• Title, Summary, Keyword: Environmental risk assessment

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A Developmental Methodology of Environmental Impact Assessment: Application of Health Risk Assessment (환경영향평가에 있어서 건강위해성평가 기법의 활용방안에 관한 연구)

  • Koo, J.K.;Chung, Y.
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.51-59
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    • 1992
  • Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA) is defined as an activity designed to identify and predict the impact on the environment. In the process of an EIA, the quantitative evaluation is generally performed for the air and water quality which have the national environmental quality standards. But the predicted values for the air and water quality are simply compared to the environmental standards. At present, the EIA process of Korea has no consideration for the possible human health risk resulting from the development projects. Environmental Health Impact Assessment(EHIA) is an applied methodology of EIA to estimate the acceptable health risk caused by a specified level of environmental pollutants. Estimating the excessive lifetime risk that is a possibility of dying of a certain disease by environmental contaminants, is useful as an evaluation technique of EHIA. It is recommanded the decision-makers to make efficient use of EHIA not only the development projects but also legislative proposals, policies and programmes in future.

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Human Health Risk Assessment of Benzene from Industrial Complexes of Chungcheong and Jeonla Province (충청·전라지역 산업단지 주변지역에서의 벤젠 인체 위해성 평가)

  • Jang, Yong-Chul;Lee, Sungwoo;Shin, YongSeung;Kim, Heekap;Lee, Jonghyun
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.497-507
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    • 2011
  • This research studied human health risk assessment of benzene from industrial complexes of Chungcheong Province (Seosan industrial complex) and Jeonla Province (Iksan industrial complex and Yeosoo industrial complex). The residents near the industrial complexes areas can be often exposed to volatile organic compounds (e.g., benzene, toluene, xylenes) through a number of exposure pathways, including inhalation of the organic pollutant via various environmental matrices (air, water and soil), contaminated water, and soil intake. Benzene is well known to be a common carcinogenic and toxic compound that is produced from industrial and oil refinery complexes. In this study, a number of samples from water, air, and soil were taken from the residential settings and public school zones located near the industrial complex sites. Based on the carcinogenic risk assessment, the risk estimates were slightly above $10{\times}10^{-6}$ at all three industrial sites. According to deterministic risk assessment, inhalation was the most important route. The distribution of benzene in the environment would be dependent on vapor pressure, and the physical property influencing the extent of the potential risks. Non-carcinogenic risk assessment of benzene shows that the values of Hazard Index(HI) were much lower than 1.0 at all industrial complexes. Therefore, benzene was not a cause of concern in terms of non-carcinogenic risk posed to the residents near the sites. When compared to probabilistic risk assessment, the CTE(central tendency exposure) cancer risk values of deterministic risk assessment were close to the mean values predicted by the probabilistic risk assessment. The RME(reasonable maximum exposure) values fell within the range of 95% to 99.9% estimated by the probabilistic risk assessment. Since the values of carcinogenic risk assessment were higher than $10{\times}10^{-6}$, further detailed monitoring and refined risk assessment for benzene may be warranted to estimate more reliable and potential inhalation risks to receptors near the industrial complexes.

Health Risk Assessment on Environmental Pollutants (환경오염물질의 건강위해성 평가)

  • 신동천
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.11-24
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    • 1993
  • Methodology for health risk assessment has been developed by governmental agencies and research institutions in the United States concerning environmental and industrial health such as Environmental Protection Agency, Pood and Drug Administration, and Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The basic concept, process, and scientific rational of the health risk assessment are discussed in order to introduce this field of research for future application to risk assessment and management in Korea. As environmental criteria for most of the environmental carcinogens and nonfarcinogens are set based on the quantitative risk assessment, this quantitative methodology should be emphasized and studied in Korean situation.

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Application of Probabilistic Health Risk Analysis in Life Cycle Assessment -Part I : A General Framework for Uncertainty and Variability Analysis of Health Risk in Life Cycle Assessment (전과정평가에 있어 확률론적 건강영향분석기법 적용 -Part I : 전과정평가에 있어 확률론적 위해도 분석기법 적용방안에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Kwang-Soo;Park, Jae-Sung
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.185-202
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    • 2000
  • Uncertainty and variability in Life Cycle Assessment(LCA) have been significant key issues in LCA methodology with techniques in other research area such as social and political science. Variability is understood as stemming from inherent variations in the real world, while uncertainty comes from inaccurate measurements, lack of data, model assumptions, etc. Related articles in this issues were reviewed for classification, distinguish and elaboration of probabilistic/stochastic health risk analysis application in LCA. Concept of focal zone, streamlining technique, scenario modelling and Monte Carlo/Latin Hypercube risk analysis were applied to the uncertainty/variability analysis of health risk in LCA. These results show that this general framework of multi-disciplinary methodology between probabilistic health risk assessment and LCA was of benefit to decision making process by suppling information about input/output data sensitivity, health effect priority and health risk distribution. There should be further research needs for case study using this methodology.

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Aquatic Toxicity Assessment of Phosphate Compounds

  • Kim, Eunju;Yoo, Sunkyoung;Ro, Hee-Young;Han, Hye-Jin;Baek, Yong-Wook;Eom, Ig-Chun;Kim, Hyun-Mi;Kim, Pilje;Choi, Kyunghee
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.28
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    • pp.2.1-2.7
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    • 2013
  • Objectives Tricalcium phosphate and calcium hydrogenorthophosphate are high production volume chemicals, mainly used as foodstuff additives, pharmaceuticals, lubricants, synthetic resin, and disinfectants. Phosphate has the potential to cause increased algal growth leading to eutrophication in the aquatic environment. However, there is no adequate information available on risk assessment or acute and chronic toxicity. The aim of this research is to evaluate the toxic potential of phosphate compounds in the aquatic environment. Methods An aquatic toxicity test of phosphate was conducted, and its physico-chemical properties were obtained from a database recommended in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidance manual. An ecotoxicity test using fish, Daphnia, and algae was conducted by the good laboratory practice facility according to the OECD TG guidelines for testing of chemicals, to secure reliable data. Results The results of the ecotoxicity tests of tricalcium phosphate and calcium hydrogenorthophosphate are as follows: In an acute toxicity test with Oryzias latipes, 96 hr 50% lethal concentration ($LC_{50}$) was >100 (measured:>2.14) mg/L and >100 (measured: >13.5) mg/L, respectively. In the Daphnia test, 48 hr 50% effective concentration ($EC_{50}$) was >100 (measured: >5.35) mg/L and >100 (measured: >2.9) mg/L, respectively. In a growth inhibition test with Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, 72 hr $EC_{50}$ was >100 (measured: >1.56) mg/L and >100 (measured: >4.4) mg/L, respectively. Conclusions Based on the results of the ecotoxicity test of phosphate using fish, Daphnia, and algae, $L(E)C_{50}$ was above 100 mg/L (nominal), indicating no toxicity. In general, the total phosphorus concentration including phosphate in rivers and lakes reaches levels of several ppm, suggesting that phosphate has no toxic effects. However, excessive inflow of phosphate into aquatic ecosystems has the potential to cause eutrophication due to algal growth.

Comparative Study of Regional-scale Ecological Risk Assessment used in Developed Countries (지역단위 생태위해성평가 선진국사례 분석)

  • Shin, Yu-Jin;Lee, Woo-Mi;An, Youn-Joo
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.169-177
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    • 2010
  • Ecological risk assessment (ERA) has been used to establish environmental quality standards or evaluate ecological risk in site-specific areas. The scope of ERA was expanded based on regions, and the concept of regional-scale ecological risk assessment was recently introduced in developed countries. In the present study, regional ERA approaches of relative risk model (RRM), contaminants in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems (CATS) model, and procedure for ecological tired assessment of risks (PETAR) in advanced countries were extensively investigated. Regional ERA was compared with traditional ERA process. Stressors, receptor and response in traditional ERA were replaced with sources of stressors, habitats, and ecological impacts, respectively in regional ERA. This study introduces the concept and assessment process of regional ERA, and provides a wide perspective how the relative ERA could be applied in Korean ecosystem.

Ecotoxicity Test of Wastewater by a Battery of Bioassay and Toxicity Identification Evaluation (다양한 시험생물종을 이용한 산업폐수 생태독성 평가 및 원인물질 탐색)

  • Ryu, Tae-Kwon;Cho, Jae-Gu;Kim, Kyung-Tae;Yang, Chang-Yong;Joung, Ki-Eun;Yoon, Jun-Heon;Choi, Kyung-Hee
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.207-214
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    • 2010
  • Toxicity identification and quantification are important factors to evaluate the effect of industrial effluent on the aquatic environment. In order to measure the potential and real toxicity of mixed chemicals in the effluents, the biological method (i.e., WET test) should be used as well as chemical analysis method. In this study, we conducted WET test for various kinds of industrial effluents using aquatic organisms such as water flea (Daphnia magna), algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), fish (Oryzias latipes, Danio rerio), and microorganism (Vibrio fisheri). In addition, we carried out chemical analysis and TIE (Toxicity Identification Evaluation) for effluents in order to identify the substances causing toxicity. Among the 30 kinds of wastewater, S13 showed the highest eco-toxicity and $Ca^{2+}$ and $Cl^-$ ion were suspected as major compounds causing toxicity for aquatic organisms. In order to confirm these suspected compounds, various confirmation procedures need to be carried out.