increase of environmental public function of paddy fields, effect of food security and establishment of peaceful and uncontroversial rural society by implementing the land consolidation and on-farm development, (3) to introduce the newly adapted analytical method as the extended benefit cost analysis which could make possible the analysis of non-market goods such as the food security value and the environmental public value of paddy fields. To carry out the study, the publication on the guideline for economic analysis of agricultural projects were reviewed and consulted and for the post evaluation of the land consolidation and on-farm development project, field survey in Jeongja area were made for the feasibility study of the project by new method. According to the initial project plan, Jeongja land consolidation and on-farm development project has 96ha of benefit area and the project was started in 1989 and completed in the spring, 1990. The total project costs were amounted to 1,052 million won and the annual project benefits were estimated at 135.4 million in 1989 constant market prices. On the other hand, the newly estimated project benefits as a part of post evaluation of the project were amounted to 602.1 million won including all the benefits from the market and non-market commodities of the project as mentioned above column. The original IRP(Internal rate of return) of the project was estimated at 15.81%. On the other hand, the IRR of the post evaluation of the project was amounted to 16.83%. In case of including the benefit from the environment public function of paddy field, the SRR(Social Rate of Return) was reached to 38.81% and when we added the benefit from food security of the project, the SRR showed very high rate as 46.41%. In conclusion, the project were verified socio-economically feasible and environmentally sustainable considering the above decision making criteria.

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Effects of Eco-friendly Visual Merchandising on Green Consumer Behavior (친환경 비주얼 머천다이징(VMD)이 친환경 소비행동에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Mi-Ok;Shin, Jong-Kuk
    • Journal of the Korean Data Analysis Society
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.2519-2532
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    • 2018
  • More and more consumers view environmentalism as valuable and more and more companies spur the development of effective green marketing strategy. This study focuses on eco-friendly VMD (visual merchandising) marketing strategy of retailers. The main purpose of this paper is to examine how eco-friendly VMD benefits influence pro-environmental consumerism by mediating consumers' intrinsic/extrinsic shopping value perception. Data were collected from 320 respondents who have visited retail stores with eco-friendly VMD in the last one month. Statistical analysis shows that eco-friendly VMD benefits consisted of economical, informational, psychological, and social benefit have a positive effect on intrinsic and extrinsic shopping value perception. And both intrinsic and extrinsic shopping value perception have a positive effect on pro-environmental consumerism intention. The psychological benefit of eco-friendly VMD has the most influence on intrinsic shopping value perception while informational benefit and economical benefit have a strong effect on extrinsic shopping value perception. And perceived intrinsic shopping value shows greater influence than extrinsic shopping value on pro-environmental consumerism intention.

Cost-Benefit Analysis of The National Land Census Project and Its Policy Implications (국토센서스 사업의 비용 및 편익분석과 시사점)

  • Lee, Young-Sung;Kim, Kab-Sung;Lee, Choon-Won;Kwon, Dae-Jung;Yu, Hyeon-Ji;Yun, Hyung-Seok;Kim, Jin
    • Journal of Cadastre & Land InformatiX
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.23-38
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    • 2019
  • The National Land Census Project aims to survey the national land regularly to resolve the land category disagreement and reflect the actual land use. The objective of this study is to investigate whether not only the National Land Census Project but also related land and housing surveys bring about the improvement of social welfare in light of the invested budget, and to measure the project feasibility. The potential benefit after the National Land Census Project is not traded in the market. To determine the economic value of this potential benefit, the Contingent Valuation Method was used. This study utilized the single-bounded and double-bounded dichotomous choice models simultaneously to estimate the project feasibility of the cadastral system improvement. According to this study, cost-benefit ratio of the project was estimated larger than 1, which means that social benefits are larger than social costs.

Environmental Affordance of a Well Recognized Senior Center of Japan (일본의 노인종합복지관 성공사례의 환경지원성 분석 연구)

  • Lee, Yeun-Sook;Lee, So-Young;Yeo, Wook-Hyun;Jang, Mi-Seon
    • Journal of The Korea Institute of Healthcare Architecture
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.27-35
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    • 2007
  • According to the 2005 Korean census, the 65 and over population now exceeds 9.5% of the total population and is growing rapidly. Meeting elderly environment and care needs of this rapidly growing segment of the population becomes a major challenge for public policies and planners. Since great deal amount of elderly will reside in their houses, aging in place concept becomes important. For the success of aging in place, the quality of individual house unit, community support systems, and quality of senior center of the community are crucial. Since elderly environments and facilities serve not only medical and/or care programs but also social activity program in aging society, senior centers need to promote social activities and other care programs. The purpose of this study is to analyze characteristics of environmental affordance of a well received senior center in Tokyo, Japan. In order to analyze the characteristics, Murtha & Lee user benefit criteria and Lawton's environmental affordance approaches were used. As results, design characteristics and interior elements which provide environmental affordance were enumerated by type of space. Based on needs and user benefit criteria, those features were analyzed. This study shows design characteristics, elements, and attributes which are well received and utilized by elderly users.

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Economic Effects of the Management Model far Environment Pollution in Gwangyang Bay (광양만 환경오염 관리모델 연구의 경제적 파급효과 분석)

  • Nam Kwanghyun;Kwon Sukjae;Oh Weeyeong
    • Journal of Korea Technology Innovation Society
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.657-679
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this paper is to measure economic impact of marine environment conservation research development project. Benefit-Cost(B/C) analysis and Contingent Valuation Methods(CVM) are used to valuate the benefits from the research development projects. A period of three years for research development fund is considered as a part of the costs and adjusted to the net present value (NPV) of the 2002 ending period. The environmental charges for marine environment improvement are considered for the benefit measurement. The benefits are estimated by using monthly average willingness to pay, which is 2,289 Korean won. The contribution of the developing a management model for environmental pollution in the Gwangyang Bay is evaluated utilizing survey data and information. Based on the assessment by expert groups, the contribution of the model was 37.5%. The research results showed that B/C ratio is 20.61, NPV is 89,200 million Korean won, and social rate of return is 185.7%. When the level of contribution is over 1.83% at the assessment of potential influence, it is recognized to be economically feasible. This research presents a quantitative framework for Research and Development projects for marine environment conservation, and it can be applied to decision making for the investment size of R&D projects.

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User Benefits Analysis of Customized House Design Guidelines for Physically Disabled People (지체장애인 맞춤형주택 디자인가이드라인의 사용자혜택 분석)

  • Lee, Yeun-Sook;Jang, Mi-Seon;Park, Ji-Young
    • Journal of the Korean housing association
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.93-102
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    • 2015
  • Most existing residential environment of disabled people has made them exposed to the risk of safety accidents, and therefore hinders their independent living. In this regard, the importance of desirable residential environment has emerged. Some preceding studies have addressed the characteristics of disabled people's residential environment plan; however, the information on what environmental benefits are offered through such characteristics is insufficient. This study aims to analyze the housing design guidelines for disabled people in respect of the benefit of disabled people who are actual users. In this study, essential design guidelines for disabled people verified through expert workshop panel was analyzed based on user benefit theory. According to the study results, the total guidelines have the most characteristics supporting behavioral facilitation, and mainly consist of physiological maintenance characteristics related to disabled people's health and safety. Also, it is founded that environmental affordance essentially required depending on each spatial function was different. The ratio of physiological maintenance item is high in access route, unlike living room, kitchen and bed room where behavioral facilitation is especially emphasized. These findings can be utilized as basic data for customized residential environment plan to realize residential welfare for disabled people.

Hazard and Risk Assessment and Cost and Benefit Analysis for Revising Permissible Exposure Limits in the Occupational Safety and Health Act of Korea (산업안전보건법 허용기준 대상물질의 허용기준 개정을 위한 유해성·위험성 평가 및 사회적 비용·편익 분석)

  • Kim, Ki Youn;Oh, Sung Eop;Hong, Mun Ki;Lee, Kwon Seob
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.134-145
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: An objective of this study was to perform a risk assessment and social cost-benefit analysis for revising permissible exposure limits for seven substances: Nickel(Insoluble inorganic compounds), benzene, carbon disulfide, formaldehyde, cadmium(as compounds), trichloroethylene, touluene-2,4-diisocyanate. Materials and Methods: The research methods were divided into risk and hazard assessment and cost-benefit analysis. The risk and hazard assessment for the seven substances consists of four steps: An overview of GHS MSDS(1st), review of document of ACGIH's TLVs (2nd), comparison between international occupational exposure limits and domestic permissible exposure limits(3rd), and analysis of excess workplace and excess rate for occupational exposure limits based on previous work environment measurement data(4th). Total cost was estimated using cost of local exhaust ventilation, number of excess workplace and penalties for exceeding a permissible exposure limit. On the other hand, total benefit was calculated using the reduction rate of occupational disease, number of workplaces treating each substance and industrial accident compensation. Finally, the net benefit was calculated by subtracting total cost from total benefit. Results: All the substances investigated in this study were classified by CMR(Carcinogens, Mutagens or Reproductive toxicants) and their international occupational exposure limits were stricter than the domestic permissible exposure limits. As a result of excess rate analysis, trichloroethylene was the highest at 11%, whereas nickel was the lowest at 0.5%. The excess rates of all substances except for trichloroethylene were observed at less than 10%. Among the seven substances, the total cost was highest for trichloroethylene and lowest for carbon disulfide. The benefits for the seven substances were higher than costs estimated based on strengthening current permissible exposure limits. Thus, revising the permissible exposure limits of the seven substances was determined to be acceptable from a social perspective. Conclusions: The final revised permissible exposure limits suggested for the seven substances are as follows: $0.2mg/m^3$ for nickel, 0.5 ppm(TWA) and 2.5 ppm(STEL) for benzene, 1 ppm(TWA) for carbon disulfide, $0.01mg/m^3$(TWA) for cadmium, 10 ppm(TWA) and 25 ppm(STEL) for trichloroethylene, 0.3 ppm(TWA) for formaldehyde, and 0.005 ppm(TWA) and 0.02 ppm(STEL) for toluene diisocynate(isomers).

Estimates of Time-varying Values of Traffic Information on Variable Message Sign (첨두 및 비첨두시 VMS 교통정보의 가치 변화 연구)

  • Rhee, Kyoung-Ah;Lee, Young-Ihn
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.135-147
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    • 2012
  • The benefit of traffic information on variable message sign can be divided into two. At the public level, the benefit of ATIS is the travel time saving, which is not only induced from ATIS, but also mixed with that of ATMS. In the economic appraisal of ITS, the benefit of ATIS has so far been regarded as the derived benefit from ATMS. At the user level, the benefit of ATIS is reduced driver uncertainty through the forward traffic status information. User can benefit from the information on VMS and therefore may have the willingness to pay for it. Recently attempt to qualify the value of information on VMS was increased, but there was a danger of distorting or over-estimates of the ATIS benefit because the related studies didn't consider the time-dependent attributes of traffic information and provided the single value. Estimates of the time-varying value should be needed for a rigorous economic appraisal of ATIS. In this study, we varied the value of information on VMS according to peak and non peak trip and verified the hypothesis that time-varying of value was statistically significant.